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This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of perioperative clinical seizure and epilepsy in children after operation for CHD. We included 777 consecutive children who underwent operation from January 2013 to December 2016 at Kanagawa Children’s Medical Center, Kanagawa, Japan. Perinatal, perioperative, and follow-up medical data were collected. Elastic net regression and mediation analysis were performed to investigate risk factors of perioperative clinical seizure and epilepsy. Anatomic CHD classification was performed based on the preoperative echocardiograms; cardiac surgery was evaluated using Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery 1. Twenty-three (3.0%) and 15 (1.9%) patients experienced perioperative clinical seizure and epilepsy, respectively. Partial regression coefficient with epilepsy as the objective variable for anatomical CHD classification, Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery 1, and the number of surgeries was 0.367, 0.014, and 0.142, respectively. The proportion of indirect effects on epilepsy via perioperative clinical seizure was 22.0, 21.0, and 33.0%, respectively. The 15 patients with epilepsy included eight cases with cerebral infarction, two cases with cerebral haemorrhage, and three cases with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy; white matter integrity was not found. Anatomical complexity of CHD, high-risk cardiac surgery, and multiple cardiac surgeries were identified as potential risk factors for developing epilepsy, with a low rate of indirect involvement via perioperative clinical seizure and a high rate of direct involvement independently of perioperative clinical seizure. Unlike white matter integrity, stroke and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy were identified as potential factors for developing epilepsy.
Differences in psychiatric background and dose–response to asenapine in patients with schizophrenia were examined based on efficacy and safety, using data obtained in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Patients with schizophrenia were classified into three clusters by a cluster analysis based on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) subscores at baseline, using the data from a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PANSS Marder factor scores were calculated for each cluster. The efficacy of 10 or 20 mg/day of asenapine on PANSS score was used as the primary endpoint, with the incidence of adverse events evaluated as the secondary endpoint.
A total of 529 asenapine-treated patients were classified into 3 clusters: Cluster-P with the higher scores in positive symptoms, disorganized thoughts, and hostility/excitement, Cluster-N with higher scores in negative symptoms, and Cluster-L with overall lower scores. In Cluster-N and Cluster-L, both 10 and 20 mg/day groups showed significant improvement in PANSS scores, while only the 20 mg/day group showed a significant difference in Cluster-P. Cluster-N and Cluster-L had differences in the incidence of adverse events, but this was not seen in Cluster-P.
The efficacy and safety of asenapine 10 and 20 mg/day differed between the 3 clusters of patients. This suggests that background information regarding baseline psychiatric symptoms may affect the therapeutic response in patients with schizophrenia.
The Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume is a rare, globally ‘Vulnerable’ seabird, endemic to Japan and South Korea. However, little is known of its at-sea distribution, habitat or threats. We conducted several years of at-sea surveys around Japan to model Japanese Murrelet density in relation to habitat parameters, and make spatial predictions to assess the adequacy of the current Japanese marine Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) network for the species. During a five-year period, 3,485 km of at-sea surveys recorded 3,161 Japanese Murrelets around four breeding locations. Maximum murrelet group size was 90 individuals with a mean group size of 2.9 ± 4.2 individuals. Models of Japanese Murrelet at-sea density around the two largest breeding locations predicted that almost all murrelets occur within 30 km of the breeding colony and most within 10 km. Murrelets were predicted closer to the colony in May than in April and closer to the colony at a neritic colony than at an offshore island colony. Additionally, murrelets breeding on an offshore island colony also commuted to mainland neritic habitat for foraging. The marine habitat used by Japanese Murrelets differed between each of the four surveyed colonies, however oceanographic variables offered little explanatory power in models. Models with colony, month and year generated four foraging radii (9–39 km wide) containing murrelet densities of > 0.5 birds/km2. Using these radii the Japanese marine IBA network was found to capture between 95% and 25% of Japanese Murrelet at-sea habitat while breeding and appears appropriately configured to protect near-colony murrelet distributions. Given the range of marine habitats that breeding murrelets inhabit, our simple models offer an applicable method for predicting to unsampled colonies and generating ecologically-informed seaward extension radii. However, data on colony populations and further at-sea surveys are necessary to refine models and improve predictions.
Temperature is one of the most influential factors for the sexual maturation of fishes, but understanding of the extent to which temperature affects the maturational schedules is limited in multiple-spawning fishes over a protracted season. This study examined the effect of temperature on sexual maturation of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus siblings under high and low temperature regimes on different birthdates. The maturation probability differed between the two temperature regimes. Specimens in high temperature regimes matured at much smaller size and younger age than their counterparts. Also, a significant difference in the maturation probability between sexes was found at low temperatures, but not at high temperatures. Our findings show that temperature affects the maturational schedules of siblings of Japanese anchovy, suggesting that the size and age at sexual maturation could differ among cohorts, even in a given sampling location and/or year.
Many anomalies and variants in vascular anatomy have been reported in relation to the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Patients and
Patients and Methods:
We encountered an apparently novel anomaly in a 30-year-old man admitted for disturbance of consciousness following a traffic accident. Computed tomography revealed an acute subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Results and conclusions:
No vascular abnormalities related to the hemorrhage were detected by conventional angiography, so we concluded that the bleeding was of traumatic origin. Anomalous origin of the ACA was disclosed incidentally, with both A1 segments arising from the right internal carotid artery; no normal A1 segment of the left ACA was visualized. We discuss possible bases for this anomalous origin.
The large number casualties caused by the 1995 Great Hanshin and Awaji Earthquake created a massive demand for medical care. However, as area hospitals also were damaged by the earthquake, they were unable to perform their usual functions. Therefore, the care capacity was reduced greatly. Thus, the needs to: (1) transport a large number of injured and ill people out of the disaster-affected area; and (2) dispatch medical teams to perform such wide-area transfers were clear. The need for trained medical teams to provide medical assistance also was made clear after the Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake in 2004. Therefore, the Japanese government decided to establish Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs), as “mobile, trained medical teams that rapidly can be deployed during the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster”. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams have been established in much of Japan. The provision of emergency relief and medical care and the enhancement and promotion of DMATs for wide-area deployments during disasters were incorporated formally in the Basic Plan for Disaster Prevention in its July 2005 amendment.
The essential points pertaining to DMATs were summarized as a set of guidelines for DMAT deployment. These were based on the results of research funded by a Health and Labour Sciences research grant from the, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) of the Ministry of Health. The guidelines define the basic procedures for DMAT activities—for example: (1) the activities are to be based on agreements concluded between prefectures and medical institutions during non-emergency times; and (2) deployment is based on requests from disaster-affected prefectures and the basic roles of prefectures and the MHLW. The guidelines also detail DMAT activities at the disaster scene of the, support from medical institutions, and transportation assistance including “wide-area” medical transport activities, such as medical treatment in staging care units and the implementation of medical treatment onboard aircraft.
Japan's DMATs are small-scale units that are designed to be suitable for responding to the demands of acute emergencies. Further issues to be examined in relation to DMATs include expanding their application to all prefectures, and systems to facilitate continuous education and training.
As members of the Japan Disaster Relief (JDR) team in Banda Aceh, three of the authors treated 1,891 patients following the tsunami of 2004. Of the 367 cases with traumatic injuries, 216 cases required antimicrobial therapy. The medical services were continued by the Japan Self-Defense (JSD) Medical Team until mid-March 2005. Of the 216 cases initially treated by JDR, 54 required prolonged antimicrobial therapy for persistent symptoms despite repeated debridement.The aim of this study is to recommend an appropriate antimicrobial therapy for water-associated wound infections in the absence of laboratory services in disaster settings following tsunami.
The JDR and JSD treatment records were analyzed retrospectively. In August 2006, 19 months after the tsunami, the authors investigated pathogens in natural aquatic habitats in the affected area in Banda Aceh. At the same time, interviews with tsunami survivors were performed to determine the influential factors that facilitated wound infections after the tsunami.
From the 49 water samples tested, Aeromonas sp., Vibrio sp., Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. were isolated from 24, 16, 15, and six samples, respectively. Regardless of the genus, almost all of the isolated gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin.
From the microbiological test results and analyses of the medical records and interviews, the researchers recommend the following regimen when clinical microbiological tests are not available: initial treatment with beta-lactam penicillins for three days, followed, if the first antimicrobial is not effective, by ciprofloxacin or any other relevant new quinolones, with the addition of gentamicin if necessary.
After the Genoa Summit of 2001 in Italy, when one protestor was killed while demonstrating, “retreat method” summits became predominant. The Windsor Hotel, located on a mountain next to Lake Toya in Hokkaido, Japan was selected to host the G8 summit in 2008.
The G8 Hokkaido-Lake Toya Summit was held 07–09 July 2008. Emergency medical services and systems were constructed. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare developed a plan for emergency medical services and preparedness in response to potential nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attacks.
The Windsor Hotel is located 75 kilometers from Sapporo, where there are four Level-1 treatment areas in four hospitals. In the Windsor Hotel, O-type (Rh -) blood was prepared for foreign guests. Four helicopters were on standby near the Windsor Hotel for emergency transportation. One Mobile Intensive Care Unit car was located near the foothill for the provision of emergency treatment. The expert medical team of the Windsor Hotel was present in the hotel's medical office. More than 200 doctors with disaster and emergency expertise were commissioned to the summit. During the summit, 68 patients were treated, including one patient who was transferred to Sapporo by helicopter.
An emergency medical system was established for the G8 Hokkaido-Lake Toya Summit with the collaboration of many organizations.
The efficiency and speed with which first responders, paramedics, and emergency physicians respond to an event caused by the release of a chemical is an important concern in all modern cities worldwide. A system for the initial triage and decontamination of victims of a chemical release was developed using colored clothes pegs of the following seven colors: red, yellow, green, black, white, and blue. Red indicates the need for emergency care, yellow for semi-emergency care, green for non-emergency care, black for expectant, white for dry decontamination, and blue for wet decontamination. The system can be employed as one of the techniques directed at improving the efficiency of decontamination in countries where there is a risk of chemical releases. It is recommended that this system should be adopted internationally and used for both drills and actual events.
Past history of mass casualties related to international football games brought the importance of practical planning, preparedness, simulation training, and analysis of potential patient presentations to the forefront of emergency research.
The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare established the Health Research Team (HRT-MHLW) for the 2002 FIFA World Cup game (FIFAWC). The HRT-MHLW collected patient data related to the games and analyzed the related factors regarding patient presentations.
A total of 1,661 patients presented for evaluation and care from all 32 games in Japan. The patient presentation rate per 1,000 spectators per game was 1.21 and the transport-to-hospital rate was 0.05. The step-wise regression analysis identified that the patient presentations rate increased where access was difficult. As the number of total spectators increased, the patient presentation rate decreased. (p <0.0001, r = 0.823, r2 = 0.677).
In order to develop mass-gathering medical-care plans in accordance with the types and sizes of mass gatherings, it is necessary to collect data and examine risk factors for patient presentations for a variety of events.
The types of medical care required during a disaster are determined by variables such as the cycle and nature of the disaster. Following a flood, there exists the potential for transmission of water-borne diseases and for increased levels of endemic illnesses such as vector-borne diseases. Therefore, consideration of the situation of infectious diseases must be addressed when providing relief.
The Japan Disaster Relief ( JDR) Medical Team was sent to Mozambique where a flood disaster occurred during January to March 2000. The team operated in the Hokwe area of the State of Gaza, in the mid-south of Mozambique where damage was the greatest.
An epidemiological study was conducted. Information was collected from medical records by abstracting data at local medical facilities, interviewing in habitants and evacuees, and conducting analyses of water.
A total of 2,611 patients received medical care during the nine days. Infectious diseases were detected in 85% of all of patients, predominantly malaria, respiratory infectious diseases, and diarrhea. There was no outbreak of cholera or dysentery. Self-reports of the level of health decreased among the flood victims after the event. The incidence of malaria increased by four to five times over non-disaster periods, and the quality of drinking water deteriorated after the event.
Both the number of patients and the incidence of endemic infectious diseases, such as malaria and diarrhea, increased following the flood. Also, there was a heightening of risk factors for infectious diseases such as an increase in population, deterioration of physical strength due to the shortage of food and the temporary living conditions for safety purposes, and turbid degeneration of drinking water. These findings support the hypotheses that there exists the potential for the increased transmission of water borne diseases and that there occurs increased levels of endemic illnesses during the post-flood period.
Disaster is a collective responsibility requiring coordinated response from all parts of society. This theme focused on coordination and management issues in a diverse range of scenarios.
Details of the methods used are provided in the preceding paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. Although the main points developed in Themes 1 and 4 were different from each other (as reported in the Results section), their implementation was similar. Therefore, the chairs of both groups presided over one workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of Action Plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates.
The main points developed during the presentations and discussions included: (1) the need for evidence-based assessments and planning, (2) the need for a shift in focus to health-sector readiness, (3) empowerment of survivors, (4) provision of relief for the caregivers, (5) address the incentives and disincentives to attain readiness, (6) engage in joint preparation, response, and training, (7) focus on prevention and mitigation of the damage from events, and (8) improve media relations. There exists a need for institutionalization of processes for learning from experiences obtained from disasters.
Action plans presented include: (1) creation of an Information and Data Clearinghouse on Disaster Management, (2) identification of incentives and disincentives for readiness and develop strategies and interventions, and (3) act on lessons learned from evidence-based research and practical experience.
There is an urgent need to proactively establish coordination and management procedures in advance of any crisis. A number of important insights for improvement in coordination and management during disasters emerged.