To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The year 2005 marked the Tenth Anniversary of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO was built on the multilateral trading system created under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which dated back to 1947.
Japan was first admitted to the GATT in 1955, three years after the end of the allied occupation. I was then a university student living in very poor economic conditions that would be unimaginable for today's Japanese students. Japan has since risen from that lowly state to its present prosperity – thanks, of course, to the extraordinary effort of the Japanese people. However, we must not forget that Japan benefited from liberalized trade under the GATT, particularly after certain restrictions were lifted in the mid-1960s. Since then, Japan has enjoyed all of the benefits provided by the GATT/WTO.
Today, wherever we go in the world, we find many stores flooded with Japanese electronic products and streets filled with Japanese cars; we can easily buy bottles of good Scotch whisky in a neighbourhood liquor store at inexpensive prices. I used to buy Scotch and Cognac at the duty-free stores every time I went abroad. I never do now because I can buy these products in my own town, sometimes even cheaper than in the duty-free stores in foreign airports. This is thanks to the GATT and the WTO.
Three significant issues will determine the future of the WTO: dispute settlement, negotiations and regional integration. Dispute settlement is widely regarded as one of the major successes of the WTO in its first ten years. Concluding the Doha round negotiations is one of its main challenges. Regional integration is now at the frontline of debate as regional agreements proliferate and policy-makers and academics come to grips with their impacts on the multilateral trading system. These issues, and the interplay between them, are examined by leading scholars and practitioners in the field of international trade law from North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. In addition, special sections focus on the Asia-Pacific region, its participation in WTO dispute settlement and negotiations, and recent trends towards greater regional integration.
This book examines three issues that are central to the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO): dispute settlement; the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations; and the relationship between regional integration and the multilateral trading system. Dispute settlement is often described as one of the most successful functions of the WTO. Some commentators have expressed concern about the imbalance between the effectiveness of the WTO's dispute settlement mechanism, on the one hand, and the difficulties facing the WTO as a negotiating forum, on the other hand. Some of these concerns may have been put to rest with the successful launch of the DDA in 2001. At the time this book was edited, intense negotiations were taking place in the context of the DDA, but much remained to be negotiated. It has long been recognized that regional integration could support the aims of the multilateral trading system. Today, however, several observers are expressing concern about the proliferation of regional trade agreements (RTAs). These observers fear that, unless the DDA is concluded successfully, there will be greater pressure on WTO Members to pursue bilateral and regional avenues for trade liberalization, which could undermine the multilateral trading system. Thus, these three issues – dispute settlement, multilateral negotiations, and regional trade agreements – are closely inter-related and the future of the WTO in many ways may depend on how these three issues are addressed in the coming years.