To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Iodine intake and excretion vary widely; however, these variations remain a large source of geometric uncertainty. The present study aims to analyse variations in iodine intake and excretion and provide implications for sampling in studies of individuals or populations. Twenty-four healthy women volunteers were recruited for a 12-d sampling period during the 4-week experiment. The duplicate-portion technique was used to measure iodine intake, while 24-h urine was collected to estimate iodine excretion. The mean intra-individual variations in iodine intake, 24-h UIE (24-h urinary iodine excretion) and 24-h UIC (24-h urinary iodine concentration) were 63, 48 and 55 %, respectively, while the inter-individual variations for these parameters were 14, 24 and 32 %, respectively. For 95 % confidence, approximately 500 diet samples or 24-h urine samples should be taken from an individual to estimate their iodine intake or iodine status at a precision range of ±5%. Obtaining a precision range of ±5% in a population would require twenty-five diet samples or 150 24-h urine samples. The intra-individual variations in iodine intake and excretion were higher than the inter-individual variations, which indicates the need for more samples in a study on individual participants.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a serious heart disorder that may induce sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of dilated cardiomyopathy. In previous studies, mutations in more than fifty genes have been identified in dilated cardiomyopathy patients. The purpose of this study was to detect the genetic lesion in a family from the central south of China affected by severe dilated cardiomyopathy.
Whole-exome sequencing combined with cardiomyopathy-related genes list were used to analyse the mutations of the proband. Co-segregation analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing.
Results and conclusions
Two novel heterozygous mutations – Myosin Binding Protein C: p.L1014RfsX6 and Titin: p.R9793X – were identified in the proband. The deletion mutation c.3041delT/p.L1014RfsX6 caused a premature stop codon at position 1020 in exon 28 of the Myosin Binding Protein C. The nonsense mutation, c.29377 C>T/ p. R9793X, of Titin was located in the highly evolutionarily conserved domain, resulting in truncation of the Titin protein as well. Co-segregation analysis further revealed that the Myosin Binding Protein C mutation came from his mother and the Titin mutation came from his father. Both mutations are reported in dilated cardiomyopathy patients for the first time. Our study not only provides a unique example of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in dilated cardiomyopathy but also expands the spectrum of Myosin Binding Protein C and Titin mutations and contributes to the genetic diagnosis and counselling of dilated cardiomyopathy patients.
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
In this paper, numerical simulations of solid particle erosion phenomena on H-type finned circular/elliptic tube surface, which is of great significance to the antiwear design of heat exchanger, are presented. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is applied to simulate the dilute gas-solid flow through H-type finned circular/elliptic tubes. A semi-empirical model is adopted to predict the erosion rate. The dynamics behavior of the entrained solid particles in the flow is presented. The geometry of eroded tube surface is changed with the predicted erosion which is taken into account by a UDF and the flow field is re-solved for the eroded tube surface at every time step. The influences of ten parameters (the tube bundle arrangement, particle size, particle concentration, fluid Reynolds number, fin thickness, fin pitch, fin length, fin width, slit width and the transverse tube pitch) on the maximum erosion depth of the H-type circular/elliptic finned tube surface are investigated. Using H-type finned elliptic tube surface can effectively reduce the erosion rate of tube surface comparedwith that using H-type finned circular tube surface. The erosion in in-line arrangement is less severe than that in staggered arrangement. With the increase of particle size, particle concentration and the fluid Reynolds number, the erosion rate of the tube surface rises. The numerically predicted effect of Reynolds number is in good agreement with previous test data. Among the six geometry parameters, the most influential parameter is the transverse tube pitch.
This paper is devoted to time domain numerical solutions of two-dimensional (2D) material interface problems governed by the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) Maxwell's equations with discontinuous electromagnetic solutions. Due to the discontinuity in wave solutions across the interface, the usual numerical methods will converge slowly or even fail to converge. This calls for the development of advanced interface treatments for popular Maxwell solvers. We will investigate such interface treatments by considering two typical Maxwell solvers – one based on collocation formulation and another based on Galerkin formulation. To restore the accuracy reduction of the collocation finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm near an interface, the physical jump conditions relating discontinuous wave solutions on both sides of the interface must be rigorously enforced. For this purpose, a novel matched interface and boundary (MIB) scheme is proposed in this work, in which new jump conditions are derived so that the discontinuous and staggered features of electric and magnetic field components can be accommodated. The resulting MIB time-domain (MIBTD) scheme satisfies the jump conditions locally and suppresses the staircase approximation errors completely over the Yee lattices. In the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) algorithm – a popular GalerkinMaxwell solver, a proper numerical flux can be designed to accurately capture the jumps in the electromagnetic waves across the interface and automatically preserves the discontinuity in the explicit time integration. The DGTD solution to Maxwell interface problems is explored in this work, by considering a nodal based high order discontinuous Galerkin method. In benchmark TM and TE tests with analytical solutions, both MIBTD and DGTD schemes achieve the second order of accuracy in solving circular interfaces. In comparison, the numerical convergence of the MIBTD method is slightly more uniform, while the DGTD method is more flexible and robust.
The selection of young stellar objects (YSOs) based on excess emission in the infrared is easily contaminated by post-main-sequence stars and various types of emission line stars with similar properties. We define in this paper stringent criteria for an efficient selection and classification of stellar sources with infrared excess emission based on combined Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and AKARI colors.
In order to understand the star formation process under the influence of H ii regions, we have carried out extensive investigations to well selected star-forming regions which all have been profoundly affected by existing massive O type stars. On the basis of multi-wavelength data from mid-infrared to millimeter collected using Spitzer, Herschel, and ground based radio telescopes, the physical status of interstellar medium and star formation in these regions have been revealed. In a relatively large infrared dust bubble, active star formation is undergoing and the shell is still expanding. Signs of compressed gas and triggered star formation have been tentatively detected in a relatively small bubble. The dense cores in the Rosette Molecular Complex detected at 1.1 mm using SMA have been speculated to have a likely triggered origin according to their spatial distribution. Although some observational results have been obtained, more efforts are necessary to reach trustworthy conclusions.
To observe the axial growth behavior of InAs on GaAs nanowires, InAs was grown for different growth durations on GaAs nanowires using Au nanoparticles. Through transmission electron microscopy, we have observed the following evolution steps for the InAs growth. (1) In the initial stages of the InAs growth, InAs cluster into a wedge shape preferentially at an edge of the Au/GaAs interface by minimizing Au/InAs interfacial area; (2) with further growth of InAs, the Au particles move sidewards and then downwards by preserving an interface with GaAs nanowire sidewalls. The lower interfacial energy of Au/GaAs than that of Au/InAs is attributed to be the reason for such Au movement. This downward movement of Au nanoparticle later terminates when the nanoparticle encounters InAs growing radially on the GaAs nanowire sidewalls, and with further supply of In and As vapor reactants, the Au nanoparticles assist the formation of InAs branches. These observations give some insights of vapor-liquid-solid growth and the kinks formation in nanowire heterostructures.
In order to assess the influence of nutrient elements on the accumulation of β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP; the probable cause of lathyrism) in Lathyrus sativus L. (grass pea), it was first examined under field conditions during the lifespan of a grass pea plant using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). β-ODAP mainly accumulated in young seedlings, in developing and mature seeds and in young leaves, especially in young seedlings. In contrast, all mature leaves, roots, and stems showed a low level of β-ODAP. The β-ODAP accumulation pattern in seedlings grown in a nutrient-deficient solution was highest (3·57 mg/g) in shoots at 7 d growing in the nitrogen-deficient solution and higher compared to the control (2·31 mg/g) in zinc-, calcium-, phosphorus- and molybdenum-deficient shoots (P<0·05). The contents of β-ODAP in seedlings growing in other element-deficient solutions were similar to controls. When the content of β-ODAP in grass pea seedlings fertilized with different forms of organic nitrogen was assayed the results indicated that amino acids such as glutamine and serine, as well as nucleotide nitrogen, all significantly enhanced the accumulation of β-ODAP in young seedlings relative to controls (P<0·05). Taken together, these data suggest that β-ODAP accumulation in grass pea might be related to the level of total free nitrogenous compounds and that nitrogen and phosphate may be the crucial nutrient factors influencing β-ODAP content under field conditions. Thus, the application of appropriate nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to the soil could decrease the content of β-ODAP in the seeds and leaves of grass pea.
To differentiate pigs infected with Pseudorabies virus (PrV) from pigs vaccinated with gE-PrV, a glycoprotein E enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gE-ELISA) based on recombinant glycoprotein E (gE) (which was expressed by Escherichia coli, purified, denatured and renatured) was developed. By testing 115 serum samples, the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the developed gE-ELISA were evaluated to be 94.5% and 96.7%, respectively. Five serum samples were tested with plates from five lots, and the results had a coefficient of variation of less than 10%, showing good reproducibility of gE-ELISA. This gE-ELISA was compared with a commercial blocking ELISA by testing 356 serum samples. The agreement rate of the two assays was 92.13% (328/356). These results suggested that the gE-ELISA developed in our laboratory could be used in differentiating PrV-infected and gE-PrV-vaccinated pigs.
Tests were conducted to highlight the effects of donor cell treatment (bovine G0- and non-G0 phase somatic cells refrigerated for 1–5 or 12–14 days at 4°C), fusion solution (with or without cytochalasin B) and age of the rabbit (young, 3–5-months old; or multiparous, 10–12 months old) as oocyte donor on the fusion and mortality rates of bovine–rabbit interspecies reconstructed eggs. Results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in fusion and mortality rates of eggs reconstructed with G0 cells or non-G0 cells as nuclear donor somatic cells. The same was also true when nuclear donor somatic cells (G0 cells or non-G0 cells) were treated at low temperature (4°C) for 1–5 or 12–14 days. The fusion rate of reconstructed eggs did not change significantly (P>0.05) when adding cytochalasin B into the fusion solution, but the mortality rate increased significantly (P<0.05). No significant effect (P>0.05) was found in fusion rate of the eggs reconstructed with young rabbits' and multiparous rabbits' oocytes as recipient, but the mortality rate decreased significantly (P<0.01) for young rabbit oocytes compared with multiparous rabbit ones.
BaSO4 nanotubes were biomimetically synthesized by the combined assembly of eggshell membrane and C12H25SH. The products were tubular structure with the external diameter of 90–140 nm and the length of 1.5–2.5 μm. The formation mechanism was also investigated. It provided a novel method for the fabrication of inorganic oxysalt nanotubes.
Phenolic resin and tetraethoxysilane were used to prepare a binary carbonaceous silicon xerogel, the precursor of silicon carbide (SiC). By employing different additives in the sol-gel process, a series of xerogel precursors with differently chemical composition were obtained. Heating these xerogels to 1250°C, nanostructured β-SiC with various morphologies including nanowires, nanofibers, nanoparticles and mesoporous SiC were produced via carbothermal reduction. The preparation method of the xerogels was presented and the influences of different additives on the sol-gel process and the SiC formation were discussed in this paper.
Crystallographic data for Ni0.41Zn0.60Cu0.01Fe2.04−xSbxO4+δ (0.01≤x≤0.12) ferrites are significantly influenced by small additions of antimony. XRD analysis reveals that changes in crystal data for small Sb substitutions differ markedly from those for greater Sb substitutions. The differences are due to the contribution of the Sb ion. Complete crystal data for six solid solution compositions are reported. An X-ray powder diffraction pattern for Ni0.41Zn0.60Cu0.02Sn0.01Fe2.02Sb0.02O4+δ is given.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.