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Nowadays, tourism has become an important pillar industry of national economic development. However, among college students majoring in tourism, some patients with mania have violent mood swings, and they are quickly troubled by pressure and anxiety, which brings certain troubles to their academic and career development. It is essential to study the treatment of manic college students in tourism majors.
Subjects and Methods
In the experiment, 60 college students with common mania were selected as the research objects, and 30 were chosen as the experimental group. The treatment training mode of tourism management professionals under social psychology was adopted for half a year. The other 30 college students were used as the control group, and the traditional training mode of tourism management professionals was adopted for six months of treatment training.
The data were assessed using the irritability component of the Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire (SASRQ), with higher scores indicating greater mania. The results showed that most undergraduates in the experimental group tended to be emotionally stable and less affected by stress and anxiety, with a comprehensive score of 10. However, more than half of the students in the control group still had overreaction and mania, and the total score was 19 points.
The results of this study will provide a valuable reference for the treatment of manic college students in tourism majors and provide specific guiding significance for the training of tourism management professionals.
Tokamak start-up is strongly dependent on the state of the initial plasma formed during plasma breakdown. To acquire a better understanding of the process and to estimate the influence of the impurity of beryllium on the ohmic heating tokamak start-up process, one-dimensional particle-in-cell coupled with a Monte Carlo collision method has been developed. The main aim is to investigate the plasma performance under various amounts of beryllium with different discharge parameters. Tokamak breakdown with the impurity of beryllium in the ohmic heating strategy has been simulated. The simulation results show that with the impurity of beryllium, the increase of plasma density is suppressed compared with the case without beryllium. The breakdown time is delayed by the impurity. Moreover, the successful breakdown has a much higher requirement on discharge parameters with a low electric field operational scenario, since in the low electric field discharge the influence of beryllium impurity is greater. As the plasma density increases, the effect of beryllium impurity on plasma becomes more critical. It indicates that impurities cannot be neglected in the high plasma density.
Seed coat colour in adzuki bean is an important quality trait and closely associated with anthocyanin metabolism pathways. To further understand the inheritance of seed coat colour pattern, the inheritance between multiple seed coat colours and ivory seed were analysed using F1:2, F2:3 and F3:4 populations derived from five bi-parental crosses. The differences between ivory and red mottle on ivory are controlled by a single recessive R locus and RI locus, respectively. Green, light brown and golden are all dominant to red and governed by two loci. The B (brown) locus shows dominant epistasis over T locus. The R (red) locus was recessive epistasis to B (black), T (light brown), G (golden), GR (green) and RI (red mottle on ivory) loci. The new insight into the strong recessive epistasis of the R locus will be important for gene mapping and cloning, candidate gene functional validation and quality improvement in adzuki bean.
The lack of excellent wheat germplasm resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has led to a gradual decrease in genetic diversity and an increasingly narrow genetic background in wheat grown in this region. Rational use of excellent genes from wheat relatives is important to increase genetic diversity, broaden the genetic base and achieve high yield and quality in common wheat. The objective of this study was to use principal component and cluster analyses of 13 important agronomic traits of 44 Polish wheat varieties over 3 years and comprehensively evaluate them to screen for excellent germplasm resources, thus providing the basic material for broadening the genetic base of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau wheat germplasm resources.
Accurate tracking and reconstruction of surgical scenes is a critical enabling technology toward autonomous robotic surgery. In endoscopic examinations, computer vision has provided assistance in many aspects, such as aiding in diagnosis or scene reconstruction. Estimation of camera motion and scene reconstruction from intra-abdominal images are challenging due to irregular illumination and weak texture of endoscopic images. Current surgical 3D perception algorithms for camera and object pose estimation rely on geometric information (e.g., points, lines, and surfaces) obtained from optical images. Unfortunately, standard hand-crafted local features for pose estimation usually do not perform well in laparoscopic environments. In this paper, a novel self-supervised Surgical Perception Stereo Visual Odometer (SPSVO) framework is proposed to accurately estimate endoscopic pose and better assist surgeons in locating and diagnosing lesions. The proposed SPSVO system combines a self-learning feature extraction method and a self-supervised matching procedure to overcome the adverse effects of irregular illumination in endoscopic images. The framework of the proposed SPSVO includes image pre-processing, feature extraction, stereo matching, feature tracking, keyframe selection, and pose graph optimization. The SPSVO can simultaneously associate the appearance of extracted feature points and textural information for fast and accurate feature tracking. A nonlinear pose graph optimization method is adopted to facilitate the backend process. The effectiveness of the proposed SPSVO framework is demonstrated on a public endoscopic dataset, with the obtained root mean square error of trajectory tracking reaching 0.278 to 0.690 mm. The computation speed of the proposed SPSVO system can reach 71ms per frame.
Hepatitis E virus infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis, typically self-limiting but occasionally leading to liver failure. Understanding disease progression factors could inform prevention strategies. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of a large cohort of hospitalised hepatitis E patients in Tianjin, China, and explore factors influencing their progression to liver failure. A total of 1279 hospitalised patients with hepatitis E were included in this cross-sectional study in Tianjin, China. Student's t-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test were used for comparisons. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association. Among these 1279 patients, 107 (8.4%) developed liver failure. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.150–2.887, p = 0.011), liver cirrhosis (95% [CI] 2.229–7.224, p < 0.001), and hepatitis B (95% [CI] 1.159–4.512, p = 0.017) were more likely to progress to liver failure. Hepatitis E patients with comorbid DM, liver cirrhosis, or hepatitis B virus co-infection have higher risks of developing liver failure. Hepatitis E vaccination may be recommended for these vulnerable patients to curb disease severity.
Available data suggest that the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines might decrease in the immunocompromised population, but data on vaccine immunogenicity and safety among people living with HIV (PLWH) are still lacking. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in PLWH with healthy controls. We comprehensively searched the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE. The risk ratio (RR) of seroconversion after the first and second doses of a COVID-19 vaccine was separately pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Seroconversion rate was lower among PLWH compared with healthy individuals after the first (RR = 0.77, 95% conﬁdent interval (CI) 0.64–0.92) and second doses (RR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.95–0.99). The risk of total adverse reactions among PLWH is similar to the risk in the healthy group, after the first (RR = 0.87, 95%CI 0.70–1.10) and second (RR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.65–1.07) doses. This study demonstrates that the immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in fully vaccinated HIV-infected patients were generally satisfactory. A second dose was related to seroconversion enhancement. Therefore, we considered that a booster dose may provide better seroprotection for PLWH. On the basis of a conventional two-dose regimen for COVID-19 vaccines, the booster dose is very necessary.
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proven to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C. rotundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the GA3 content decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3ox genes) and two upregulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2ox genes), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expression of two CrDELLA genes and CrGID1 declines with tuber growth and decreased GA3, and yeast two-hybrid assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tubers and represses the growth of the tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
As there exists a growing demand for chronological research and tracer applications using radiocarbon (14C) analyses of samples smaller than 100 μg C, a compact micro-specific hydrogen graphitization method has been developed at the Xi’an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Center. This article describes the performance of the system and the mass of carbon background produced during ultra-small sample preparation. Furthermore, we discuss the results of contamination corrections and perform 14C analyses on small samples with known age or reference values. The results reveal that our 14C analysis of ultra-small samples of 10–100 μg C can obtain accurate and reliable results, and the micro-scale 14C-AMS analysis technique meets our research objectives for dating and tracer applications.
Smoking contributes to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and neurobiological abnormalities, suggesting that smoking is associated with accelerated brain aging. However, the neurobiological mechanisms affected by smoking, and whether they are genetically influenced, remain to be investigated.
Using structural magnetic resonance imaging data from the UK Biobank (n = 33 293), a brain age predictor was trained on non-smoking healthy groups and tested on smokers to obtain the BrainAge Gap (BAG). The cumulative effect of multiple common genetic variants associated with smoking was then calculated to acquire a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relationship between PRS, BAG, total gray matter volume (tGMV), and smoking parameters was explored and further genes included in the PRS were annotated to identify potential molecular mechanisms affected by smoking.
The BrainAge in smokers was predicted with very high accuracy (r = 0.725, MAE = 4.16). Smokers had a greater BAG (Cohen's d = 0.074, p < 0.0001) and higher PRS (Cohen's d = 0.63, p < 0.0001) than non-smokers. A higher PRS was associated with increased amount of smoking, mediated by BAG and tGMV. Several neurotransmitters and ion channel pathways were enriched in the group of smoking-related genes involved in addiction, brain synaptic plasticity, and some neurological disorders.
By using a simplified single indicator of the entire brain (BAG) in combination with the PRS, this study highlights the greater BAG in smokers and its linkage with genes and smoking behavior, providing insight into the neurobiological underpinnings and potential features of smoking-related aging.
We report a Yb-doped all-fiber laser system generating burst-mode pulses with high energy and high peak power at a GHz intra-burst repetition rate. To acquire the uniform burst envelope, a double-pre-compensation structure with an arbitrary waveform laser diode driver and an acoustic optical modulator is utilized for the first time. The synchronous pumping is utilized for the system to reduce the burst repetition rate to 100 Hz and suppress the amplified spontaneous emission effect. By adjusting the gain of every stage, uniform envelopes with different output energies can be easily obtained. The intra-burst repetition rate can be tuned from 0.5 to 10 GHz actively modulated by an electro-optic modulator. Optimized by timing control of eight channels of analog signal and amplified by seven stages of Yb-doped fiber amplifier, the pulse energy achieves 13.3 mJ at 0.5 ns intra-burst pulse duration, and the maximum peak power reaches approximately 3.6 MW at 48 ps intra-burst pulse duration. To the best of our knowledge, for reported burst-mode all-fiber lasers, this is a record for output energy and peak power with nanosecond-level burst duration, and the widest tuning range of the intra-burst repetition rate. In particular, this flexibly tunable burst-mode laser system can be directly applied to generate high-power frequency-tunable microwaves.
The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
The collection of facial action data is essential for the accurate evaluation of a patient’s condition in the intensive care unit, such as pain evaluation. An automatic face-tracking system is demanded to reduce the burden of data collection on the medical staff. However, many previous studies assume that the optimal trajectory of a robotic tracking system is reachable which is inapplicable for large-amplitude head motions. To tackle this problem, we propose a region-based face-tracking algorithm for large-amplitude head motion with a 7-DOF manipulator. A configuration-based optimization algorithm is proposed to trade-off between theoretical optimal pose and workspace constraints through the assignment of importance weights. To increase the probability of recapturing the face exceeding the reachable workspace of the manipulator, the camera is directed toward the center of the head, named the facial orientation center (FOC) constraint. Furthermore, a region-based tracking approach is designed to stabilize the manipulator for small amplitude head motions and smooth the tracking trajectory by adjusting the joint angle in the null space of the 7-DOF manipulator. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in tracking performance and finding an appropriate configuration for the unreachable theoretical optimal configuration. Moreover, the proposed algorithm with FOC constraint can successfully follow the head motion as losing 33.2% of the face during the tracking.
Childhood is a crucial neurodevelopmental period. We investigated whether childhood reading for pleasure (RfP) was related to young adolescent assessments of cognition, mental health, and brain structure.
We conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal study in a large-scale US national cohort (10 000 + young adolescents), using the well-established linear mixed model and structural equation methods for twin study, longitudinal and mediation analyses. A 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis for potential causal inference was also performed. Important factors including socio-economic status were controlled.
Early-initiated long-standing childhood RfP (early RfP) was highly positively correlated with performance on cognitive tests and significantly negatively correlated with mental health problem scores of young adolescents. These participants with higher early RfP scores exhibited moderately larger total brain cortical areas and volumes, with increased regions including the temporal, frontal, insula, supramarginal; left angular, para-hippocampal; right middle-occipital, anterior-cingulate, orbital areas; and subcortical ventral-diencephalon and thalamus. These brain structures were significantly related to their cognitive and mental health scores, and displayed significant mediation effects. Early RfP was longitudinally associated with higher crystallized cognition and lower attention symptoms at follow-up. Approximately 12 h/week of youth regular RfP was cognitively optimal. We further observed a moderately significant heritability of early RfP, with considerable contribution from environments. MR analysis revealed beneficial causal associations of early RfP with adult cognitive performance and left superior temporal structure.
These findings, for the first time, revealed the important relationships of early RfP with subsequent brain and cognitive development and mental well-being.
A blunted hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to acute stress is associated with psychiatric symptoms. Although the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas are important regulators of the HPA axis, whether the neural habituation of these regions during stress signals both blunted HPA axis responses and psychiatric symptoms remains unclear. In this study, neural habituation during acute stress and its associations with the stress cortisol response, resilience, and depression were evaluated.
Seventy-seven participants (17–22 years old, 37 women) were recruited for a ScanSTRESS brain imaging study, and the activation changes between the first and last stress blocks were used as the neural habituation index. Meanwhile, participants' salivary cortisol during test was collected. Individual-level resilience and depression were measured using questionnaires. Correlation and moderation analyses were conducted to investigate the association between neural habituation and endocrine data and mental symptoms. Validated analyses were conducted using a Montreal Image Stress Test dataset in another independent sample (48 participants; 17–22 years old, 24 women).
Neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area was negatively correlated with cortisol responses in both datasets. In the ScanSTRESS paradigm, neural habituation was both positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with resilience. Moreover, resilience moderated the relationship between neural habituation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and cortisol response.
This study suggested that neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area could reflect motivation dysregulation during repeated failures and negative feedback, which might further lead to maladaptive mental states.
The western Mongolian Lake Zone was a Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic volcanic arc where tuffs, lavas, fossiliferous siliciclastics, and carbonates accumulated during the early Cambrian. An uppermost Cambrian Series 2 (upper Stage 4) trilobite assemblage is described here from the Burgasutay Formation representing a continuous lower Cambrian succession at the Seer Ridge of the Great Lake Depression. The new assemblage is dominated by dorypygids and consists of 13 trilobite genera belonging to nine families including Catinouyia heyunensis new species. These fossils comprise the youngest and richest lower Cambrian trilobite assemblage in Mongolia. The composition of the Lake Zone fauna suggests its biogeographic affinity with the Siberian Platform and Altay-Sayan Foldbelt, but the presence of inouyiids also implies a connection of this region with East Gondwana.
We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic obesity phenotypes with all-cause mortality risk in a rural Chinese population. This prospective cohort study enrolled 15 704 Chinese adults (38·86 % men) with a median age of 51·00 (interquartile range: 41·00–60·00) at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Obesity was defined by waist circumference (WC: ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR: ≥ 0·5). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of all-cause mortality related to metabolic obesity phenotypes were calculated using the Cox hazards regression model. During a median follow-up of 6·01 years, 864 deaths were identified. When obesity was defined by WC, the prevalence of participants with metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) at baseline was 12·12 %, 2·80 %, 41·93 % and 43·15 %, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity and education, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher with both MUNO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·26) and MUO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·27) v. MHNO, but the risk was not statistically significant with MHO (HR = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·89, 1·10). This result remained consistent when stratified by sex. Defining obesity by WHtR gave similar results. MHO does not suggest a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to MHNO, but participants with metabolic abnormality, with or without obesity, have a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results should be cautiously interpreted as the representation of MHO is small.
We report a compact, tunable, self-starting, all-fiber laser-based asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) system. Two Er-doped fiber oscillators were used as the pulsed-laser source, whose repetition rate could be set at 100 MHz with a tuning range of 1.25 MHz through a fiber delay line. By employing phase-locked and temperature control loops, the repetition rate offset of the two lasers was stabilized with 7.13 × 10−11 fractional instability at an average time of 1 s. Its capabilities in the terahertz regime were demonstrated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, achieving a spectral bandwidth of 3 THz with a dynamic range of 30 dB. The large range of repetition rate adjustment in our ASOPS system has the potential to be a powerful tool in the terahertz regime.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.