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(S)-α-Ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide (trade name levetiracetam), a derivative of piracetam, is used clinically as an add-on treatment for partial-onset seizures. In this study, we report the solid-state structure of a new drug co-crystal produced from levetiracetam and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid through cooling crystallization. This compound was further characterized by infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The new co-crystals show a 1:1 stoichiometry and crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group P21, with cell parameters: a = 9.7709(3) Å, b = 6.2202(2) Å, c = 14.7280(4) Å, α = 90°, β = 96.0340(10)°, γ = 90°, V = 890.16(5) Å3, and Z = 2. It is identified that hydrogen bonds are the main interactions between levetiracetam and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, and the contribution of each hydrogen bond in maintaining the stability of the crystal structure was also quantified using Hirshfeld surface analysis.
Understanding the neural mechanism underlying the transition from suicidal ideation to action is crucial but remains unclear. To explore this mechanism, we combined resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and computational modeling to investigate differences between those who attempted suicide(SA) and those who hold only high levels of suicidal ideation(HSI).
A total of 120 MDD patients were categorized into SA group (n=47) and HSI group (n=73). All participants completed a resting-state functional MRI scan, with three subregions of the insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) being chosen as the region of interest (ROI) in seed-to-voxel analyses. Additionally, 86 participants completed the balloon analogue risk task (BART), and a five-parameter Bayesian modeling of BART was estimated.
In the SA group, the FC between the ventral anterior insula (vAI) and the superior/middle frontal gyrus (vAI-SFG, vAI-MFG), as well as the FC between posterior insula (pI) and MFG (pI-MFG), were lower than those in HSI group. The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the FC of vAI-SFG and psychological pain avoidance in SA group, whereas a positive correlation in HSI group. Furthermore, the FC of vAI-MFG displayed a negative correlation with loss aversion in SA group, while a positive correlation was found with psychological pain avoidance in HSI group.
In current study, two distinct neural mechanisms were identified in the insula which involving in the progression from suicidal ideation to action. Dysfunction in vAI FCs may gradually stabilize as individuals experience heightened psychological pain, and a shift from positive to negative correlation patterns of vAI-MFC may indicate a transition from state to trait impairment. Additionally, the dysfunction in PI FC may lead to a lowered threshold for suicide by blunting the perception of physical harm.
Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca exhibits are popular attractions for zoos and wildlife parks. However, it remains to be investigated whether such exhibits enhance visitor knowledge about pandas and broader conservation issues. We conducted questionnaire surveys at giant panda exhibits at three city zoos and five wildlife parks in China. Although visitors were generally interested in the giant panda, this was not reflected in their post-exhibit knowledge of giant panda biology. Socio-demographically, men were more knowledgeable of giant panda biology than women. Knowledge correlated positively with respondent level of education. Younger respondents (< 45 years) knew most about giant pandas and expressed an interest in learning more about them using social media. The most informed respondents had visited other giant panda exhibits previously. Respondents were generally satisfied with the giant panda exhibits (mean score 4.44/5). Wildlife parks delivered a better educational outcome than city zoos. We recommend approaches to improve the visitor experience further and to leverage public interest in broader conservation engagement and action in China.
Extensive research in Western societies has demonstrated that media reports of protests have succumbed to selection and description biases, but such tendencies have not yet been tested in the Chinese context. This article investigates the Chinese government and news media's selection and description bias in domestic protest events reporting. Using a large protest event data set from Weibo (CASM-China), we found that government accounts on Weibo covered only 0.4 per cent of protests while news media accounts covered 6.3 per cent of them. In selecting events for coverage, the news media accounts tacitly struck a balance between newsworthiness and political sensitivity; this led them to gravitate towards protests by underprivileged social groups and shy away from protests targeting the government. Government accounts on Weibo, on the other hand, eschewed reporting on violent protests and those organized by the urban middle class and veterans. In reporting selected protest events, both government and news media accounts tended to depoliticize protest events and to frame them in a more positive tone. This description bias was more pronounced for the government than the news media accounts. The government coverage of protest events also had a more thematic (as opposed to episodic) orientation than the news media.
This is a case report of a huge hospital evacuation with 11 350 inpatients in the 2021 Zhengzhou flood in China, using a mixed methods analysis.
The qualitative part was a content analysis of semi-structured interviews of 6 key hospital staff involved in evacuation management. The evacuation experience was reviewed according to the 4 stages of disaster management: prevention, preparation, response, and recovery.
Because of unprecedented torrential rain, the flood exceeded expectations, and there was a lack of local preventive measures. In preparation, according to the alert, the evacuation was planned to reduce the workload on inpatients and to accept the surge of medical needs by the flood. In response, the prioritization of critically ill patients and large-scale collaboration of hospital staff, rescue teams, and accepting branch made it possible to successfully transfer all 11 350 inpatients. In recovery, restoring medical services and a series of activities to improve the hospital’s vulnerability were carried out.
A hospital evacuation is one of the strategies of the business continuity plan of a hospital. For the evacuation, leadership and collaboration were important. Challenges such as prolonged roadway flooding and the infrastructure issues were needed to be addressed throughout the evacuation process.
The purpose of this study is to further investigate the relationship between sweetener exposure and the risk of endometrial cancer (EC). Up until December 2022, a literature search in an electronic database was carried out utilizing PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, and Scopus. The odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the results. Sweeteners were divided into nutritional sweeteners (generally refers to sugar, such as sucrose and glucose) and non-nutritional sweeteners (generally refers to artificial sweeteners, such saccharin and aspartame). Ten cohort studies and two case-control studies were eventually included. The study found that in 12 studies, compared with the non-exposed group, the incidence rate of EC in the sweetener exposed group was higher (OR = 1·15, 95 % CI = [1·07, 1·24]). Subgroup analysis showed that in 11 studies, the incidence rate of EC in the nutritional sweetener exposed group was higher than that in the non-exposed group (OR = 1·25, 95 % CI = [1·14, 1·38]). In 4 studies, there was no difference in the incidence rate of EC between individuals exposed to non-nutritional sweeteners and those who were not exposed to non-nutritional sweeteners (OR = 0·90, 95 % CI = [0·81, 1·01]). This study reported that the consumption of nutritional sweeteners may increase the risk of EC, whereas there was no significant relationship between the exposure of non-nutritional sweeteners and the incidence of EC. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to reduce the intake of nutritional sweeteners, but it is uncertain whether use of on-nutritional sweeteners instead of nutritional sweetener.
Air route networks can no longer meet operational efficiency requirements because of the rapid growth of complex traffic flows. Machine learning is employed to investigate the evolutionary mechanism of congestion in such networks in view of their high complexity and high density, and a reasonable network optimisation scheme is presented. First, deviations between nominal and actual routes are investigated with reference to radar track data, and a network reflecting actual route operations is constructed using adversarial neural networks. Second, flight time is used to characterise congestion in route networks. Actual network operations are considered, and congestion is defined from the perspective of road traffic engineering. The effects of the operational properties of traffic flows on flight times are analysed to establish various congestion indicators. A gradient boosting model is used to select indicator characteristics and analyse patterns in the variations of indicator values for each flight segment in distinct periods. The indicator–time relationship is leveraged to explore the evolutionary mechanism of congestion in the route network. Third, on the basis of this mechanism, a multiobjective optimisation model of congestion is formulated, and a particle swarm optimisation algorithm is executed to adjust the route passage structure, thereby solving the optimisation model. Finally, calculation validation is conducted using radar track data from the control sector of the Yunnan region. The average flight time in a route segment is 10% shorter in the optimised route network than in the nonoptimised route network, which confirms that the optimisation solution is practicable.
The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
The 4H-SiC crystal is found to have great potential in terahertz generation via nonlinear optical frequency conversion due to its extremely high optical damage threshold, wide transparent range, etc. In this paper, optical rectification (OR) with tilted-pulse-front (TPF) setting based on the 4H-SiC crystal is proposed. The theory accounts for the optimization of incident pulse pre-chirping in the TPF OR process under high-intensity femtosecond laser pumping. Compared with the currently recognized LiNbO3-based TPF OR, which generates a single-cycle terahertz pulse within 3 THz, 4H-SiC demonstrates a significant advantage in producing ultra-widely tunable (up to over 14 THz, TPF angle 31°–38°) terahertz waves with high efficiency (~10–2) and strong field (~MV/cm). Besides, the spectrum characteristics, as well as the evolution from single- to multi-cycle terahertz pulses can be modulated flexibly by pre-chirping. The simulation results show that 4H-SiC enables terahertz frequency extending to an unprecedent range by OR, which has extremely important potential in strong-field terahertz applications.
Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
This study aimed to explore the mediation effects of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) related nutrients on the association between MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured in the serum of 1254 pregnant women. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations of OCM nutrients and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose levels and GDM risk. Mediation analysis was applied to test the mediation effects of folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy on the association of MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose concentrations and GDM. Pregnant women with MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype had higher serum folate (10·75 v. 8·90 and 9·40 ng/ml) and lower serum Hcy (4·84 v. 4·93 and 5·20 μmol/l) than those with CT and TT genotypes. Folate concentrations were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-h plasma glucose (1-h PG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) and GDM risk. Vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with FPG and GDM. Although no direct association was found between MTHFR rs1801133 genotypes and GDM, there were significant indirect effects of MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype on FPG (β: 0·005; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·013), 1-h PG (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014), 2-h PG (β: 0·007; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·015) and GDM (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014) via folate. In conclusion, serum folate mediates the effect of MTHFR rs1801133 on blood glucose levels and GDM. Our findings potentially provide a feasible GDM prevention strategy via individualised folate supplementation according to the MTHFR genotypes.
Elastocapillarity has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to its important roles in many industrial applications. In this work, we derive a thermodynamically consistent continuum model for the dynamics of two immiscible fluids on a thin and inextensible elastic sheet in two dimensions. With the sheet being modelled by a deformable curve with the Wilmore energy and local inextensibility constraint, we derive a two-phase hydrodynamics model with the interfacial and boundary conditions consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. In particular, the boundary conditions on the sheet and at the moving contact line take the form of force balances involving the fluid stress, surface tensions, the sheet bending force and sheet tension, as well as friction forces arising from the slip of fluids on the sheet. The resulting model obeys an energy dissipation law. To demonstrate its capability of modelling complex elastocapillary interactions, we consider two applications: (1) the relaxation dynamics of a droplet on an elastic sheet and (2) the transport of a droplet driven by bendotaxis in a channel bounded by elastic sheets. Numerical solutions for the coupled fluid–sheet dynamics are obtained using the finite element method. The detailed information provided by the full hydrodynamics model allows us to better understand the dynamical processes as compared to other simplified models that were used in previous work.
In 2016, an outbreak of paratyphoid fever occurred in 40 cases at Qingyang town, in China. A case-control study was carried out to determine the source of this outbreak. Case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of this outbreak. The cases were identified as patients with isolation of S. Paratyphi, controls were confirmed cases’ healthy classmates, colleagues or neighbors and matched by age (±5 y) and gender. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to source tracking. Totally, 40 cases were reported: 24 cases were students, and 20 (20/24) of them were Qingyang High School students. For the case-control study, consuming Chinese egg pancakes was detected as a risk factor (OR1:1 = 5.000; 95% CI: 1.710-14.640), and hand-washing before meals was protective behavior compared with seldom hand-washing (OR1:1 = 23.256; 95% CI: 2.451-200.000). S. Paratyphi was cultured from a well water sample used for washing contents of the pancakes. Isolates from well water and paratyphoid cases showed the same PFGE patterns. Contaminated well water and Chinese egg pancakes were likely source and vehicle of this outbreak. Health education, especially handwashing, and food safety supervision should be promoted particularly in schools.
Planting patterns have significant effects on rice growth. Nonetheless, little is known about differences in annual crop yield and resource utilization among mechanized rice planting patterns in a rice–wheat cropping system. Field experiments were conducted from 2014 to 2017 using three treatments: pot seedling transplanting for rice and row sowing for wheat (PST-RS), carpet seedling transplanting for rice and row sowing for wheat (CST-RS) and row sowing for both crops (RS-RS). The results showed that, compared with RS-RS, PST-RS and CST-RS prolonged annual crop growth duration by 25–26 and 13–15 days, increased effective accumulated temperature by 399 and 212°C days and increased cumulative solar radiation by 454 and 228 MJ/m2 because of the earlier sowing of rice by 28 and 16 days in PST-RS and CST-RS, respectively. Compared with RS-RS, the annual crop yield of PST-RS and CST-RS increased by 3.1–3.8 and 2.0–2.6 t/ha, respectively, because of the increase in the number of spikelets/kernels per hectare, aboveground biomass, mean leaf area index and grain–leaf ratio. In addition, temperature production efficiency, solar radiation production efficiency and solar radiation use efficiency were higher in PST-RS, followed by CST-RS and RS-RS. These results suggest that mechanized rice planting patterns such as PST-RS increase annual crop production in rice–wheat cropping systems by increasing yield and solar energy utilization.
Gripper is one of the most important parts of robot because of contacting with workpieces directly and has attracted lots of research interests. However, the existing grippers are either simple in function or complex in structure. In this paper, we will propose a one-DOF gripper based on a compliant mechanism with four identical twofold-symmetric Bricard linkages. A mobile network with four identical twofold-symmetric Bricard linkages with particular design parameters is constructed at first. Kinematics, such as mobility, singularity, and folding performance, is then analyzed to show the potential of realizing the function of grasping. The result is demonstrated with a physical prototype. To simplify the fabricating process, a compliant mechanism of the network is designed and fabricated with a single polypropylene board, and the grasping function is realized by a cable-driven scheme. Some grasping experiments are carried out on different types of objects which shows that the proposed and fabricated four-figure gripper is simple in structure and has a great grasping function. The work provides a new idea for the design of grippers with low cost, simple structure, and rich functions.
Self-integrity plays a vital role in the psychological wellbeing of older adults. The present study investigated whether or not the confrontation with negative, self-stereotyped information leads to a deterioration of older adults' self-integrity. Additionally, the current study attempted to examine the mediating effects of sense of coherence and empathy on the relationship between self-stereotype and self-integrity. A total of 825 Chinese older adults aged 55 or above from Xi'an and Beijing were recruited as research participants. A self-stereotype scale, sense of coherence scale, interpersonal reactivity index and self-integrity scale were used. Results showed that self-stereotypes are negatively associated with sense of coherence, empathy and self-integrity. Furthermore, sense of coherence and empathy are positively associated with self-integrity and played important roles in mediating the relationship between self-stereotype and self-integrity. Findings of this study can contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanism of associations between self-stereotype and self-integrity in older adults. Lastly, results obtained can provide guidance for effectively improving older adults' self-integrity to limit the negative effects of self-stereotypes.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.