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Developing metallic materials with a good combination of strength and ductility has been an unending pursuit of materials scientists. The emergence of high/medium-entropy alloys (HEA/MEA) provided a novel strategy to achieve this. Here, we further strengthened a strong-and-ductile MEA using a traditional solid solution strengthening theory. The selection of solute elements was assisted by mechanical property and microstructure predictive models. Extensive microstructural characterizations and mechanical tests were performed to verify the models and to understand the mechanical behavior and deformation mechanisms of the designated CoCrNi–3W alloy. Our results show good experiment-model agreement. The incorporation of 3 at.% W into the ternary CoCrNi matrix increased its intrinsic strength by ∼20%. External strengthening through microstructural refinement led to a yield strength nearly double that of the parent alloy, CoCrNi. The increase in strength is obtained with still good ductility when tested down to 77 K. Nanoscale twin boundaries are observed in the post-fracture microstructure under 77 K. The combination of strength and ductility after W additions deviate from the traditional strength-ductility-trade-off contour.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
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