To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
The star sensor field of view varies from several arc-minutes to 20 degrees, which directly determines the star vector orientation in the field of view (FOV). Although the relationship between star vector orientation in the FOV and attitude accuracy has been revealed, the influence mechanism of star vector orientation on the integrated navigation performance of a stellar inertial navigation system has not been analysed. In order to improve the integrated accuracy, the main errors such as star sensor installation error, gyro error and initial platform angle error should be estimated online. It is significant to study the influence mechanism of star vector orientation on estimation of the above errors. In this paper, the star sensor sensitivity and the geometry factor are defined to feature the difference between the optical axis direction and the non-optical axis direction. The formulised mechanism and quantification results between star vector orientation and integration attitude and error estimation accuracy are clearly given. Simulation and ground testing were conducted and it was found that the larger the star vector orientation along the optical axis, the better the error estimation accuracy. In contrast, the attitude accuracy is weakly sensitive to the orientation of the star vector in conditions of appropriate posture adjustment and star observation scheme. This conclusion can offer universal guidance for the design and evaluation of stellar inertial navigation systems with narrow field of view or large field of view star sensors.
Cardiac fibroma is a rare benign primary tumour of the heart. In the paediatric population, it has been reported as the second most common benign cardiac tumour following rhabdomyoma. However, the prevalence of cardiac fibroma is rarely reported in the adult population. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific, including palpitations, cardiac murmur, arrhythmias, dyspnoea, cyanosis, chest pain, and sudden mortality, whereas, a number of patients with cardiac fibroma are asymptomatic. Surgical resection should be considered as the best option in symptomatic patients. This study reported four surgical cases of adults with cardiac fibroma arising from the left ventricle and a literature review regarding the clinical and pathological features, diagnostic modalities, therapeutic aspects, and prognosis of this rare entity.
While the majority of worldwide hepatitis E viral (HEV) infections that occur in people are from contaminated water or food sources, there has also been a steadily rising number of reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV (TT-HEV) in blood donation recipients. For most, HEV infection is acute, self-limiting and asymptomatic. However, patients that are immunocompromised, especially transplant patients, are at much higher risk for developing chronic infections, which can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure, along with overall increased mortality. Because of the rising trend of HEV serological prevalence among the global population, and the fact that TT-HEV infection can cause serious clinical consequences among those patients most at need for blood donation, the need for screening for TT-HEV has been gaining in prominence as an important public health concern for both developing and developed countries. In the review, we summarise evidence for and notable cases of TT-HEV infections, the various aspects of HEV screening protocols and recent trends in the implementation of TT-HEV broad-based blood screening programmes.
Isolated congenital tricuspid regurgitation other than Ebstein’s anomaly was rare especially for children. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and to assess the results of tricuspid valvuloplasty for children with isolated tricuspid regurgitation.
From January 2010 to June 2019, 10 consecutive patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were unresponsive to drug therapy underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty in our hospital. Patients’ clinical data were analysed retrospectively.
Mean age at operation was 48.5 ± 31.0 (range: 9–106) months and mean weight at operation was 16.1 ± 6.9 (range: 8.6–33.0) kg. All patients presented severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation. According to pathological lesions, the main causes accounted for chordae tendinea rupture (3/10), leaflet cleft (2/10), mal-connected chordal tendinea to leaflets (2/10), elongated chordae (1/10) and chordae absent (1/10), and severe anterior leaflet dysplasia (1/10). Individualised tricuspid valvuloplasty was adapted to all of them successfully. Post-operative echocardiography showed no tricuspid regurgitation in two patients and mild regurgitation in eight patients. The cardiothoracic ratios on their chest roentgenograms decreased from 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.54 ± 0.05. At the latest follow-up (50.4 ± 47.2 months), echocardiography showed that mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation in seven patients, moderate tricuspid regurgitation in three patients, and no patient with severe tricuspid regurgitation. All patients were in NYHA functional class I.
For patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were not well responsive to drug therapy, individualised tricuspid valve repair can achieve an excellent result.
We present a 3D reconstruction method using brightness and camera motion estimation for registering local colon structure in colonoscopy. The proposed method is based on reverse projection from 2D fold contours to 3D space, motion estimation from 3D reconstructed points between neighboring frames, and model registration to reconstruct the fold structure. On the synthetic colon, the average percentages of the reconstructed depth error and circumference error are about 14.2% and 15.2%, respectively. The accuracy is enough for the navigation and control in capsule robot. This work demonstrates that the proposed method is superior to the methods using single-frame-based brightness intensity.
Phase-resolved wave simulation and direct numerical simulation of turbulence are performed to investigate the surface wave effects on the energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow. The JONSWAP spectrum is used to initialize a broadband wave field. The nonlinear wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method, and the resultant wave surface provides the bottom boundary conditions for direct numerical simulation of the overlying turbulent flow. Two wave ages of
and 25 are considered, corresponding to slow and fast wave fields, respectively, where
denotes the celerity of the peak wave and
denotes the friction velocity. The energy transfer of turbulent motions in the presence of surface waves is investigated through the spectral analysis of the two-point correlation transport equation. It is found that the production term has an extra peak at the dominant wavelength scale in the vicinity of the surface, and the energy transported to the surface via viscous and spatial turbulent transport is enhanced in the region of
. The presence of surface waves results in an inverse turbulent energy cascade in the near-surface region, where small-scale wave-related motions transfer energy back to the dominant wavelength scale. Pressure-related terms reflecting the spatial and inter-component energy transfer are strongly dependent on the wave age. Furthermore, triadic interaction analysis reveals that the energy influx at the dominant wavelength scale is due to the contribution of the neighbouring streamwise turbulent motions, and those at the harmonic wavelength scales contribute the most.
The surface energy budget over the Antarctic sea ice from 8 April 2016 through 26 November 2016 are presented. From April to October, Sensible heat flux (SH) and subsurface conductive heat flux (G) were the heat source of surface while latent heat flux (LE) and net radiation flux (Rn) were the heat sink of surface. Our results showed larger downward SH (due to the warmer air in our site) and upward LE (due to the drier air and higher wind speed in our site) compared with SHEBA data. However, the values of SH in N-ICE2015 campaign, which located at a zone with stronger winds and more advection of heat in the Arctic, were comparable to our results under clear skies. The values of aerodynamic roughness length (z0m) and scalar roughness length for temperature (z0h), being 1.9 × 10−3 m and 3.7 × 10−5 m, were suggested in this study. It is found that snow melting might increase z0m. Our results also indicate that the value of log(z0h/z0m) was related to the stability of stratification. In addition, several representative parameterization schemes for z0h have been tested and a couple of schemes were found to make a better performance.
High sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been shown to correlate with a higher risk for CVD and metabolic disorders, while the association between SSB intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the association between SSB intake and MetS among children and adolescents in urban China.
A cross-sectional study involving 7143 children and adolescents was conducted in urban China. MetS definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation was adopted. Data on SSB intake, diet, physical activity and family environment factors were obtained through questionnaires. Logistic regression models with multivariable adjustment were adopted to analyse the association between SSB intake and the risk of MetS and its components.
Primary and secondary schools in three urban cities of China.
Children and adolescents (n 5258) aged 7–18 years.
Among the participants, 29·9 % of them had high SSB intake (at least 0·3 servings/d) and the overall MetS prevalence was 2·7 %. Participants with high SSB intake were at higher risk for MetS (OR = 1·60; 95 % CI 1·03, 2·54) and abdominal obesity (OR = 1·55; 95 % CI 1·28, 1·83) compared with their counterparts with no SSB intake (0 servings/d).
High SSB intake is significantly associated with increased MetS and abdominal obesity risk among children and adolescents in urban China. These results suggest that strong policies focusing on controlling SSB intake might be effective in preventing MetS and abdominal obesity.
The association of Fe metabolism with obesity in children remains unclear. The present study aimed to assess the status of Fe metabolism parameters, the prevalence of anaemia, Fe deficiency (ID) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA), and the associations of these variables with obesity in Chinese schoolchildren.
A cross-sectional study conducted in 5295 schoolchildren aged 7–11 years in Guangzhou, China, 2014–2015. Full data of anthropometric and Fe metabolic parameters were collected to assess obesity, anaemia, ID and IDA. Logistic regression models were established to determine the possible associations of anaemia, ID and IDA with obesity. Two-tailed P values of <0·05 was considered statistically significant.
Guangzhou City, China.
Schoolchildren aged 7–11 years (n 5295).
In this sample, mean Hb concentration was 128·1 g/l and the prevalence of anaemia, ID and IDA was 6·6, 6·2 and 0·6 %, respectively. Of the participants, 14·0 % were overweight and 8·8 % were obese. Importantly, obesity was associated with lower anaemia risk (adjusted OR = 0·553; 95 % CI 0·316, 0·968) but higher ID risk (adjusted OR = 1·808; 95 % CI 1·146, 2·853) after adjustment for confounders. No significant relationship was found between obesity and IDA.
Our results confirmed that anaemia and ID remain public health concerns among schoolchildren in Guangzhou, while IDA is remarkably less prevalent. Furthermore, obesity was associated with lower anaemia risk, but higher ID risk. More efforts should be made to prevent the onset of ID and obesity in the same individual, thus improving the health and fitness of children.
Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for depression, anxiety and suicide. The estimated prevalence of these problems is essential to guide public health policy, but published results vary. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and suicide among Chinese MSM.
Systematic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang databases with languages restricted to Chinese and English for studies published before 10 September 2019 on the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Chinese MSM. Studies that were published in the peer-reviewed journals and used validated instruments to assess depression and anxiety were included. The characteristics of studies and the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts were independently extracted by authors. Random-effects modelling was used to estimate the pooled rates. Subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression were conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. This study followed the PRISMA and MOOSE.
Sixty-seven studies were included. Fifty-two studies reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with a combined sample of 37 376 people, of whom 12 887 [43.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 38.9–47.5] reported depressive symptoms. Twenty-seven studies reported the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, with a combined sample of 10 531 people, of whom 3187 (32.2%; 95% CI, 28.3–36.6) reported anxiety symptoms. Twenty-three studies reported the prevalence of suicidal ideation, with a combined sample of 15 034 people, of whom 3416 (21.2%; 95% CI, 18.3–24.5) had suicidal ideation. Nine studies reported the prevalence of suicide plans, with a combined sample of 5271 people, of whom 401 (6.2%; 95% CI, 3.9–8.6) had suicide plans. Finally, 19 studies reported the prevalence of suicide attempts, with a combined sample of 27 936 people, of whom 1829 (7.3%; 95% CI, 5.6–9.0) had attempted suicide.
The mental health of Chinese MSM is poor compared with the general population. Efforts are warranted to develop interventions to prevent and alleviate mental health problems among this vulnerable population.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease for dementia in adults. The main pathological alterations are extracellular senile plaque deposits, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal apoptosis. Recent researches indicated that T2D is closely with AD by insulin resistance in central nerves system progression. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanism remains unclear and treatment is limited. β-glucan extracted from yeast, as a dietary fiber with high bioactivity, edible, good taste and easy-obtainable, have been showed abilities such as anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic. Based on this, β-glucan can reduce insulin resistance and maintain gut microbiota thereby alleviating lesions of early AD.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, we used 36 male wild-type C57BL/6J mice were divided to 3 groups (control (C) mice injected i.c.v. with 0.9% saline as a vehicle, mice injected i.c.v. with Aβ1–42 (Aβ1–42 group), mice injected with Aβ1–42 and soluble yeast β-glucan 100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage daily (o.g.) for 5 wks (Aβ1–42 + Glu)). H&E method was detected for structure of hippocampus. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the cognitive performance of Aβ-infusion mice. The microbiota composition was analyzed by 16sRNA sequencing. The levels of inflammatory were measured in hippocampal and plasma by Meso-scale Discovery (MSD). Western blot was performed to detect the level of protein in insulin signaling pathway. One-way ANNOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls was applied for the data analysis through SPSS software version 22.0.
As demonstrated by H&E sections, β-glucan reduced neuron damage in AD mice hippocampus. Decreased the levels of Aβ and phosphorylation of Tau protein expression in hippocampus (P < 0.05) and ameliorated insulin resistance (p-IRS-1) in hippocampus (P < 0.05). According by results from MSD and Western-blot that showed TNF-α (P < 0.05), phosphorylated JNK (P < 0.01) and Tau were up-regulated in AD but β-glucan group decreased. In addition, the abundance of beneficial bacteria in β-glucan mice is increased (g_Alistipes, g_Rikeenella and g_Saccharibecteria genera incerae sedies).
Summary, this study illustrated that β-glucan regulated insulin signaling for ameliorating learning and memory deficit in AD. Due to β-glucan can not pass Blood-Brain-Barrier, we hypothesized that β-glucan could regulates gut microbiota by metabolites for ameliorating neuron damage. Our study provides new ideas for the prevention of AD.
Calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis (CAPNON) is a rare tumefactive lesion. CAPNONs can mimic calcified meningiomas at the skull base.
Here, we report two cases of CAPNON and present a systematic review of the literature on skull base CAPNONs, to compare CAPNONs with calcified meningiomas.
Case 1: A 57-year-old man presented with right-sided lower cranial neuropathies and gait ataxia. He underwent a subtotal resection of a right cerebellopontine angle lesion, with significant improvement of his gait ataxia. However, his cranial neuropathies persisted. Pathological examination of the lesion was diagnostic of CAPNON, with the entrapped nerve fibers identified at the periphery of the lesion, correlating with the patient’s cranial neuropathy. Case 2: A 70-year-old man presented with progressive headache, gait difficulty, and cognitive impairment. He underwent a frontotemporal craniotomy for a near-total resection of his right basal frontal CAPNON. He remained neurologically stable 7 years after the initial resection without evidence of disease recurrence. We analyzed 24 reported CAPNONs at the skull base in our systematic review of the literature. Cranial neuropathies were present in 11 (45.8%) patients. Outcomes regarding cranial neuropathies were documented in six patients: two had sacrifice of the nerve function with surgical approaches and four had persistent cranial neuropathies.
While CAPNON can radiologically and grossly mimic calcified meningiomas, they are two distinctly different pathologies. CAPNONs located at the skull base are commonly associated with cranial neuropathies, which may be difficult to reverse despite surgical intervention.
Passive seismology is becoming increasingly popular for glacier/ice-sheet structure investigations in Polar regions. Single-station passive seismic methods including P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) and a recently proposed autocorrelation method have been used to retrieve glacier/ice-sheet structures. Despite their successful applications, analysis regarding their detection abilities in different glaciological environments has not been reported. In this study, we compare ice thicknesses and vp/vs ratios obtained from the three methods using data collected at GAMSEIS and POLENET/ANET seismic arrays in Antarctica. Ice thickness estimates derived from the three methods are found to be consistent. Comparisons conducted under various model setups, including those involving tiled layers and sedimentary layers, show that the effectiveness of the autocorrelation method is not superior to the PRF method for retrieving ice-sheet structures. The autocorrelation method however can complement other methods as it only requires a single component seismic record.
In the human population, influenza A viruses are associated with acute respiratory illness and are responsible for millions of deaths annually. Avian and human influenza viruses typically have a different α2-3- and α2-6-linked sialic acid (SA) binding preference. Only a few amino acid changes in the haemagglutinin on the surface of avian influenza viruses (AIV) can cause a switch from avian to human receptor specificity, and the individuals with pathognostic chronic diseases might be more susceptible to AIV due to the decreased expression level of terminal α2-3-linked SA in their saliva. Here, using lectin and virus histochemical staining, we observed the higher expression levels of α2-3/6-linked SA influenza virus receptors in the airway of HBV-transgenic mice compared with that of control mice due to the significant decrease in control mice during ageing, which imply that this is also a risk factor for individuals with pathognostic chronic diseases susceptible to influenza viruses. Our findings will help understand the impact on influenza virus pathogenesis and transmission.