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Carbon fine particles including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized by hot-filament and plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. Specific surface area was evaluated for carbon fine particles synthesized under optimized conditions along with purified SWNTs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for comparison. The value of specific surface area for the synthesized carbon fine particles was smaller than the SWNTs, but larger than the MWNTs. Pore size distribution was analyzed with desorption isotherms by the DH method. Although smaller pores are included in the purified SWNTs than the synthesized carbon fine particles, pores of size larger than several nm were included more in the synthesized carbon fine particles.
Birefringence induced by the orientation of polymer main chains during an injectionmolding or extrusion processing restricts the application of optical polymers to optical devices that require maintaining the polarization state of incident light. We propose the “birefringent crystal dopant method” to compensate the birefringence of polymers by homogeneous doping with an opposite birefringent needle-like crystal. Strontium carbonate (SrCO3) was selected for this method and synthesized, with particle lengths of 50-200nm and aspect ratios of 2-5. SrCO3 was doped into poly(MMA/BzMA= 78/22(wt./wt.)) film. The film was uniaxially drawn at 130°C and 4mm/min. For the first time, the positive birefringence of the drawn copolymer film at a wavelength of 633nm was compensated by doping with 0.3wt.% of SrCO3 without losing transparency and thermostability.
We evaluated 6 patients with an anomalous subaortic left brachiocephalic vein. All cases were associated with some form of congenital heart disease: 4 patients had coexistent tetralogy of Fallot, one had congenitally corrected transposition, and the other an atrial septal defect with azygos connection of the inferior caval vein. Our incidence of an anomalous subaortic left brachiocephalic vein in patients with congenital heart diseases was 1.1% (6/527). It was observed in 4 out of 117 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (3.4%). Doppler echocardiography was useful in establishing the diagnosis. Furthermore, both digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated well the anomalous course of the vein, and were useful in making an accurate diagnosis.
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