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Anatase phase NOx/S6+–TiO2 (x= 0, 1) film with high solar-driven activity has been successfully prepared via electro-assisted oxidation processes. The morphological and structural properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, while the optical property was detected by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the NOx/S6+–TiO2 film was composed of “flower-like” microvoids structure and displayed broad and strong optical absorption at around 544 and 1500 nm. Transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the generation and separation of photogenerated charges were significantly enhanced under simulated solar irradiation. The NOx/S6+–TiO2 film exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), and the decoloration rate and TOC removal respectively reached 98.97 and 59.44% at 20 min under solar irradiation. The film still had good stability after reusing ten times. Furthermore, a possible mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis was suggested in MO degradation by using NOx/S6+–TiO2 film.
This study aimed to reveal the associated risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) detected by T-SPOT.TB assay among health care workers (HCWs) at different working locations or job categories in China. This cross-sectional study included 934 HCWs who underwent the T-SPOT.TB assay. Demographic and social characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, job categories, department/ward and duration of healthcare service, were recorded. Among 934 HCWs, 267 (28.5867%) were diagnosed as having LTBI with positive T-SPOT.TB assay. HCWs working in inpatient tuberculosis (TB) (odds ratio (OR) 2.917; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.852–4.596; P < 0.001) and respiratory wards (OR 1.840; 95% CI 1.124–3.011; P = 0.015), and with longer duration of healthcare service (OR 1.048; 95% CI 1.016–1.080; P = 0.003) were risk factors for positive T-SPOT.TB result. Furthermore, longer working duration increased the positive rate of T-SPOT.TB results for physicians and nurses, and physicians had higher risks than nurses for the same working duration. Inpatient TB and respiratory wards were high-risk working locations for HCWs with LTBI, and longer duration of healthcare service also increased the risk of LTBI among HCWs. A complete strategy for TB infection control and protection awareness among HCWs should be enhanced.
Determining an appropriate grasp configuration for multi-finger grasping is difficult due to the complexity of robotic hands. The multi-finger grasp planning should consider not only geometry constraints of objects but also kinematics and dynamics of robotic hand. In this paper, a precision grasp-planning framework is presented for multi-finger hand to grasp unknown objects. First, the manipulation capabilities of the robotic hand are analyzed. The analysis results are further used as bases for the precision grasp planning. Second, the superquadric (SQ) fitting method is used for approximating unknown object models. Finally, a local–global optimization method is implemented to find appropriate grasp configurations for dexterous hand. The presented planning framework is validated in simulation experiments. Simulation results demonstrated that the presented grasp-planning framework enables the multi-finger hand to grasp unknown objects effectively.
We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ in the regions with between-group FC difference.
Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease.
These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.
Relativistic collisionless shock charged particle acceleration is considered as a possible origin of high-energy cosmic rays. However, it is hard to explore the nature of relativistic collisionless shock due to its low occurring frequency and remote detecting distance. Recently, there are some works attempt to solve this problem by generating relativistic collisionless shock in laboratory conditions. In laboratory, the scheme of generation of relativistic collisionless shock is that two electron–positron pair plasmas knock each other. However, in laboratory, the appropriate pair plasmas have been not generated. The 10 PW laser pulse maybe generates the pair plasmas that satisfy the formation condition of relativistic collisionless shock due to its ultrahigh intensity and energy. In this paper, we study the positron production by ultraintense laser high Z target interaction using numerical simulations, which consider quantum electrodynamics effect. The simulation results show that the forward positron beam up to 1013/kJ can be generated by 10 PW laser pulse interacting with lead target. The estimation of relativistic collisionless shock formation shows that the positron yield satisfies formation condition and the positron divergence needs to be controlled. Our results indicate that the generation of relativistic collisionless shock by 10 PW laser facilities in laboratory is possible.
We are interested in the rate of convergence of a subordinate Markov process to its invariant measure. Given a subordinator and the corresponding Bernstein function (Laplace exponent), we characterize the convergence rate of the subordinate Markov process; the key ingredients are the rate of convergence of the original process and the (inverse of the) Bernstein function. At a technical level, the crucial point is to bound three types of moment (subexponential, algebraic, and logarithmic) for subordinators as time t tends to ∞. We also discuss some concrete models and we show that subordination can dramatically change the speed of convergence to equilibrium.
TiO2 nanotubes have been demonstrated with promising future in photoelectrocatalytic (PEC)_ applications and deposition of Pt nanoparticles on TiO2 has been widely used to enhance their PEC activities. However, those Pt nanoparticles are normally randomly deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes. Selective deposition of Pt nanoparticles is important to achieve better charge separation. In this study, we reported an electrochemical activation step to prepare TiO2 nanotubes deposited with Pt nanoparticles on their open ends. The “activation step” played a key role in achieving a clean surface of the TiO2 nanotubes, thus ensuring the uniform growth of Pt nanoparticles and efficient photogenerated electrons transportation. The Pt-A-TiO2 films have photocatalytic activities in hydrogen generation and methyl orange degradation with a high hydrogen generation rate of 0.74 mL/h/cm2, three times that of the pure TiO2 nanotubes (0.24 mL/h/cm2). Thus, this study demonstrated an effective method for improving the performance of Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst.
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the common cause of cognitive decline in the old population. MRI can be used to clarify its mechanisms. However, the surrogate markers of MRI for early cognitive impairment in SVD remain uncertain to date. We investigated the cognitive impacts of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and brain volumetric measurements in a cohort of post-stroke non-dementia SVD patients.
Fifty five non-dementia SVD patients were consecutively recruited and categorized into two groups as no cognitive impairment (NCI) (n = 23) or vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) (n = 32). Detailed neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI were completed.
The two groups differed significantly on Z scores of all cognitive domains (all p < 0.01) except for the language. There were more patients with hypertension (p = 0.038) or depression (p = 0.019) in the VaMCI than those in the NCI group. Multiple regression analysis of cognition showed periventricular mean diffusivity (MD) (β = −0.457, p < 0.01) and deep CMBs numbers (β = −0.352, p < 0.01) as the predictors of attention/executive function, which explained 45.2% of the total variance. Periventricular MD was the independent predictor for either memory (β = −0.314, p < 0.05) or visuo-spatial function (β = −0.375, p < 0.01); however, only small proportion of variance could be accounted for (9.8% and 12.4%, respectively). Language was not found to be correlated with any of the MRI parameters. No correlation was found between brain atrophic indices and any of the cognitive measures.
Arteriosclerotic CMBs and periventricular white matter disintegrity seem to be independent MRI surrogated markers in the early stage of cognitive impairment in SVD.
This paper summarizes the change of astronomical observing conditions since 1986 at Huairou Solar Observing Station. Our results from 1988 to 1999 are as follows: quantitatively, stray light has increased and visibility has decreased; qualitatively, the seeing condition has become worse.
Owing to the difficulty in obtaining mammary gland tissue from lactating animals, it is difficult to test the expression levels of genes in mammary gland. The aim of the current study was to identify if milk fat globule (MFG) in buffalo milk was an alternative to mammary gland (MG) and milk somatic cell (MSC) for gene expression analysis. Six buffalos in late lactation were selected to collect MFG and MSC, and then MG was obtained by surgery. MFG was stained with acridine orange to successfully visualise RNA and several cytoplasmic crescents in MFG. The total RNA in MFG was successfully isolated and the integrity was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We analysed the cellular components in MFG, MG and MSC through testing the expression of cell-specific genes by qRT-PCR. The results showed that adipocyte-specific gene (AdipoQ) and leucocyte-specific genes (CD43, CSF1 and IL1α) in MFG were not detected, whereas epithelial cell marker genes (Keratin 8 and Keratin 18) in MFG were higher than in MSC and lower than in MG, fibroblast marker gene (vimentin) in MFG was significantly lower than in MG and MSC, milk protein genes (LALBA, BLG and CSN2) and milk fat synthesis-related genes (ACC, BTN1A1, FABP3 and FAS) in MFG were higher than in MG and MSC. In conclusion, the total RNA in MFG mainly derives from mammary epithelial cells and can be used to study the functional gene expression of mammary epithelial cells.
Most species of the genus Eulecanium Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are important economic pests for ornamental plants and fruit trees. Two morphologically similar species, Eulecanium giganteum Shinji and E. kuwanai Kanda, are distributed mainly in China and are quite difficult to identify because of the paucity of distinguishing characteristics, which can only be observed in slide-mounted young, adult females. Furthermore, we demonstrate here that the species occur in sympatry and on many of the same host plants. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA were used for accurate identification of these two Eulecanium species from 19 different locations in China. The average K2P distances of COI sequences were 0.47% in E. kuwanai and 0.32% in E. giganteum, and the interspecific divergences varied from 7.23% to 8.34%. Neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of COI and 28S rDNA revealed two distinct non-overlapping clusters, respectively. Meanwhile, “best close match” analysis also showed that 100% of individuals were classified successfully using COI and 28 S sequences. Differentiating between E. giganteum and E. kuwanai is challenging when using ecological and morphological traits. In contrast, identification using DNA diagnostics appears to be very effective, especially when slide-mounted specimens are difficult to obtain.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
Tea consumption has inconsistently been shown to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to conduct a dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies assessing the association between consumption of tea and risk of developing T2D. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE through 31 March 2013. A total of sixteen cohorts from fifteen articles that reported 37 445 cases of diabetes among 545 517 participants were included. A significant linearly inverse association between tea consumption and T2D risk was found (P for linear trend = 0·02). An increase of 2 cups/d in tea consumption was found to be associated with a 4·6 (95 % CI 0·9, 8·1) % reduced risk of T2D. On the basis of the dose–response meta-analysis, the predicted relative risks of diabetes for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cups of tea consumed per d were 1·00 (referent), 0·97 (95 % CI 0·94, 1·01), 0·95(95 % CI 0·92, 0·98), 0·93 (95 % CI 0·88, 0·98), 0·90 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·96), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·93) and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·91), respectively. There was a statistically significant heterogeneity within the selected studies (Q= 45·32, P< 0·001, I2= 60·3 %). No evidence of substantial small-study bias was found (P= 0·46). Our findings suggest that tea consumption could be linearly inversely associated with T2D risk. Future well-designed observational studies that account for different characteristics of tea such as tea types, preparation methods and tea strength are needed to fully characterise such an association.
A support vector machine (SVM) method is applied to select K giant stars directly from the spectral features of LAMOST spectra. The performance of the algorithm is assessed using the MILES library. It shows that the completeness of the K giant stars is 87% with only about 6% dwarf contamination. This allows us to select 18,013 K giant stars at |b|>20° and 38,108 at |b|<20° from LAMOST pilot survey data.
SONG (Stellar Observations Network Goup) is a low-cost ground based international collaboration aimed at two cutting edge problems in contemporary astrophysics in the time-domain: 1) Direct diagnostics of the internal structure of stars and 2) looking for and studying extra solar planets, possibly in the habitable zone. The general plan is to set up a network of 1m telescopes uniformly distributed in geographic latitude (in both hemispheres). China jointed the collaboration (initiated by Danish astronomers) at the very beginning. In addition to SONG's original plan (http://song.phys.au.dk), the Chinese team proposed a parallel photometry subnet work in the northern hemisphere, namely 50BiN (50cm Binocular Network, previously known as mini-SONG), to enable a large field photometric capability for the network, therefore maximising the potential of the network platform. The network will be able to produce nearly continuous time series observations of a number of selected objects with high resolution spectroscopy (SONG) and accurate photometry (50BiN), and to produce ultra-high accuracy photometry in dense field to look for micro-lensing events caused by planetary systems. This project has great synergy with Chinese Astronomical activities in Antarctica (Dome A), and other similar networks (e.g. LCOGT). The plan and current status of the project are overviewed in this poster.
This work analyzed the morphologic properties of magnetic networks during Carrington Rotations (CRs) 1955 to 2091 by applying the watershed algorithm to magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Interferometer on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft. We found that the magnetic networks are of fractal and the average fractal dimension is Df=1.253±0.011. We also find that both the fractal dimension and the size of magnetic networks are anti-correlated with the solar magnetic activity.
Over the past decade, the PV industry has witnessed tremendous growth in manufacturing scale and technology advancement, with PV generated electricity cost ever approaching grid parity. Among them, Si based thin film technology has made substantial progress in demonstrating its inherent advantages in lower material cost, ease of manufacturing and higher energy yield, etc. More recently, reduced product prices and competing technologies from crystalline silicon and other thin film technologies have made amorphous and microcrystalline silicon based thin film technology very challenging, and requires further increase in module efficiency and decrease in manufacturing cost. As one of the few companies in the world with significant manufacturing capacity for tandem thin film Si PV products, Chint Solar (Astronergy) has been at the forefront of technology development for the mass production of large-scale (Gen. 5, 1.43m2) Si thin film solar modules in the last 5 years. We will review major technology advancements which have been mass production proven and led to the mass produced tandem silicon thin film module with 10.0% plus stabilized efficiency, along with the field performance of those modules.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the negative regulation of the insulin signalling pathway by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrates. Ganodermalucidum has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in Chinese medicine; however, its anti-diabetic potency and mechanism in vivo is still unclear. Our previously published study reported a novel proteoglycan PTP1B inhibitor, named Fudan-Yueyang-Ganoderma lucidum (FYGL) from G. lucidum, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 5·12 (sem 0·05) μg/ml, a protein:polyglycan ratio of 17:77 and 78 % glucose in polysaccharide, and dominant amino acid residues of aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, serine and threonine in protein. FYGL is capable of decreasing plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with a high safety of median lethal dose (LD50) of 6 g/kg. In the present study, C57BL/6 db/db diabetic mice were trialed further using FYGL as well as metformin for comparison. Oral treatment with FYGL in db/db diabetic mice for 4 weeks significantly (P < 0·01 or 0·05) decreased the fasting plasma glucose level, serum insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. FYGL also controlled the biochemistry indices relative to type 2 diabetes-accompanied lipidaemic disorders. Pharmacology research suggests that FYGL decreases the plasma glucose level by the mechanism of inhibiting PTP1B expression and activity, consequently, regulating the tyrosine phosphorylation level of the IR β-subunit and the level of hepatic glycogen, thus resulting in the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Therefore, FYGL is promising as an insulin sensitiser for the therapy of type 2 diabetes and accompanied dyslipidaemia.