To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Evidence on the relationship between maternal Hb concentration and spontaneous abortion (SA) risk is limited and conflicting. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether maternal preconception anaemia or high Hb concentration is associated with risk of SA.
A population-based cohort study established between 2013 and 2017.
Local maternal and child care service centres in each county.
In total, 3 971 428 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project from 2013 to 2016 and successfully got pregnant before 2017 in rural China.
A total of 101 700 (2·56 %) women were recorded having SA, with highest SA rate in women with severe anaemia (4·58 %). Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for SA was 1·52 (95 % CI: 1·25, 1·86) for women with Hb < 70 g/l, 0·92 (0·84, 1·01) for 70–99 g/l, 0·80 (0·77, 0·83) for 100–109 g/l, 1·11 (1·08, 1·15) for 150–159 g/l, 1·12 (1·04, 1·20) for 160–169 g/l and 1·02 (0·93, 1·12) for ≥ 170 g/l, respectively. An approximate U-shaped curve for the risk of SA with Hb concentrations was observed when Hb concentrations less than 145 g/l, above which the association plateaued (Pnon-linear < 0·001).
Severe anaemia and high Hb concentration before pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SA. Women with mild anaemia prior to pregnancy had lower risk of SA. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
There is growing evidence that suggests the association of vitamin D status with the development and progression of heart failure (HF). The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, we consecutively recruited patients with HF. Patients were followed prospectively for a median duration of 1 year. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured with competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The endpoints were cardiac events, including CVD death and rehospitalisation for worsening HF. Univariate and multivariable adjustments were performed with Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. The 25(OH)D concentration was obtained in 343 patients with a median value of 17·4 (interquartile range 12·6–23·4) ng/ml. There were 102 cardiac events, including forty-three deaths and fifty-nine rehospitalisations. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis found that the serum concentration 25(OH)D was independently associated with cardiac events (hazard ratio 0·93, 95 % CI 0·88, 0·97) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·89) after adjustment for confounding factors. We divided the HF patients into four groups according to the 25(OH)D quartiles. Kaplan–Meier analysis found that the patients with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration had a higher risk of cardiac events or CVD mortality than those with high serum 25(OH)D concentration (log-rank test P < 0·001 and P = 0·032). Decreased serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were associated with cardiac prognosis and CVD mortality in a Chinese population with HF independent of other baseline HF markers.
This article explores the continuing linguistic impact of the Mandarin Union Version by investigating and contrasting two Chinese translations of William Paul Young's global bestseller The Shack (2007): the Traditional Chinese version Xiaowu (《小屋》, 2009) and the Simplified Chinese version Pengwu (《棚屋》, 2010). Ever since its publication, the Mandarin Union Version has served as the predominant Bible within Mandarin-speaking Protestant communities across the world. This has brought about the standardisation of terminology in Chinese Protestantism. The Shack, though widely marked as a Christian novel, is also known for its unconventional fictional representations of Christianity that some Christians think depart from orthodoxy. Both Xiaowu and Pengwu were published by non-Christian publishing houses for a general readership. However, Xiaowu, translated by a Christian, exhibits a significant number of phrases that specifically belong to Chinese Christian terminology shaped by the Mandarin Union Version. Pengwu is a contrast in this regard. By comparing extracts from these two Chinese versions, this article highlights how far the Mandarin Union Version has contributed to the formation of the linguistic repertoire of Mandarin-speaking Christian translators as well as linguistic norms for translated Christian-themed texts into Chinese.
A kind of novel Ni–P gradient coating/stannate conversion film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy (AZ91D alloy) by an integrative method involved stannate conversion and electroless plating. The results indicated that using sodium hypophosphite concentrations varied as 5, 10, 22, 46, and 60 g/L in the bath, the electroless Ni–P gradient coating with typical cell morphologies was successfully prepared, and the structures transited from crystalline → microcrystalline → amorphous were obtained as increasing P content from 3.31 to 12.58 wt%. Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies, polarization curves, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy substrate was significantly improved and the corrosion resistance of Ni–P gradient coating was superior than that of stannate conversion film, which might be attributed to the gradient structure and rising P content with unique function.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
Al–12.6Si was annealed at both 500 and 560 °C for different lengths of time in this study. Additionally, the effects of annealing treatment on the spheroidization of eutectic Si and the mechanical properties of the Al–Si alloy have been investigated. The morphology of these particles was described using surface shape factor (φ), and it was found that the optimal annealing time of Al–12.6Si at 500 and 560 °C is seven hours and five hours, respectively. The average size of the Si particles in the Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is less than that of the particles at 560 °C. The roundness of the Si particles within the Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is slightly better than that at 560 °C. The elongation of the alloy apparently increases, while the tensile strength of the Al–Si alloy decreases. The tensile strength and elongation of the eutectic Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is higher than that at 560 °C.
To produce pulses with good flat-top quality, pulse-forming lines (PFLs) have been widely used in the field of Tesla-type pulse generators. To shorten the physical length of the PFL, a double-width PFL (DWPFL) is proposed that doubles the output pulse width while maintaining flat-top quality. A repetitively 10 GW Tesla-type long-pulse generator producing pulses with flat-top width of about 110 ns was developed with a coaxial DWPFL to produce high-current electron beams. Electron beams of about 10 GW with flat-top widths of about 110 ns were obtained on a planar vacuum diode load. With this pulse generator and a C-band high-power microwave system, microwaves of ~2.2 GW power and full-width at half-maximum of 101 ns were generated. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility and ideal output waveform quality of the DWPFL.
Auto-alignment is a basic technique for high-power laser systems. Special techniques have been developed for laser systems because of their differing structures. This paper describes a new sensor for auto-alignment in a laser system, which can also serve as a reference in certain applications. The authors prove that all of the beam transfer information (position and pointing) can theoretically be monitored and recorded by the sensor. Furthermore, auto-alignment with a single lens sensor is demonstrated on a simple beam line, and the results indicate that effective auto-alignment is achieved.
Dementia screening is a public health priority in Taiwan, where the prevalence of dementia is increasing because of an aging population. However, the reasons affect community-dwelling people to accept a referral to memory specialist clinic after dementia screening was still unclear. To investigate the feasibility, acceptability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ascertain dementia 8-item informant questionnaire (AD8) to screen for patients with cognitive impairments in Taiwan's primary healthcare system.
Researchers invited community-dwelling people whose age was above 50-year-old to attend the Memory Screening Project. AD8 was used to perform the informant interview with adult patients who were attending the Memory Screening Project in Taiwan. Individuals who scored ≥2 on the AD8 was suggested to accept referral for further cognitive performance evaluation tests, which included three validated dementia tests, i.e. the Mini-Mental Screening Examination (MMSE), the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR).
Of the 102 participants who scored ≥2 on the AD8, only 25.5% attended the referral appointment. In participants who had achieved six or more years of education, AD8 scores were not significantly different between groups and could not differentiate between the non-dementia and patients with dementia in the receiver-operator characteristics curve analysis. In contrast, in those participants who had received less than six years of education, the AD8 scores significantly differentiated between non-dementia and patients with dementia (p = 0.03).
There was a low rate of attendance at a specialist memory clinic following referral after the AD8 interview. Higher levels of education facilitated individuals to make a decision to accept the recommended referral appointment, while the AD8 showed a higher rate of differentiation between individuals who had received an education of less than six years.
Colistin, a peptide antibiotic belonging to the polymyxin family, is one of the last effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections. Recent discovery of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, from people and food animals has caused a significant public health concern and drawn worldwide attention. Extensive usage of colistin in food animals has been proposed as a major driving force for the emergence and transmission of mcr-1; thus, there is a worldwide trend to limit colistin usage in animal production. However, despite lack of colistin usage in food animals in the USA, mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli isolates were still isolated from swine. In this paper, we provided an overview of colistin usage and epidemiology of mcr-1 in food animals, and summarized the current status of mechanistic and evolutionary studies of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance. Based on published information, we further discussed several non-colistin usage risk factors that may contribute to the persistence, transmission, and emergence of colistin resistance in an animal production system. Filling the knowledge gaps identified in this review is critical for risk assessment and risk management of colistin resistance, which will facilitate proactive and effective strategies to mitigate colistin resistance in future animal production systems.
With the improvement of the bias instability of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscopes, the g-sensitivity error is gradually becoming one of the more important factors that affects the dynamic accuracy of a MEMS gyroscope. Hence there is a need for correcting the g-sensitivity error. However, the traditional calibration of g-sensitivity error uses a centrifuge. The calibration conditions are harsh, the process is complex and the cost is relatively high. In this paper, a fast and simple method of g-sensitivity error calibration for MEMS gyroscopes is proposed. With respect to the bias and random noise of a MEMS gyroscope, the g-sensitivity error magnitude is relatively small and it is simultaneously coupled with the Earth's rotation rate. Therefore, in order to correct the g-sensitivity error, this work models the calibration for g-sensitivity error coefficients, designs an (8+N)-position calibration scheme, and then proposes a fitting method for g-sensitivity error coefficients based on the Newton iteration and least squares methods. Multi-group calibration experiments designed on a MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS IMU) product demonstrate that the proposed method can calibrate g-sensitivity error coefficients and correct the g-sensitivity error effectively and simply.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To further elucidate the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) in the early endometriotic lesion attachment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: EECs were immortalized using a telomerase vector. Immortalized cells and parental cells were characterized by genotyping, and expression of ER-β as well as other epithelial cell markers. ER-β was knocked-down in immortalized EECs using lentivirus-mediated shRNA transduction. ER-β knockdown was confirmed by RT-qPCR and Western analysis. EEC cells with or without ER-β knockdown were used to assess their attachment to PMCs in an established in vitro assay (Lucidi, 2005). Results were analyzed with Student t-test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Genotyping using karyotype assay confirmed a normal chromosomal profile. Also positive staining for cytokeratin and lack of any staining with vimentin confirms the epithelial origin of these cells. ER-β knockdown has a significant decrease in attachment compared to control (p=0.02). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Primary and immortalized cells were 46XX, cytokeratin positive, and vimentin negative confirming their epithelial origin. ER-β knockdown has a significant decrease in attachment compared with control.
One of the most important non-destructive methods for on-site analysis of bronze artifacts is portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). However, bronze artifacts are usually heterogeneous in composition due to, among other things, the segregation of lead, which is hard to be eliminated through annealing treatments. In the present work, Cu-Sn-Pb alloys with homogenous composition and microstructure is fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The suitability of the standard curve using Cu-Sn-Pb alloys by powder metallurgy as the standard samples for XRF on the analysis of bronze artifacts is evaluated. It is shown that this proposed method can be transferred to portable XRF to acquire accurate on-site composition information of bronze artifacts.
In semiconductor system for solar-energy utilization by photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, the effective absorption of visible light and the efficient separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers are still of key importance. In this manuscript, composite photoanodes of PbO sensitized ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by a two-step hydrothermal process and used as anodes for PEC test under visible-light irradiation. The photocurrent achieved the highest value of 94 μA cm−2 at 0.8 V (versus Ag/AgCl electrode) when the amount of Pb source was optimized to form only a thin layer (a few nanometers) of PbO nanoparticles on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods. Such a nanostructure enabled the visible-light absorption, and also ensured the sufficient contact of PbO with ZnO to form junction with a type II band alignment and the sufficient contact with aqueous solution to form interfaces, thus facilitating the excitation, separation, and transfer of charge carriers to generate photocurrent and finally enhancing the PEC activity.
The Virtue Existential Career Model (VEC) is a Chinese career development model based on the Classic of Changes. It is designed to supplement the person-environment fit paradigm of Taiwan's 12-Year Basic Education for junior high school students. We adopted an action research approach with two parts, reflection-on-action and critical-emancipatory. An easy-to-use VEC career curriculum and a career information system (Career Genesis; CG) were developed by a team of staff members from government agencies (Tainan Department of Education and Student Counseling Centers), junior high schools, and the Chinese Career Research Center of National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan. The outcome of this project was strong on fostering interconnectedness. Implementing our VEC curriculum and CG to 30 junior high school students received statistically significant immediate increases in resilience, adaptation, and liking of career decision. The feedback and reflections suggest that mandating, attracting, and simplifying are useful strategies to promote our VEC model as well as to facilitate social change and create a multiple-win situation for all parties involved. This approach also follows the tao (道) of the Classic of Changes to provide new knowledge.
The general nature of the holographic strange metals as discussed in the previous chapter took some time to be appreciated. Triggered by the studies dating from 2007 by Herzog, Kovtun, Sachdev and Son of quantum critical transport which we described in chapter 7, the AdS/CMT development as focussed on quantum matter started in 2008 with the discovery that the RN metal is quite susceptible to spontaneous symmetry breaking: this is the holographic superconductor [347, 348]. What thoroughly accelerated the interest in the condensed matter applications of AdS/CFT was the discovery in 2009 of the “MIT–Leiden fermions” [349, 350]. This will be the topic of this chapter. In hindsight, this was a highlight of the crossdisciplinary exchange between condensed matter physics and string theory. Driven by experimental progress during the last twenty years or so, angular-resolved photoemission (ARPES) (and in principle also its “unoccupied-states sibling” inverse photoemission) has acquired a very prominent status as a means to “observe” strongly interacting systems in solids. It has been further fortified by the quite recent development of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS), which can be seen as the real-space partner of ARPES. Together these spectroscopies have produced a barrage of serendipitous surprises during the last 15 years, and now play a prominent role in the flourishing of the experimental study of the strongly correlated electron systems.
Both methods probe the single-fermion two-point function. For string theorists with their traditional focus on high-energy experimentation and cosmology, the importance of the single-fermion propagator as an observational tool is less obvious. Its unique powers come into play in finite-density systems. Compared with the collective “bosonic” current responses which were in the foreground in the previous two chapters, it yields complementary but yet quite different information regarding the vacuum structure of the interacting system. One advantage is of a rather pragmatic nature. In practice one can measure the bosonic responses often only at small momenta, where general “hydrodynamics” principles tend to equalise the outcomes – see the discussion of zero sound and optical conductivity of the RN metal in section 8.3. On the other hand, photoemission (and its siblings) accesses the full kinematical range associated with the electrons in solids: state-ofthe- art spectrometers probe length scales ranging from multiple nanometres to the sub-Ångström scale and energies ranging from sub-kelvin to electron volts.
A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica notebooks ensures the appeal to students and researchers alike.
This book does not pretend to be a comprehensive treatise of condensed matter physics. This chapter (and the next one) are just intended to lay down a common ground for physicists of various backgrounds relating to the condensed matter aspects of holography. The style will be descriptive, if not sketchy: there will be no boxes with detailed computations and so forth and instead we intend to guide the reader into the condensed matter literature. This chapter is on solid ground, dealing with those aspects of the physics that are at present quite well understood, while being at the same time of relevance to the holographic constructions in the later chapters. In the next chapter we will delve into the unknown where the challenges for holography reside. We do urge also the condensed matter expert to have a look, since the relations with the AdS/CMT results of chapters 6–13 often involve a rather modern understanding of the condensed matter canon, which goes beyond the standard textbooks.
We start with a subject that is regarded as advanced in condensed matter physics, but where the connections with holography are most obvious and unproblematic: the zero-density “bosonic” quantum field theories describing the physics of quantised order-parameter fields (section 2.1). In this long section we will first introduce the repertoire of such theories, emphasising the physical context where they arise. Mainly for synchronisation purposes we will then briefly discuss the popular (in condensed matter) Abelian–Higgs or “(particle–)vortex” duality in 2 + 1 dimensions. We perceive this as an instructive metaphor for the condensed matter physicist to appreciate the weak–strong duality property of the holographic duality. It should also be of interest for the high-energy physicist to learn about the context where such dualities are in the foreground in condensed matter. We then turn to a theme that is at the core of AdS/CMT: the strongly interacting conformal quantum field theories that arise as the effective description of the physics at continuous zero-temperature quantum phase transitions. The quantum critical state realised right at the phase transition is the theatre of the“un-particle physics” which is ruled by the principle of scale (or even conformal) invariance of the quantum dynamics which is also the grand motive underlying much of the holographic description of matter.