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The rearrangement of drainage basins provides critical insight into crustal deformation and geodynamic mechanisms. Near the southeastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau, the Dadu River abruptly shifts from south- to east-flowing, providing important implications for regional tectonogeomorphic development since the mid-Pleistocene. South of the bend, the headwaters of the Anning River occupy an unusually wide valley. Field investigations show that large quantities of fluvial/lacustrine sediments are widespread along the Dadu and Anning rivers and are exposed at their drainage divide. Detrital zircon U-Pb age patterns confirm that these fluvial/lacustrine sediments are the remnants of the paleo-Dadu River, which strongly suggests that the paleo-Dadu River originally flowed southward into the Anning River. The cosmogenic nuclide burial ages of the lacustrine sediments along the Dadu and Anning rivers suggest deposition of these sediments from separate dammed lakes ca. 1.2 Ma ago, ca. 0.6 Ma ago, and ca. 0.9 Ma ago from north to south, respectively. Provenance and burial-age studies indicate that reorganization of the Dadu drainage occurred within the last 0.6 Ma. We propose that this drainage reorganization in southeastern Tibet resulted from progressive convergence between the India and Eurasian plates during the Pleistocene.
In “Risky choice framing: Task versions and a comparison of prospect theory and fuzzy-trace theory”, Kühberger and Tanner (2010) examined the impacts of removing stated zero/non-zero complements of risky options on the gain/loss framing effect. They also tested two rival theoretical explanations for this effect: prospect theory and fuzzy-trace theory. The present study aimed to examine the reliability and robustness of the evidence provided by Kühberger and Tanner by precise replication in Study 1. The original findings were reported for conditions in which the probability of the risky option was fixed, and the expected value of the two alternatives was approximately equivalent. The present study also aimed to examine the generality of their findings under additional conditions in which large, medium and small probabilities of the risky option were assigned, and the expected value of the certain or risky options differed. The main findings of Kühberger and Tanner (2010) were successfully replicated and confirmed under the original and additional conditions. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been widely prevalent among older men (aged ≥50 years old) in Sichuan Province. The study aimed to discover associated factors with the new HIV infection in older men, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in this group. A cross-sectional survey study of newly reported HIV/AIDS and general male residents aged 50 years and older was conducted between April and June 2019, with a resample of respondents to identify cases and controls, followed by a case–control study. Logistic regression was applied to analyse the association between the selected factors and new HIV infection among older men. At last, 242 cases and 968 controls were included. The results of multiple logistic regression suggested that many factors including living alone/concentrated (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.20–2.04, P = 0.001), have a history of migrant worker (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.61–2.73, P < 0.001), have commercial sexual behaviour (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.32–2.22, P < 0.001), married (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.37–0.64, P < 0.001), have a history of HIV antibody testing (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56–0.96, P = 0.026), HIV-related knowledge (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.72, P < 0.001) were associated with new HIV infection among older men. The present study revealed some potential risky/protective factors altogether. The results highlighted the direction of HIV/AIDS prevention and control among older men, and it is a social issue that requires the joint participation of the whole society.
Neuromedin U (NMU) has a critical function on the regulation of food intake in mammals, while the information is little in teleost. To investigate the function of NMU on appetite regulation of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), this study first cloned nmu cDNA sequence that encoded 154 amino acids including NMU-25 peptide. Besides, the results showed that nmu mRNA was widely distributed in various tissues especially in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The results of nutritional status (pre-feeding and post-feeding, fasting and re-feeding) experiments showed that nmu mRNA expression was significantly decreased at 1 and 3 h after feeding in different brain regions. Similarly, after feeding, the expression of nmu significantly decreased in peripheral tissues. Moreover, nmu expression in the hypothalamus was significantly increased after fasting 1 d, but decreased after fasting 17 d, which was significantly reversed after re-feeding. However, other brain regions like telencephalon and peripheral tissues like oesophagus, intestinum valvula and liver have different change patterns. Further study showed that acute i.c.v. and i.p. injection of NMU and chronic i.p. injection of NMU significantly reduced the food intake in a dose-dependent mode. In addition, the expressions of several critical appetite factors (nmu, aplein, cart, cck, ghrelin, npy, nucb2, pyy and ucn3) were significantly affected by acute NMU-25 administration in the hypothalamus, intestinum valvula and liver. These results indicate that NMU-25 has the anorexigenic function on food intake by affecting different appetite factors in Siberian sturgeon, which provides a foundation for further exploring the appetite regulation networks in fish.
This paper proposes an aerodynamic analysis of the shuttlecock and a novel method for predicting shuttlecock trajectory. First, we have established a shuttlecock track data set by an infrared-based binocular vision system. Then the unscented Kalman filter algorithm is designed to further filter the noise and visual recognition algorithm errors. Third, the radial basis function (RBF)-based track prediction model is designed. This method offers a concept to obtain the neural network model of different kinds of flying or moving objects. The experimental results show that the proposed method can predict the shuttlecock trajectory in real time at high accuracy and can be used for implementing the algorithm of return strategies in the near future.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
The wheat aphid Sitobion miscanthi (CWA) is an important harmful pest in wheat fields. Insecticide application is the main method to effectively control wheat aphids. However, CWA has developed resistance to some insecticides due to its extensive application, and understanding resistance mechanisms is crucial for the management of CWA. In our study, a new P450 gene, CYP4CJ6, was identified from CWA and showed a positive response to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Transcription of CYP4CJ6 was significantly induced by both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and overexpression of CYP4CJ6 in the imidacloprid-resistant strain was also observed. The sensitivity of CWA to these two insecticides was increased after the knockdown of CYP4CJ6. These results indicated that CYP4CJ6 could be associated with CWA resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Subsequently, the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism was assessed, and miR-316 was confirmed to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of CYP4CJ6. These results are crucial for clarifying the roles of P450 in the resistance of CWA to insecticides.
GPR120 is implicated in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of GPR120 in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). With the adoption of dehydroepiandrosterone, a rat model was established to simulate PCOS in vitro. mRNA and protein expression levels of GPR120 were measured using RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. In addition, expression levels of testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were assessed using the corresponding kits. Moreover, haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect pathological changes in ovary or liver and oil red staining was utilized to evaluate lipid accumulation. In the present study, GPR120 was downregulated in plasma, liver and ovary in the PCOS rat model. In addition, the GPR120 agonist regulated lipid metabolism in the liver and weight in the PCOS rat model. Furthermore, the GPR120 agonist decreased insulin resistance in the PCOS rat model but improved the ovarian function. It is suggested that GPR120 plays a vital role in suppressing insulin resistance, regulating ovary function and decreasing lipid accumulation in the liver, demonstrating that targeting GPR120 could be an effective method for the improvement of PCOS.
Primitive lamprophyres in orogenic belts can provide crucial insights into the nature of the subcontinental lithosphere and the relevant deep crust–mantle interactions. This paper reports a suite of relatively primitive lamprophyre dykes from the North Qiangtang, central Tibetan Plateau. Zircon U–Pb ages of the lamprophyre dykes range from 214 Ma to 218 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 216 ± 1 Ma. Most of the lamprophyre samples are similar in geochemical compositions to typical primitive magmas (e.g. high MgO contents, Mg no. values and Cr, with low FeOt/MgO ratios), although they might have experienced a slightly low degree of olivine crystallization, and they show arc-like trace-element patterns and enriched Sr–Nd isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70538–0.70540, ϵNd(t) = −2.96 to −1.65). Those geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that the lamprophyre dykes originated from partial melting of a phlogopite- and spinel-bearing peridotite mantle modified by subduction-related aqueous fluids. Combining with the other regional studies, we propose that slab subduction might have occurred during Late Triassic time, and the rollback of the oceanic lithosphere induced the lamprophyre magmatism in the central Tibetan Plateau.
We aimed to evaluate the association between coffee and/or tea consumption and breast cancer (BC) risk among premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to conduct a network meta-analysis.
Systematic review and network meta-analysis.
We conducted a systematic review of electronic publications in the last 30 years to identify case–control studies or prospective cohort studies that evaluated the effects of coffee and tea intake.
Forty-five studies that included more than 3 323 288 participants were eligible for analysis. Network meta-analysis was performed to determine the effects of coffee and/or tea consumption on reducing BC risk in a dose-dependent manner and differences in coffee/tea type, menopause status, hormone receptor and the BMI in subgroup and meta-regression analyses. According to the first pairwise meta-analysis, low-dose coffee intake and high-dose tea intake may exhibit efficacy in preventing ER(estrogen receptor)− BC, particularly in postmenopausal women. Then, we performed another pairwise and network meta-analysis and determined that the recommended daily doses were 2–3 cups/d of coffee or ≥5 cups/d of tea, which contained a high concentration of caffeine, particularly in postmenopausal women.
Coffee and tea consumption is not associated with a reduction in the overall BC risk in postmenopausal women and is associated with a potentially lower risk of ER− BC. And the highest recommended dose is 2–3 cups of coffee/d or ≥5 cups of tea/d. They are potentially useful dietary protectants for preventing BC.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Previous studies showed that comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 are risk factors for adverse outcomes. This study aimed to clarify the association between nervous system diseases and severity or mortality in patients with COVID-19. We performed a systematic literature search of four electronic databases and included studies reporting the prevalence of nervous system diseases in COVID-19 patients with severe and non-severe disease or among survivors and non-survivors. The included studies were pooled into a meta-analysis to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We included 69 studies involving 17 879 patients. The nervous system diseases were associated with COVID-19 severity (OR = 3.19, 95%CI: 2.37 to 4.30, P < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 3.75, 95%CI: 2.68 to 5.25, P < 0.001). Specifically, compared with the patients without cerebrovascular disease, patients with cerebrovascular disease infected with COVID-19 had a higher risk of severity (OR = 3.10, 95%CI: 2.21 to 4.36, P < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 3.45, 95% CI: 2.46 to 4.84, P < 0.001). Stroke was associated with severe COVID-19 disease (OR = 1.95, 95%CI: 1.11 to 3.42, P = 0.020). No significant differences were found for the prevalence of epilepsy (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.42 to 2.35, P = 0.994) and dementia (OR = 2.39, 95%CI: 0.55 to 10.48, P = 0.247) between non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. There was no significant association between stroke (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 0.76 to 4.23, P = 0.185), epilepsy (OR = 2.08, 95%CI: 0.08 to 50.91, P = 0.654) and COVID-19 mortality. In conclusion, nervous system diseases and cerebrovascular disease were associated with severity and mortality of patients with COVID-19. There might be confounding factors that influence the relationship between nervous system diseases and COVID-19 severity as well as mortality.
The aim of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of different starvation treatments on the compensatory growth of Acipenser dabryanus. A total of 120 fish (60·532 (sem 0·284) g) were randomly assigned to four groups (fasting 0, 3, 7 or 14 d and then refed for 14 d). During fasting, middle body weight decreased significantly with prolonged starvation. The whole-body and muscle composition, serum biochemical indexes, visceral indexes and digestive enzyme activities had been effected with varying degrees of changes. The growth hormone (GH) level in serum was significantly increased in 14D; however, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) showed the opposite trend. The neuropeptide Y (npy) mRNA level in brain was significantly improved in 7D; peptide YY (pyy) mRNA level in intestine was significantly decreased during fasting. After refeeding, the final body weight, percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio showed no difference between 0D and 3D. The changes of whole-body and muscle composition, serum biochemical indexes, visceral indexes and digestive enzyme activities had taken place in varying degrees. GH levels in 3D and 7D were significantly higher than those in the 0D; the IGF-1 content decreased significantly during refeeding. There was no significant difference in npy and pyy mRNA levels. These results indicated that short-term fasting followed by refeeding resulted in full compensation and the physiological and biochemical effects on A. dabryanus were the lowest after 3 d of starvation and 14 d of refeeding. Additionally, compensation in A. dabryanus may be mediated by appetite genes and GH, and the degree of compensation is also affected by the duration of starvation.
Evidence on the relationship between maternal Hb concentration and spontaneous abortion (SA) risk is limited and conflicting. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether maternal preconception anaemia or high Hb concentration is associated with risk of SA.
A population-based cohort study established between 2013 and 2017.
Local maternal and child care service centres in each county.
In total, 3 971 428 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project from 2013 to 2016 and successfully got pregnant before 2017 in rural China.
A total of 101 700 (2·56 %) women were recorded having SA, with highest SA rate in women with severe anaemia (4·58 %). Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for SA was 1·52 (95 % CI: 1·25, 1·86) for women with Hb < 70 g/l, 0·92 (0·84, 1·01) for 70–99 g/l, 0·80 (0·77, 0·83) for 100–109 g/l, 1·11 (1·08, 1·15) for 150–159 g/l, 1·12 (1·04, 1·20) for 160–169 g/l and 1·02 (0·93, 1·12) for ≥ 170 g/l, respectively. An approximate U-shaped curve for the risk of SA with Hb concentrations was observed when Hb concentrations less than 145 g/l, above which the association plateaued (Pnon-linear < 0·001).
Severe anaemia and high Hb concentration before pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SA. Women with mild anaemia prior to pregnancy had lower risk of SA. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
There is growing evidence that suggests the association of vitamin D status with the development and progression of heart failure (HF). The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, we consecutively recruited patients with HF. Patients were followed prospectively for a median duration of 1 year. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured with competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The endpoints were cardiac events, including CVD death and rehospitalisation for worsening HF. Univariate and multivariable adjustments were performed with Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. The 25(OH)D concentration was obtained in 343 patients with a median value of 17·4 (interquartile range 12·6–23·4) ng/ml. There were 102 cardiac events, including forty-three deaths and fifty-nine rehospitalisations. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis found that the serum concentration 25(OH)D was independently associated with cardiac events (hazard ratio 0·93, 95 % CI 0·88, 0·97) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·89) after adjustment for confounding factors. We divided the HF patients into four groups according to the 25(OH)D quartiles. Kaplan–Meier analysis found that the patients with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration had a higher risk of cardiac events or CVD mortality than those with high serum 25(OH)D concentration (log-rank test P < 0·001 and P = 0·032). Decreased serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were associated with cardiac prognosis and CVD mortality in a Chinese population with HF independent of other baseline HF markers.
This article explores the continuing linguistic impact of the Mandarin Union Version by investigating and contrasting two Chinese translations of William Paul Young's global bestseller The Shack (2007): the Traditional Chinese version Xiaowu (《小屋》, 2009) and the Simplified Chinese version Pengwu (《棚屋》, 2010). Ever since its publication, the Mandarin Union Version has served as the predominant Bible within Mandarin-speaking Protestant communities across the world. This has brought about the standardisation of terminology in Chinese Protestantism. The Shack, though widely marked as a Christian novel, is also known for its unconventional fictional representations of Christianity that some Christians think depart from orthodoxy. Both Xiaowu and Pengwu were published by non-Christian publishing houses for a general readership. However, Xiaowu, translated by a Christian, exhibits a significant number of phrases that specifically belong to Chinese Christian terminology shaped by the Mandarin Union Version. Pengwu is a contrast in this regard. By comparing extracts from these two Chinese versions, this article highlights how far the Mandarin Union Version has contributed to the formation of the linguistic repertoire of Mandarin-speaking Christian translators as well as linguistic norms for translated Christian-themed texts into Chinese.
A kind of novel Ni–P gradient coating/stannate conversion film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy (AZ91D alloy) by an integrative method involved stannate conversion and electroless plating. The results indicated that using sodium hypophosphite concentrations varied as 5, 10, 22, 46, and 60 g/L in the bath, the electroless Ni–P gradient coating with typical cell morphologies was successfully prepared, and the structures transited from crystalline → microcrystalline → amorphous were obtained as increasing P content from 3.31 to 12.58 wt%. Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies, polarization curves, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy substrate was significantly improved and the corrosion resistance of Ni–P gradient coating was superior than that of stannate conversion film, which might be attributed to the gradient structure and rising P content with unique function.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
Al–12.6Si was annealed at both 500 and 560 °C for different lengths of time in this study. Additionally, the effects of annealing treatment on the spheroidization of eutectic Si and the mechanical properties of the Al–Si alloy have been investigated. The morphology of these particles was described using surface shape factor (φ), and it was found that the optimal annealing time of Al–12.6Si at 500 and 560 °C is seven hours and five hours, respectively. The average size of the Si particles in the Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is less than that of the particles at 560 °C. The roundness of the Si particles within the Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is slightly better than that at 560 °C. The elongation of the alloy apparently increases, while the tensile strength of the Al–Si alloy decreases. The tensile strength and elongation of the eutectic Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is higher than that at 560 °C.