To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Potassium and cerium co-doped Bi4Ti2.86W0.14O12 ceramics with a formula of (K0.5Ce0.5)xBi4−xTi2.86W0.14O12 (abbreviated as KC100x-BITW, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effect of (K0.5Ce0.5) complex doping amount on the structure, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of the KC100x-BITW ceramics was investigated. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the KC100x-BITW ceramics are Aurivillius-type phase with the bismuth layer structure. (K0.5Ce0.5) complex addition first increases and then decreases the grain size which can be observed by scanning electron microscopy. With the increase of (K0.5Ce0.5) complex doping amount, the Curie temperature (TC) was slightly decreased from 632 to 608 oC. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties were optimized in KC100x-BITW ceramics with x = 0.08 as follows: d33 = 24 pC/N, kp = 8.2%, Qm = 6766, εr = 135 (@100 kHz), tanδ = 0.28% (@100 kHz), Tc = 611 oC, and resistivity ρ = 2.9 × 106 Ω cm at 500 oC, indicating that the KC100x-BITW ceramics are suitable for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing applications.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections and is characterised serologically by capsular polysaccharide (K) and lipopolysaccharide O antigens. We surveyed a total of 348 non-duplicate K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected over a 1-year period in a tertiary care hospital, and determined their O and K serotypes by sequencing of the wbb Y and wzi gene loci, respectively. Isolates were also screened for antimicrobial resistance and hypervirulent phenotypes; 94 (27.0%) were identified as carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) and 110 (31.6%) as hypervirulent (hvKP). isolates fell into 58 K, and six O types, with 92.0% and 94.2% typeability, respectively. The predominant K types were K14K64 (16.38%), K1 (14.66%), K2 (8.05%) and K57 (5.46%), while O1 (46%), O2a (27.9%) and O3 (11.8%) were the most common. CRKP and hvKP strains had different serotype distributions with O2a:K14K64 (41.0%) being the most frequent among CRKP, and O1:K1 (26.4%) and O1:K2 (17.3%) among hvKP strains. Serotyping by gene sequencing proved to be a useful tool to inform the clinical epidemiology of K. pneumoniae infections and provides valuable data relevant to vaccine design.
In 2017, the Onassis Cultural Center in New York hosted an exhibition called “A World of Emotions” (Levere, 2017). This exhibition was publicized as “Bringing to vivid life the emotions of the people of ancient Greece, and prompting questions about how we express, control, and manipulate feelings in our own society” (Onassis USA, 2017). The historical epoch covered was from 700 BC to AD 200, very roughly from a time near the end of the classical period to the middle of the Hellenistic period. One commentary on this exhibition suggested: “These objects provide a timely opportunity to think about the role of feelings in our personal, social and political lives and help advance the relatively new field of the history of emotions” (Levere, 2017).
Over the past few decades, researchers have made notable strides in understanding the processes underlying workplace affect. In particular, rigorous measures and new theoretical models for the study of workplace affect have been developed, validated, and updated with data gathered from employee samples across different industries, countries, and cultures (e.g. Bledow, Schmitt, Frese, & Kühnel, 2011; McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; Watson, 2000; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996; Yang, Simon, Wang, & Zheng, 2016). As shown in the array of chapters in this volume, exciting progress has been made on many fronts. Yet there are many separate streams of research that have been developed in a relatively independent fashion. This chapter will propose some directions for future research that could integrate different areas of research on emotional experiences at work. We propose and discuss the following ideas: integration of research on general and discrete emotions; research taking a broader view of emotional management; new research methods and new perspectives; and the implications of social changes for research on workplace affect and for the application of such research.
Building on past reviews on affect research (e.g. Akinola, 2010; Ashkanasy & Dorris, 2017; Larsen & Fredrickson, 1999; Mauss & Robinson, 2009; Peterson, Reina, Waldman, & Becker, 2015), in this chapter we review existing quantitative methods to measure workplace affect and affect regulation, and propose directions for future development in quantitative measurement of these processes. We endorse that affect is a multifaceted, dynamic process comprised of psychological and physiological experiences that informs thought and motivates action (Izard, 2009). Affect can be understood as a trait (general tendency to experience positive or negative feelings) or a state (momentary emotions in response to certain events). Consistent with the rest of this handbook, we use “affect” as an umbrella term that encompasses emotion, feeling, and other related terms.
Effects of dietary supplemental stachyose on caecal skatole concentration, hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450, CYP) mRNA expressions and enzymatic activities in broilers were evaluated. Arbor Acre commercial mixed male and female chicks were assigned randomly into six treatments. The positive control (PC) diet was based on maize–soyabean meal, and the negative control (NC) diet was based on maize–non-soyabean meal. The NC diet was then supplemented with 4, 5, 6 and 7 g/kg stachyose to create experimental diets, named S-4, S-5, S-6 and S-7, respectively. Each diet was fed to six replicates of ten birds from days 1 to 49. On day 49, the caecal skatole concentrations in the PC, S-4, S-5, S-6 and S-7 groups were lower than those in the NC group by 42·28, 23·68, 46·09, 15·31 and 45·14 % (P < 0·01), respectively. The lowest pH value was observed in the S-5 group (P < 0·05). The stachyose-fed groups of broilers had higher caecal acetate and propionate levels compared with control groups, and propionate levels in the S-6 and S-7 groups were higher than those in the S-4 and S-5 groups (P < 0·001). The highest CYP3A4 expression was found in the S-7 group (P < 0·05), but this was not different from PC, S-4, S-5 and S-6 treatments. There was no significant difference in CYP450 (1A2, 2D6 and 3A4) enzymatic activities among the groups (P > 0·05). In conclusion, caecal skatole levels can be influenced by dietary stachyose levels, and 5 g/kg of stachyose in the diet was suggested.
Are you struggling to improve a hostile or uncomfortable environment at work, or interested in how such tension can arise? Experts in organizational psychology, management science, social psychology, and communication science show you how to implement interventions and programs to manage workplace emotion. The connection between workplace affect and relevant challenges in our society, such as diversity and technological changes, is undeniable; thus learning to harness that knowledge can revolutionize your performance in tackling workday issues. Applying major theoretical perspectives and research methodologies, this book outlines the concepts of display rules, emotional labor, work motivation, well-being, and discrete emotions. Understanding these ideas will show you how affect can promote team effectiveness, leadership, and conflict resolution. If you require a foundation for understanding workplace affect or a springboard into deeper, more interdisciplinary research, this book presents an integrative approach that is indispensable.