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High inductive helical support provides a solution to controlling the alignment error of inner electrodes in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were performed to examine the current loss mechanism and the effects of structural parameters on electron flow in an MITL with a helical inductor. An empirical expression related to the ratio of electron current loss to anode current and the ratio of anode current to self-limited current was obtained. Electron current loss caused by helical inductor with different structures was displayed. The results indicate that the current loss in an MITL, near an inductive helical support, comprises both the inductor current and the electron current loss. The non-uniform structure and current of a helical inductor cause an abrupt change in the magnetic field near the helical support, which leads to anomalous behavior and current loss of electron flow. In addition, current loss in the inductive helical-supported MITL is negligible when the inductance of the support is sufficiently high. This work facilitates the estimation of electron current loss caused by the inductive helical support in MITLs.
Spray-painting equipments are important for the automatic spraying of long conical objects such as rocket fairing. This paper proposes a spray-painting equipment that consists of a feed worktable, a gantry frame and two serial–parallel mechanisms and investigates the optimal design of PRR–PRR parallel manipulator in serial–parallel mechanisms. Based on the kinematic model of the parallel manipulator, the conditioning performance, workspace and accuracy performance indices are defined. The dynamic model is derived using virtual work principle and dynamic evaluation index is defined. The conditioning performance, workspace, accuracy performance and dynamic performance are involved in multi-objective optimization design to determine the optimal geometrical parameters of the parallel manipulator. Furthermore, the geometrical parameters of the gantry frame are optimized. An example is given to show how to determine these parameters by taking a long object with conical surface as painted object.
Radiocarbon (14C) has become a unique and powerful tracer in source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particles. In this study, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) held in Beijing in 2014 was used as a demonstration to research the source apportionment of atmosphere PM2.5. We used a 200 kV single stage accelerator mass spectrometer recently completed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PM2.5 samples related to above case were collected, and the characteristics of radiocarbon in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in samples were analyzed using the AMS. The results show that the Before-APEC pollution emission mode is different from the During-APEC and After-APEC pollution emission modes. For Before-APEC, During-APEC and After-APEC, the average values of fossil carbon fraction of OC are 0.463, 0.431 and 0.615, respectively, and those of EC are 0.644, 0.561 and 0.687. The fossil source contributions of traffic activities using fossil fuels to OC and EC are 15.8 % and 21.9 %, respectively. The fossil source contributions of industrial activities to OC and EC are 38.0 % and 8.2 %, respectively. It is about 7–10 days that is needed to take to regenerate the PM2.5 pollution caused by human activities.
The regeneration of human tissues with complex anatomy such as gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains greatly challenging since it requires appropriate cell microenvironments with well-defined structural and biochemical cues. In this investigation, bilayer scaffolds consisting of different polymer nanofibers with orthogonal fiber orientations were prepared, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were encapsulated separately. The bilayer scaffolds have similar architecture to the anatomy of the GI tract and can achieve dual releases of VEGF and PDGF in sequential and sustained manners, which hold promise as appropriate cell microenvironments for promoting the regeneration of the GI tract.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
The fenofibrate functions in mammals could be affected by many factors such as dietary nutrient levels and physiological status. However, this phenomenon has not been well studied in fish. The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of dietary protein contents on metabolic regulation of fenofibrate in Nile tilapia. An 8-week experiment was conducted to feed fish with four diets at two protein levels (28% and 38%) with or without the supplementation of fenofibrate (200 mg/kg body weight/day). After the trial, the body morphometric parameters, plasma biochemical parameters and qPCR data were examined. These results showed that fenofibrate significantly reduced the feeding intake and weight gain rate, increased the oxidative stress (increased plasma methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, MDA) and liver/body ratio (increased hepatosomatic index, HSI) in the LP (low protein)-fed fish. In contrast, fenofibrate exhibited a lipid-lowering (reduced hepatic lipid) effect and up-regulated the expressions of the genes related to lipid catabolism, transport and anabolic metabolism in the HP (high protein) fed-fish. The present study suggested that lipid-lowering effect of fenofibrate would be strengthened in the fish fed with HP diet containing high energy, but in the fish fed with the LP diet containing low energy, the fenofibrate treatment would cause adverse effects for metabolism. Taking together, our study showed that the metabolic regulation of fenofibrate in Nile tilapia was not only dependent on feed energy content, but also dependent on dietary nutrient composition, such as dietary protein and/or lipid levels.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently revealed that a variant of microRNA 137 (MIR137) shows a quite significant association with schizophrenia. Identifying the network of genes regulated by MIR137 could provide insights into the biological processes underlying schizophrenia. In addition, DLPFC functional connectivity, a robust correlate of MIR137, may provide plausible endophenotypes. However, the regulatory role of the MIR137 gene network in the disrupted functional connectivity remains unclear. Here, we tested the effects of the MIR137 regulated genes on the risk for schizophrenia and DLPFC functional connectivity.
To evaluate the additive effects of the MIR137 regulated genes (N = 1274), we calculated a MIR137 polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia and tested its association with the risk for schizophrenia in the genomic data of a Han Chinese population that included schizophrenia patients (N = 589) and normal controls (N = 575). We then investigated the association between MIR137 PRS and DLPFC functional connectivity in two independent young healthy cohorts (N = 356 and N = 314).
We found that the MIR137 PRS successfully captured the differences in genetic structure between the patients and controls, but the single gene MIR137 did not. We then consistently found that a higher MIR137 PRS was correlated with lower functional connectivities between the DLPFC and both the superior parietal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex in two independent cohorts.
The findings suggested that these two functional connectivities of the DLPFC could be important endophenotypes linking the MIR137-regulated genetic structure to schizophrenia.
The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Rats with a normal birth weight (NBW) or IUGR were fed basic diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic diets supplemented with curcumin (NBW-C and IUGR-C groups) from 6 to 12 weeks. Rats with IUGR showed higher levels of glucose and homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) (P<0.05) than in NBW group. The livers of IUGR rats exhibited higher (P<0.05) concentration of triglyceride and lower (P<0.05) activities of lipolysis enzymes compared with the normal rats. In response to dietary curcumin supplementation, concentrations of serum insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR, pyruvate, triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid in the liver were decreased (P<0.05). The concentrations of glycogen and activities of lipolysis enzymes in the liver were increased (P<0.05) in the IUGR-C group than in the IUGR group. These results were associated with lower (P<0.05) phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and expressions of sterol regulatory element binding proteins 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN); decreased expressions for Cd36, Srebf1 and Fasn; increased (P<0.05) expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and expressions for Ppara and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) in the liver of IUGR-C rats than the IUGR rats. Maternal malnutrition caused insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in the liver. Curcumin supplementation prevented insulin resistance by regulating insulin signaling pathways and attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation.
The research of high-performance flexible supercapacitors is urgent due to the rapid development of wearable and portable electronics. The key challenge is the preparation of flexible electrodes with high areal capacitance since electrodes are the most important part of supercapacitors. Compared to those conventional electrodes loading with typical flexible substrates such as textile, PET, paper et al, free-standing electrodes have many advantages such as more efficient capacity contribution, solidly embedded active materials and thinner thickness. Herein, we have successfully fabricated a novel sandwich-like structure free-standing MoO3-rGO (reduced graphene oxide) composite film electrode for flexible supercapacitors using simple vacuum filtration method followed by HI reduction process. The obtained MoO3-rGO composite film electrode shows excellent electrochemical performance, whose areal specific capacitance reaches 8972 mF·cm-2 (1.5 mA·cm-2). Here, MoO3 provides pseudocapacitance and rGO provides double-layer capacitance. After cycling for 2000 cycles, the capacity retention is 86.7%, showing good cycle stability. Besides, the as-prepared composite film has good flexibility and will not break easily during following bending, rolling, folding or twisting steps. This study has been approved to be an important step for the high-performance electrode design for free-standing flexible supercapacitors.
Geochronological, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data are reported for the monzonitic rocks of the Fushan pluton in the Taihang Mountains, central North China Craton, in order to investigate their sources, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating results reveal that the Fushan pluton was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous (∼126–124 Ma). The monzonites and quartz monzonites are mainly characterized by calc-alkaline and magnesian features and display light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with slightly positive Eu anomalies. They have similar whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70653–0.70819), εNd(t) values (−13.6 to −18.6) and zircon εHf(t) values (−21.8 to −17.3). The primary magma of the Fushan pluton was derived from the partial melting of a spinel-facies amphibole-bearing ancient enriched lithospheric mantle. The monzonitic rocks also have high Ba–Sr and low Y and Yb contents, with high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. These geochemical features of monzonitic rocks are not only inherited from the magma source but also significantly enhanced by crystal fractionation during magmatic evolution; e.g. hornblende fractionation increased the Ba–Sr concentrations and Sr/Y ratios. During the Early Cretaceous, the slab sinking and roll-back of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate could have created an ancient big mantle wedge beneath East Asia and induced a lithospheric extensional process in the central North China Craton within an intracontinental setting.
This study proposes two multimodal frameworks to classify pathological voice samples by combining acoustic signals and medical records. In the first framework, acoustic signals are transformed into static supervectors via Gaussian mixture models; then, a deep neural network (DNN) combines the supervectors with the medical record and classifies the voice signals. In the second framework, both acoustic features and medical data are processed through first-stage DNNs individually; then, a second-stage DNN combines the outputs of the first-stage DNNs and performs classification. Voice samples were recorded in a specific voice clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital, including three common categories of vocal diseases, i.e. glottic neoplasm, phonotraumatic lesions, and vocal paralysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework yields significant accuracy and unweighted average recall (UAR) improvements of 2.02–10.32% and 2.48–17.31%, respectively, compared with systems that use only acoustic signals or medical records. The proposed algorithm also provides higher accuracy and UAR than traditional feature-based and model-based combination methods.
In this work, a new phenylethylene derivative, named 2-((3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)(p-tolyl)methylene)malononitrile (DCPTMM), is synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrum, and X-ray crystallography. Its photophysical properties are systematically studied and the result illustrates that DCPTMM shows aggregation-induced emission (AIE). The X-ray single crystal diffraction shows that the individual structure of crystals is monoclinic system with space group symbol P21/c and presents a twisted propeller-type structure as well as the packing structure of crystals has multiple types of hydrogen bonds (C–H⋯π and C–H⋯N) formed between adjacent molecules, and there is no π–π interaction between the aromatic rings, which is the main reason for the formation of AIE. Nondoped OLED fabricated with DCPTMM as light emitting layer emits greenish yellow light with a maximum emission peak of 554 nm and has relatively good performance with a maximum current efficiency of 5.53 cd/A and a maximum brightness of 6936 cd/m2.
Suicide attempt is an important indicator of suicide and potential future mortality. However, the prevalence of suicide attempts has been inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia and associated correlates.
Relevant publications in Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of science and Cochrane were systematically searched. Data on the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia were pooled using a random-effects model.
Thirty-five studies with 16 747 individuals with schizophrenia were included. The pooled lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 26.8% (95% CI 22.1–31.9%; I2 = 97.0%), while the 1-year prevalence, 1-month prevalence and the prevalence of suicide attempts from illness onset were 3.0% (95% CI 2.3–3.7%; I2 = 95.6%), 2.7% (95% CI 2.1–3.4%; I2 = 78.5%) and 45.9% (95% CI 42.1–49.9%; I2 = 0), respectively. Earlier age of onset (Q = 4.38, p = 0.04), high-income countries (Q = 53.29, p < 0.001), North America and Europe and Central Asia (Q = 32.83, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of suicide attempts.
Suicide attempts are common in individuals with schizophrenia, especially those with an early age of onset and living in high-income countries and regions. Regular screening and effective preventive measures should be implemented as part of the clinical care.
The NE–NNE-trending Yuan-Ma Basin in central South China, an overprinted basin, is important for understanding the transition in Mesozoic intracontinental deformation in South China from compressional to extensional settings. A detailed sedimentary and structural cross-section across the basin reveals the Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic black coal-bearing shale, greyish-green sandstone and brick-red claystone, and the Middle Jurassic brick-red sandstone, pebbly sandstone and conglomerate in the eastern segment of the basin. The Lower Cretaceous brick-red coarse sandstone, pebbly sandstone and siltstone occurred in the western and central segments, as well as fault breccia and Lower Cretaceous sandstone at the western margin of the basin. Detrital zircon U–Pb dating by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry shows that the magmatic and metamorphic zircons yield significant age clusters at 900–700, 500–350 and 300–150 Ma, as well a minor age cluster at 120–100 Ma. Synthesizing the stratigraphic sequences, structures, isotopic dating results and palaeocurrent data, we infer that the Yuan-Ma Basin experienced three evolutionary stages and tectonic settings: (1) during Late Triassic – Early Jurassic time, the Yuan-Ma Basin was related to the diachronous progressive intracontinental deformation as a result of the early Mesozoic Xuefeng intracontinental orogeny in South China; (2) during Middle–Late Jurassic time, the Yuan-Ma Basin was related to intracontinental compression in South China; and (3) during late Early Cretaceous time, the Yuan-Ma Basin was constrained by the intracontinental extension that occurred in eastern China. These three stages, a result of various tectonic regimes, caused the intracontinental deformation that was controlled by the evolution of the continents and their margins.