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Cardiac dysfunction commonly occurs in congenital heart block associated with maternal anti-SSA antibodies, especially after pacemaker implantation. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl with antibody-associated congenital heart block and a large secundum atrial septal defect who presented with significant cardiac dysfunction 4 years after pacemaker implantation. Histological findings were useful for determining the course of treatment and perioperative risk of intracardiac repair.
To examine the influence of ultrasonic irradiation on electrochemical migration (ECM), the morphology of micro/nanodeposits and current change were studied. The morphology of deposits synthesized by ECM varied with the types of ultrasonic irradiation: continuous or pulsed irradiation generates only particles or deposits composed of wires, dendrites, and particles. The measured ECM current change over time concludes that both mechanical and sonochemical effects contributed to the morphological change of deposits. Shock waves by cavitation mechanically formed the fragmented deposits and the sonochemical effect decreases the ionic concentration corresponding to decreasing current, inhibiting the formation of wires and dendritic deposits.
The aim of this study was to assess the risk of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed in out-of-hospital settings for chest injuries in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
This retrospective, observational study was conducted in an emergency critical care medical center in Japan. Non-traumatic OHCA patients transferred to the hospital from April 2013 through August 2016 were analyzed. The outcome was defined by chest injuries related to CPR, which is composite of rib fractures, sternal fractures, and pneumothoraces. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent risk factors for chest injuries related to CPR. The threshold of out-of-hospital CPR duration that increased risk of chest injuries was also assessed.
A total of 472 patients were identified, of whom 233 patients sustained chest injuries. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that the independent risk factors for chest injuries were age and out-of-hospital CPR duration (age: AOR=1.06 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.07]; out-of-hospital CPR duration: AOR=1.03 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05]). In-hospital CPR duration was not an independent risk factor for chest injuries. When the duration of out-of-hospital CPR extended over 15 minutes, the likelihood of chest injuries increased; however, this association was not statistically significant.
Long duration of out-of-hospital CPR was an independent risk factor for chest injuries, possibly due to the difficulty of maintaining adequate quality of CPR. Further investigations to assess the efficacy of alternative CPR devices are expected in cases requiring long transportation times.
TakayamaW, KoguchiH, EndoA, OtomoY. The Association between Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Settings and Chest Injuries: A Retrospective Observational Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):171–175.
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