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While the majority of worldwide hepatitis E viral (HEV) infections that occur in people are from contaminated water or food sources, there has also been a steadily rising number of reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV (TT-HEV) in blood donation recipients. For most, HEV infection is acute, self-limiting and asymptomatic. However, patients that are immunocompromised, especially transplant patients, are at much higher risk for developing chronic infections, which can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure, along with overall increased mortality. Because of the rising trend of HEV serological prevalence among the global population, and the fact that TT-HEV infection can cause serious clinical consequences among those patients most at need for blood donation, the need for screening for TT-HEV has been gaining in prominence as an important public health concern for both developing and developed countries. In the review, we summarise evidence for and notable cases of TT-HEV infections, the various aspects of HEV screening protocols and recent trends in the implementation of TT-HEV broad-based blood screening programmes.
zinc is an essential micro-nutrient for growth and proper immune function. Yet there are limited data available on the prevalence of zinc deficiency among children aged 3–5 at the country level. This information will enable health planners to determine the need for zinc intervention activities and to stimulate further research into these areas.
materials and methods
The data on children aged 3–5 were extracted from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. By multi-stage stratified cluster randomly sampling method, 30 children aged 3–5 years old were selected from each region for this study from 55 counties in China to analyze serum zinc. Finally, 1472 children aged 3–5 years were included in the study. The concentration of serum zinc was determined by high resolution inductively coupled plasm mass spectrometry. High and low level quality control samples were used, measured value was (1.63 ± 0.04)mg/l and (2.80 ± 0.06)mg/l, respectively. CV of quality control samples were 1.69%~2.45%. The zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level < 70μg/dl with the standard of WHO.
serum zinc means of children aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.2)μg/dl and 3.9% children with zinc deficiency. serum zinc means level in urban children was (98.9 ± 17.6)μg/dl, and (91.6 ± 18.2)μg/dl in rural area. we showed that the serum zinc deficiency rate was higher in rural children (5.5%) than urban children (2.4%), and there were significant differences between these two areas. serum zinc means level in boys aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.7)μg/dl, and (95.3 ± 17.8)μg/dl in girls aged 3–5 years old. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 1.5%, 6.6% and 1.8% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban boys, respectively; 6.8%, 7.7% and 4.0% in rural boys, respectively. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 2.3%, 0.8% and 1.7% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban girls, respectively; 4.1%, 7.0% and 4.0% in rural girls, respectively. And there were differences between urban and rural areas in girls of 4~.5 years.
The zinc level of children aged 3–5 years in China has been improved compared with ten years ago, but the zinc deficiency of rural children is still lower than that of urban children, especially those aged 4 to 5 years in rural areas, so we should pay more attention to this group.
The East Kunlun Orogen (EKO) is the NW part of the Central China Orogenic Belt, which records the evolutionary history of the Proto- and Palaeo-Tethys Oceans from the Cambrian to the Triassic. An Early Palaeozoic eclogite belt has been recognized in recent years, which extends discontinuously for ∼500 km as three eclogite-bearing terranes. In this study, we report an integrated study of zircon grains from mica-schists accompanying the eclogites, in terms of mineral inclusions, U–Pb age systematics and P–T conditions. The presence of coesite is identified, as inclusions within the metamorphic domain of zircons, which provides unambiguous evidence for subducted terrigenous clastic rocks of the Proto-Tethys Ocean exhumed from coesite-forming depths. U–Pb dating of the metamorphic zircons yields a concordia age of 426.5 ± 0.88 Ma, which is likely to be the time of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Kehete terrane. P–T calculations suggest that metapelite may have experienced a clockwise P–T path with peak P/T conditions of 685 ± 41 °C and >28 kbar, and equilibrated at 482–566 °C and 5.6–8.9 kbar during subsequent exhumation. The high-pressure – ultrahigh-pressure (HP-UHP) metamorphic belt within the EKO may have formed by collision between the Qaidam Block and the South Kunlun Block, as a consequence of the closure of the Proto-Tethys Ocean.
Synthetic photonic materials created by engineering the profile of refractive index or gain/loss distribution, such as negative-index metamaterials or parity-time-symmetric structures, can exhibit electric and magnetic properties that cannot be found in natural materials, allowing for photonic devices with unprecedented functionalities. In this article, we discuss two directions along this line—non-Hermitian photonics and topological photonics—and their applications in nonreciprocal light transport when nonlinearities are introduced. Both types of synthetic structures have been demonstrated in systems involving judicious arrangement of optical elements, such as optical waveguides and resonators. They can exhibit a transition between different phases by adjusting certain parameters, such as the distribution of refractive index, loss, or gain. The unique features of such synthetic structures help realize nonreciprocal optical devices with high contrast, low operation threshold, and broad bandwidth. They provide promising opportunities to realize nonreciprocal structures for wave transport.
Muons produced by the Bethe–Heitler process from laser wakefield accelerated electrons interacting with high
materials have velocities close to the laser wakefield. It is possible to accelerate those muons with laser wakefield directly. Therefore for the first time we propose an all-optical ‘Generator and Booster’ scheme to accelerate the produced muons by another laser wakefield to supply a prompt, compact, low cost and controllable muon source in laser laboratories. The trapping and acceleration of muons are analyzed by one-dimensional analytic model and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that muons can be trapped in a broad energy range and accelerated to higher energy than that of electrons for longer dephasing length. We further extrapolate the dependence of the maximum acceleration energy of muons with the laser wakefield relativistic factor
and the relevant initial energy
. It is shown that a maximum energy up to 15.2 GeV is promising with
on the existing short pulse laser facilities.
Nine possible native point defects in MgCaSi have been studied by employing density functional theory based ab initio calculations. The complex chemical potential limits are first determined using a two-dimension (∆μMg, ∆μCa) diagram, then the defect formation energies as a function of the atomic chemical potential are gained. The energetic results show that under Mg-rich conditions, the most favorable defect is MgCa rather than MgSi, while CaMg is predominant compared to CaSi under Ca-rich conditions. The bonding energy is first introduced to uncover the intrinsic feature of defect formation energy. The local geometric distortion around CaMg, MgSi, and CaSi antisite defects gradually increases due to the smaller atomic radii from Ca to Mg and Si, showing the important role of the geometrical mismatch. The density of states indicates that the higher stability of CaMg and MgCa originates from the smaller deviation of the Fermi level from the pseudo-gap.
Longan County is considered a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The plasma-derived vaccine has been used in newborns in this area since 1987. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this vaccine. In total, 1634 participants born during 1987–1993 and who had received a series of plasma-derived HB vaccinations at ages 0, 1, and 6 months were enrolled. Serological HBV markers were detected and compared with previous survey data. Overall the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in all participants was 3·79%; 3·47% of subjects who had received the first dose within 24 h were HBsAg positive, and 8·41% of subjects who had received a delayed first dose were also HBsAg positive. There were 1527 subjects identified who had received the first dose within 24 h and whose HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence increased yearly after immunization, while the anti-HBs-positive rate and vaccine effectiveness declined. The geometric mean concentration of antibody in the anti-HB-positive participants was 55·13 mIU/ml and this declined after immunization. Fewer than 2·0% of participants had anti-HB levels ⩾1000 mIU/ml. The data show that the protective efficacy of the plasma-derived vaccinations declined and administration of HB vaccine within 24 h of birth was very important. To reduce the risk of HBV infection in this highly endemic area, a booster dose might be necessary if anti-HBs levels fall below 10 mIU/ml after age 18 years. Furthermore, studies on the immune memory induced by plasma-derived HB vaccine are needed.
The designs of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets, which field on ShenGuang III, are becoming more complex and more stringent in terms of assembly precision. A key specification of these targets is the spatial angle alignment accuracy. To meet these needs, we present a new spatial angle assembly method, using target part’s 3D model-based dual orthogonal camera vision, which is better suited for the flexible automation of target assembly processes. The two-hands structure micromanipulate system and dual orthogonal structure visual feedback system were investigated by considering the kinematics, spatial angle measuring, and motion control in an integrated way. In this paper, we discuss the measurement accuracy of spatial angle assembly method, which compared the real-time image acquisition with the redrawing 2D projection. The result shows that the assembly method proposed is very effective and meets the requirements of angle assembly accuracy, which is less than
. Also, this work is expected to contribute greatly to the advancement of other target microassembly equipments.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Breakfast skipping has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the results are inconsistent. No meta-analyses have applied quantitative techniques to compute summary risk estimates. The present study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies summarizing the evidence on the association between breakfast skipping and the risk of T2D.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Relevant studies were identified by a search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and SINOMED up to 9 August 2014. We also reviewed reference lists from retrieved articles. We included studies that reported risk estimates (including relative risks, odds ratios and hazard ratios) with 95 % confidence intervals for the association between breakfast skipping and the risk of T2D.
Eight studies involving 106 935 participants and 7419 patients with T2D were included in the meta-analysis.
A pooled adjusted relative risk for the association between exposure to breakfast skipping and T2D risk was 1·21 (95 % CI 1·12, 1·31; P=0·984; I2=0·0 %) in cohort studies and the pooled OR was 1·15 (95 % CI, 1·05, 1·24; P=0·770; I2=0·0 %) in cross-sectional studies. Visual inspection of a funnel plot and Begg’s test indicated no evidence of publication bias.
Breakfast skipping is associated with a significantly increased risk of T2D. Regular breakfast consumption is potentially important for the prevention of T2D.
Tai'an, a famous cultural tourist district, is a new endemic foci of scrub typhus in northern China. Frequent reports of travel-acquired cases and absence of effective vaccine indicated a significant health problem of scrub typhus in Tai'an. Thus, descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to describe the epidemic characteristics and detect the significant clusters of the high incidence of scrub typhus at the town level in Tai'an. Results of descriptive epidemiological analysis showed a total of 490 cases were reported in Tai'an with the annual average incidence ranging from 0·48 to 2·27/100 000 during 2006–2013. Females, the elderly and farmers are the high-risk groups. Monthly changes of scrub typhus cases indicated an obvious epidemic period in autumn. Spatial-temporal distribution analysis, showed significant clusters of high incidence mainly located in eastern and northern Tai'an. Our study suggests that more effective, targeted measures for local residents should be implemented in the eastern and northern areas of Tai'an in autumn. Meanwhile, it may prove beneficial for health policy makers to advise travellers to take preventive measures in order to minimize the risk of infection of scrub typhus in Tai'an.
The properties of superconductors at the extreme limits of dimensionality are of fundamental interest. The interface of LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 hosts a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor below Tc≈200 mK. Here we report superconductivity in nanowire-shaped structures created at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface using conductive atomic force microscope lithography. Nanowire cross-sections are small compared to the superconducting coherence length in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (w <<ξSC∼100 nm), placing them in the quasi-1D regime. The ability to “write” fully superconducting nanostructures on an insulating LaAlO3/SrTiO3 “canvas” opens possibilities for the development of new families of superconducting nanoelectronics. Four-terminal transport measurements suggest that in some devices both the normal and superconducting states are confined to a single quantum channel.
We report the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) with a high breakdown voltage by employing a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) gate structure using Si3N4 insulator. The Si3N4 films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) as the surface passivation, interlayer films and the gate dielectric. In comparison with Schottky-gate HEMTs, the gate leakage currents of MIS-HEMTs exhibited three orders of magnitude reduction. With similar device structures, the off-state breakdown voltage of MIS-HEMTs was 1050 V with a specific on-resistance of 4.0 mΩ cm2, whereas the breakdown voltage and specific on-resistance of SG-HEMTs were 740 V and 4.4 mΩ cm2, respectively. In addition, the MIS-HEMTs exhibited little current slump in the pulsed measurements and possessed faster switch speed than Si MOSFET. We demonstrate that AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs are promising not only for microwave applications but also for high power switching applications.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
“Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves” are large-scale wavelike transients often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this Letter, we present a possible detection of a fast-mode EUV wave associated with a mini-CME observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. On 2010 December 1, a small-scale EUV wave erupted near the disk center associated with a mini-CME, which showed all the low corona manifestations of a typical CME. The CME was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament, with a typical length of about 30′′. Although the eruption was tiny, the wave had the appearance of an almost semicircular front and propagated at a uniform velocity of 220−250km s-1 with very little angular dependence. The CME lateral expansion was asymmetric with an inclination toward north, and the southern footprints of the CME loops hardly shifted. The lateral expansion resulted in deep long-duration dimmings, showing the CME extent. Our analysis confirms that the small-scale EUV wave is a true wave, interpreted as the fast-mode wave.
The monthly and annual incidence of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China for 2004–2009 was analysed in conjunction with associated geographical and demographic data. We applied the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to fit and forecast monthly HFRS incidence in China. HFRS was endemic in most regions of China except Hainan Province. There was a high risk of infection for male farmers aged 30–50 years. The fitted SARIMA(0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 model had a root-mean-square-error criterion of 0·0133 that indicated accurate forecasts were possible. These findings have practical applications for more effective HFRS control and prevention. The conducted SARIMA model may have applications as a decision support tool in HFRS control and risk-management planning programmes.
A universal hepatitis B vaccination programme has been conducted in Long An county since 1986. To investigate the epidemiological changes in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we conducted a serosurvey there in 2005. A total of 4686 subjects were enrolled and vaccination history and blood samples collected. HBV infective markers were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results were compared with the data of 1985. Our results show that the overall HBsAg prevalence was 7·5%, less than half of the prevalence reported in 1985. HBsAg and anti-HBc antibody prevalence in people born after 1985 decreased markedly. The gender difference in HBsAg prevalence was abolished in subjects aged <20 years. The administration of a first dose of vaccine within 24 h could reduce the HBsAg prevalence by half. In conclusion, the marked epidemiological changes in HBV prevalence found in this serosurvey indicate that the implementation of HBV vaccination was highly successful.
In this paper, we study a postprocessing procedure for improving
accuracy of the finite volume element approximations of semilinear
parabolic problems. The procedure amounts to solve a source problem
on a coarser grid and then solve a linear elliptic problem on a
finer grid after the time evolution is finished. We derive error
estimates in the L2 and H1 norms for the standard finite
volume element scheme and an improved error estimate in the H1
norm. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of