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No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
Age effects may be important for improving models for the prediction of conversion to psychosis for individuals in the clinical high risk (CHR) state. This study aimed to explore whether adolescent CHR individuals (ages 9–17 years) differ significantly from adult CHR individuals (ages 18–45 years) in terms of conversion rates and predictors.
Consecutive CHR individuals (N = 517) were assessed for demographic and clinical characteristics and followed up for 3 years. Individuals with CHR were classified as adolescent (n = 244) or adult (n = 273) groups. Age-specific prediction models of psychosis were generated separately using Cox regression.
Similar conversion rates were found between age groups; 52 out of 216 (24.1%) adolescent CHR individuals and 55 out of 219 (25.1%) CHR adults converted to psychosis. The conversion outcome was best predicted by negative symptoms compared to other clinical variables in CHR adolescents (χ2 = 7.410, p = 0.006). In contrast, positive symptoms better predicted conversion in CHR adults (χ2 = 6.585, p = 0.01).
Adolescent and adult CHR individuals may require a different approach to early identification and prediction. These results can inform the development of more precise prediction models based on age-specific approaches.
Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program.
In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC.
The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal.
The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.
Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001).
Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
We present a high-peak-power, near-infrared laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pumped by a home-built picosecond pumping laser, which can generate over 40 mJ energy at 1450 nm center wavelength and operate at 100 Hz repetition rate. Subsequently, the chirped laser pulses are compressed down to 60 fs with 26.5 mJ energy, corresponding to a peak power of 0.44 TW. This high-energy, long-wavelength laser source is highly suitable for driving various nonlinear optical phenomena, such as high-order harmonic generation and high-flux coherent extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray radiation.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
Due to the lack of an effective and noninvasive screening tool, the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently difficult. For the early diagnosis of CRC, we have developed Fe3O4-Dye800-single chain fragment variable (ScFv)egfr/vegfr nanoprobes. ScFvegfr/vegfr (ScFv2) conjugated onto Fe3O4 nanoprobes efficiently recognized CRC tumors in vitro and in vivo. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging modalities such as Dye800 were utilized simultaneously with magnetic resonance to enhance detection efficiency. Fe3O4-Dye800-ScFv2 successfully detected tiny CRC tumors; the synergistic ScFv2 successfully enhanced CRC targeting. Thus, Fe3O4-Dye800-ScFv2 nanoprobes may represent a new molecular imaging strategy for the early detection of CRC.
Shortawn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.) is an invasive and highly troublesome weed species originating from North America that has become widespread across China. Since its proliferation seriously threatens crop production worldwide, understanding its genetic diversity is critical for developing a forecasting system for integrated pest management plans. To accelerate the application of molecular markers in A. aequalis, this study aimed to develop a set of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using previous high-throughput sequencing data. In this study, a total of 1411 SSR loci were identified from 95,479 unigenes. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type with a frequency of 66.27%, followed by di- (24.95%) and tetra-nucleotide (8.78%). Among the loci, 584 primer pairs were successfully designed for marker development. Subsequently, a subset of 36 primer pairs was randomly selected and synthesized, of which 12 (33.33%) pairs successfully revealed abundant allelic polymorphism. Additionally, to investigate their utility, the genotypes of 160 individuals from 20 natural populations representing diverse wild genotypes of A. aequalis were analysed by using these 12 polymorphic markers. These novel SSR markers developed here are reliable and useful for genetic analysis on this invasive plant and will greatly enrich its genetic resource.
Structural hierarchy is ubiquitous in nature and quite important for optimizing the properties of functional materials. Carbon nanomaterials, owing to their unique and tunable physical and chemical properties, have been regarded as promising candidates for various energy storage systems. Constructing hierarchically structured carbon nanomaterials (HSCNs) can boost electrochemical performance of nanocarbons. Therefore, HSCNs have attracted tremendous research attentions in recent years. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in hierarchical structure design of carbon nanomaterials and their potential applications in different energy storage technologies. First we give a brief introduction about carbon nanomaterials and the hierarchical structure merits. Subsequently, recent research works on hierarchical structure design of carbon nanomaterials was summarized and classified according to applications in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and lithium–sulfur batteries, respectively. In addition, the challenges of HSCNs in different applications were also concluded and reviewed. At last, design principles of HSCNs were summarized and future development trends were prospected.
The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been widely studied. However, for individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), it is unclear whether the duration of untreated prodromal symptoms (DUPrS) also has a negative effect on the progression of psychosis. Our aim was to identify demographic and clinical factors contributing to the DUPrS in a large sample of individuals with APS, and to evaluate the association between DUPrS and the conversion to psychosis.
A sample of 391 individuals with APS, who were identified through a structured interview for prodromal syndromes, were included in this study, of whom a total of 334 patients had completed at least a 1-year clinical follow-up. A total of 57 individuals had converted to psychosis.
The average DUPrS was 4.8 months for the whole sample. Individuals with a longer DUPrS were likely to be men, non-local residents, with abnormal thought symptoms, a higher severity level of negative symptoms, the lower severity level of general symptoms, and lower level of general function before the onset of attenuated positive symptoms. A DUPrS of less than 2 months, or more than 6 months, lowered the risk for conversion to psychosis.
Our data suggested that the association between the DUPrS and outcome in individuals with APS were likely to be different, which is either long or short DUPrS was not related to future psychosis onset. Individuals with APS were more likely to have a group of features associated with a longer DUPrS.
Early life is considered a critical period for determining long-term metabolic health. Postnatal over-nutrition may alter glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism and increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the effects of the dose and timing of a fish oil diet on obesity and the expression of GC-activated enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) in postnatal overfed rats. Litter sizes were adjusted to three (small litter (SL)) or ten (normal litter) rats on postnatal day 3 to induce overfeeding or normal feeding. The SL rats were divided into three groups after weaning: high-dose fish oil (HFO), low-dose fish oil (LFO) and standard-diet groups. After 10 weeks, the HFO diet reduced body weight gain (16 %, P<0·05), improved glucose intolerance and decreased hyperlipaemia levels (P<0·05) in SL rats, but the LFO diet did not have any effect on the same rats. Moreover, we chose postnatal week 3 (W3), 6 (W6) and 8 (W8) as the intervention time points at which to begin the 10-week HFO diet, and found that the HFO diet improved glucose utilisation and lipid metabolism at all time points. However, body weight of SL rats was reversed to normal levels by the post-weaning intervention (461 (sem 9·1) v. 450 (sem 2·0)). 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression in the adipose tissue (49 (sem 7·5) v. 161 (sem 18·3), P<0·05) and hepatic tissue (11 (sem 0·9) v. 16 (sem 1·5), P<0·05) was decreased by the HFO diet at W3, but not at W6 or W8 (P>0·05). In conclusion, the post-weaning HFO diet could reverse adverse outcomes and decrease tissue GC activity in postnatal overfed rats.
We demonstrate a high-contrast, joule-level Nd:glass laser system operating at 0.5 Hz repetition rate based on a double chirped pulse amplification (CPA) scheme. By injecting high-contrast, high-energy seed pulses into the Nd:glass CPA stage, the pulse energy is amplified to 1.9 J through two optical parametric CPA stages and two Nd:glass amplifiers. The temporal contrast of compressed pulse is measured down to the level of
at tens of ps, and
near 200 ps before the main pulse, respectively.
Early identification of patients with bipolar disorder during their first depressive episode is beneficial to the outcome of the disorder and treatment, but traditionally this has been a great challenge to clinicians. Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD), but it is not clear whether BDNF levels can be used to predict bipolar disorder among patients in their first major depressive episode.
To explore whether BDNF levels can differentiate between MDD and bipolar disorder in the first depressive episode.
A total of 203 patients with a first major depressive episode as well as 167 healthy controls were recruited. After 3 years of bi-annual follow-up, 164 patients with a major depressive episode completed the study, and of these, 21 were identified as having bipolar disorder and 143 patients were diagnosed as having MDD. BDNF gene expression and plasma levels at baseline were compared among the bipolar disorder, MDD and healthy control groups. Logistic regression and decision tree methods were applied to determine the best model for predicting bipolar disorder at the first depressive episode.
At baseline, patients in the bipolar disorder and MDD groups showed lower BDNF mRNA levels (P<0.001 and P = 0.02 respectively) and plasma levels (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01 respectively) compared with healthy controls. Similarly, BDNF levels in the bipolar disorder group were lower than those in the MDD group. These results showed that the best model for predicting bipolar disorder during a first depressive episode was a combination of BDNF mRNA levels with plasma BDNF levels (receiver operating characteristics (ROC) = 0.80, logistic regression; ROC = 0.84, decision tree).
Our findings suggest that BDNF levels may serve as a potential differential diagnostic biomarker for bipolar disorder in a patient's first depressive episode.
Two different pulse cleaning techniques for ultra-high contrast laser systems are comparably analysed in this work. The first pulse cleaning technique is based on noncollinear femtosecond optical-parametric amplification (NOPA) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) processes. The other is based on cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation. With a double chirped pulse amplifier (double-CPA) scheme, although temporal contrast enhancement in a high-intensity femtosecond Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system can be achieved based on both of the techniques, the two different pulse cleaning techniques still have their own advantages and are suitable for different contrast enhancement requirements of different laser systems.
A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study on defects in a 30 μm-thick epitaxial CZT film deposited on (001)GaAs via close-spaced sublimation was performed. The epi-layer is of good quality without twins. Dislocations and stacking faults are mainly gathered near the interface. The dislocations are extrinsic either of Lomer edge or 60° type. Pseudo extrinsic stacking faults consisting of two independent and oppositely oriented extrinsic dislocations have been found both on the (111) and the planes. L-shaped defects originated from the interface have been discovered. The near-interface-side of L is consisted of 3 compressed (111) planes and the lateral side is consisted of 3-4 misarranged planes. This L-shaped defect is induced by the absence of a misfit dislocation at the intersection between L and the interface.
A novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite containing dispersed inorganic nanoribbons [ZnO–0.15Zn(CH3COO)2–0.85H2O] was prepared by free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the acetone solution. Experimental results showed that inorganic nanoribbons were uniformly distributed in and bonded to the PMMA host matrix without macroscopic organic–inorganic phase separation. It was found that the thermal stability and glass-transition temperature of the nanocomposite films increased effectively with increasing inorganic content at low content and remained above 1 wt% inorganic content. These results suggest the network formation because of the strong interaction between the inorganic nanoribbons and the polymer matrix, which induces the mobility restriction of polymer chains. The characteristics of the one-dimensional inorganic nanoribbons we used here may play a key role in the formation of the “cross-link” networks and in the decision to lower the content of the inorganic nanoribbon additive.
The modified Pechini method using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a chelating agent to prepare Ba2Ti9O20 is reported. The resin precursors were prepared and heated at 700 to 1200 °C in air, and x-ray diffraction was used to determine the phase transformations as a function of temperature. Single-phase Ba2Ti9O20 was obtained at 1200 °C for 2–6 h, without the need of prolonged heat treatment time. The process was simple and easy to control: low-temperature conditions or a protective atmosphere was not needed. Differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the precursors and derived oxide powders. Details of the synthesis and characterization of the resultant products were given.
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