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In this study, coatings containing Ca and P elements on Ti6Al4V alloy were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation at different applied voltages. Subsequently, evaluation of the phase structure, morphology, element composition, corrosion mechanism, and tribocorrosion behavior of these coatings was performed. The results showed that the coatings consisted of rutile TiO2 and anatase TiO2. The ratio of rutile/anatase, surface roughness, and hardness increase with the increase of applied voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated the corrosion resistance of coatings in simulated body fluid of 400 V > 380 V > 420 V. The open circuit potential of sample 400 V declined during the tribocorrosion test. Sample 420 V possessed the highest wear volume after the tribocorrosion process. The tribocorrosion mechanism of samples 380 and 420 V was mainly confirmed as the wear effect, and the decline of corrosion resistance due to the micro-cracks formed during the abrasive wear of the coating accounts for the tribocorrosion mechanism of sample 400 V.
Adolescents have been largely neglected from tuberculosis control efforts. In low- to medium burden settings much of the tuberculosis burden in this age group occurs from school outbreaks. We report on a large tuberculosis outbreak in adolescents from a boarding high school in Jiangsu Province, China. From March to June 2018, a tuberculosis outbreak occurred in a boarding high school. We conducted an outbreak investigation involving clinical diagnostic tests and molecular analysis to determine the outbreak origin. Cases were detected through symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing (TST), chest radiography, sputum smear, solid sputum culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping and spoligotyping methods were performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates to identify the outbreak origin. A total of 845 students and 131 teachers/staff attended a TST screening for tuberculosis infection. The prevalence of elevated tuberculin reactions at ≥5, ≥10 and ≥15 mm was 12.19% (119/976), 6.35% (62/976) and 3.28% (32/976), respectively. Radiographic abnormalities were present in 5.73% (56 of 976) individuals, 40 students and 16 teachers/staff. Of these, 12 students were diagnosed with confirmed tuberculosis. In total, 14 students (two index cases and 12 confirmed cases) were diagnosed and reported in the tuberculosis outbreak, an attack rate of 1.7% (14/847) among students (two index cases and 845 screened students). Results from MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping analyses demonstrated that three M. tuberculosis strains belong to the Beijing family with corresponding MIRU-VNTR alleles. This school-based tuberculosis outbreak among adolescents demonstrates that transmission among individuals in this age group is common and must be prioritised. It suggests that identifying and timely diagnosis of smear-positive cases, especially in the early phase of outbreaks, is the key to preventing further spread among close contacts.
Facilitated by the establishment of terrestrial networks and satellite constellations of Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers, large quantities of spatial and temporal information that trace ships' paths have been collected. The exponential increase in the amount of AIS data has caused expensive and time-consuming transmission, calculation and storage problems. Using appropriate trajectory simplification methods in a timely manner to compress redundant information while minimising the loss of importation information is important. To minimise the simplification error, this paper proposes an online multi-dimensional simplification algorithm for AIS trajectory streaming data. The simplification algorithm takes into account position, direction and speed preservation. Finally, a comparison experiment with other algorithms is made to examine the effectiveness of this algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed online multi-dimensional simplification algorithm can effectively preserve a ship's motion state, including its position, speed and course.
North-east China occupies an important geographic position for understanding the process of Neolithisation in East Asia. Although archaeologists have long debated the trajectory of change in this region, a lack of intensive survey and excavation has precluded convincing interpretations. This article presents research on the newly excavated sites of Huayang and Taoshan in the southern Lesser Khingan Mountains, with a particular focus on the lithic assemblages. Comparative and environmental analyses demonstrate the largely uniform trajectory of lithic technologies across north-east China and close correspondence with Late Glacial palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental changes.
In this paper a one-dimensional numerical study on the nonlinear behaviour of an electrically charged jet of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic, Taylor–Melcher leaky dielectric liquid is carried out. The effect of surface charge level, axial wavenumber and finite conductivity on the nonlinear evolution of the jet is investigated. Different structures including beads-on-a-string with/without satellite droplets, quasi-spikes and spikes are detected, and their domains in the plane of the non-dimensional axial wavenumber and the electrical Bond number are illustrated. The underlying mechanisms in the formation of the structures are examined. It is found that tangential electrostatic force plays a key role in the formation of a quasi-spike structure. Decreasing liquid conductivity may lead to a decrease in the size of satellite droplets or even the complete removal of them from a beads-on-a-string structure, induce the transition from a beads-on-a-string to a quasi-spike structure or postpone the appearance of a spike. On the other hand, finite conductivity has little influence on filament thinning in a beads-on-a-string structure, owing to the fact that the electrostatic forces are of secondary importance compared with the capillary force. The difference between the finite conductivity, large conductivity and other cases is elucidated. An experiment is carried out to observe spike structures.
Siliceous-sulphate rock coatings were observed at Zhenzhu Spring, an acid sulphate hot spring in the Tengchong volcanic field, China. These rock coatings are mainly formed of gypsum and amorphous silica. Some alum-(K), voltaite, α-quartz and muscovite were also found. Four different laminae are developed in the rock coatings: gypsum layer, tight siliceous layer, tabular siliceous layer and siliceous debris layer. The gypsum layer is located at the top of the rock coatings, while other siliceous layers appear below the gypsum layer. Geochemical modelling of the fluids was performed to identify the mechanisms responsible for the formation of gypsum and amorphous silica. The results indicated that the occurrence of gypsum is related to the acid-fog deposition and amorphous silica mainly originates from spring water. Fog deposition provided the rock coatings with abundant SO42− and Ca, and the subsequent complete evaporation of the condensed fluids produced gypsum. Seasonal climate change (especially variation in rainfall) determines the fluctuations of capillary action and dissolution. Rainfall events in the wet season led to periods of non-precipitating gypsum and promoted the capillary rise of the spring water. Slightly diluted capillary water (a small amount of rainwater) covered the rock coatings, formed a tight siliceous layer on the rock-coating surface and/or filled the pores among the gypsum crystals forming many tabular siliceous aggregates. Heavy rainfall (high dilution), however, resulted in non-precipitating amorphous silica and accelerated the gypsum dissolution, leaving tabular pores around tabular siliceous aggregates and forming a tabular siliceous layer.
The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of learning engagement on the relationship between social networking site (SNS) addiction and academic achievement among 406 university students. The Social Networking Site Addiction Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students, and Chinese Students Academic Achievement Scale were used to evaluate students’ SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement. Correlation analysis indicated that SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement were significantly correlated with each other. The causal steps regression and bootstrap analysis show that learning engagement mediated the relationship between SNS addiction and academic achievement. Implications for research and instructions for how to improve university students’ academic achievement are discussed.
The second home-made single stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) system dedicated to radiocarbon (14C) measurements was built after the first SSAMS system was moved to Guangxi Normal University. With some improvements to the second SSAMS system, the performance has been improved. With the conditions of total ion energy of 200KeV, ions charge states of 1+ and helium as stripper gas, 14C measurements with precision of 0.5% and a background level of 0.5 pMC were achieved. Details of the system and the experimental performance are given here.
BiCuTeO is a potential thermoelectric material owing to its low thermal conductivity and high carrier concentration. However, the thermoelectric performance of BiCuTeO is still below average and has much scope for improvement. In this study, we manipulated the nominal oxygen content in BiCuTeO and synthesized BiCuTeOx (x = 0.94–1.06) bulks by a solid-state reaction and pelletized them by a cold-press method. The power factor was enhanced by varying the nominal oxygen deficiency due to the increased Seebeck coefficient. The thermal conductivity was also reduced due to the decrease in lattice thermal conductivity owing to the small grain size generated by the optimal nominal oxygen content. Consequently, the ZT value was enhanced by ∼11% at 523 K for stoichiometric BiCuTeO0.94 compared to BiCuTeO. Thus, optimal oxygen manipulation in BiCuTeO can enhance the thermoelectric performance. This study can be applied to developing oxides with high thermoelectric performances.
Little is known of the olfactory mechanisms of host detection in the ovipositors of endoparasitoids and ectoparasitoids. An endoparasitoid Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and an ectoparasitoid Quadrastichus mendeli Kim & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are the two parasitoids of the eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe spp. Structures and sense organs of ovipositors of A. causalis and Q. mendeli were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, which provided essential information for exploring the mechanism of host detection by endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid. The ovipositors of two parasitoids consisted of the first and second valvulae and ended in a pointed tip. There were three types of microtrichia, two types of sensilla chaetica, and one type of sensilla campaniformia on the ovipositors of A. causalis and Q. mendeli. However, Q. mendeli has the fourth type of microtrichia on the ovipositor. The morphology, types, distribution, length, and width of these sensilla and microtrichia were described, and their possible functions are discussed in conjunction with the stinging, oviposition, and the host selection process.
In this paper, we consider a nonlinear elliptic system which is an extension of the single equation derived by investigating the stationary states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Dirichlet problem on the ball and entire space as the parameters within certain regions. In addition, a complete structure of different types of solutions for the radial case is also provided.
The Zhenzhu Spring, located in the Tengchong volcanic field, Yunnan, China, is an acid hot spring with high SO42− concentrations and intense acid aerosol generation. In order to understand the formation mechanism of sulfate minerals at the Zhenzhu Spring and provide a better insight into the sulfur isotope geochemistry of the associated Rehai hydrothermal system, we investigated the spring water hydrochemistry, mineralogy and major-element geochemistry of sulfate minerals at the Zhenzhu Spring together with the sulfur-oxygen isotope geochemistry of sulfur-containing materials at the Rehai geothermal field and compared the isotope results with those in other steam-heated environments. Subaerial minerals include a wide variety of sulfate minerals (gypsum, alunogen, pickeringite, tamarugite, magnesiovoltaite and a minor Mg–S–O phase) and amorphous SiO2. The δ34S values of the subaerial sulfate minerals at the Zhenzhu Spring varied subtly from –0.33 to 1.88‰ and were almost consistent with the δ34S values of local H2S (–2.6 to 0.6‰) and dissolved SO42− (–0.2 to 5.8‰), while the δ18O values (–8.94 to 20.1‰) were between that of the spring waters (–10.19 to –6.7‰) and atmospheric O2 (~23.88‰). The results suggest that most of the sulfate minerals are derived from the oxidation of H2S, similar to many sulfate minerals from modern steam-heated environments. However, the rapid environmental change (different ratio of atmospheric and water oxygen) at the Zhenzhu Spring accounts for the large variation of δ18O. The formation of subaerial sulfate minerals around the Zhenzhu Spring is related to acid aerosols (vapour and acid water droplets). The intense activity of spring water around vents supply the aerosol with H2SO4 (H2S oxidation and acid water droplets formed by bubble bursting) and few cations. Deposition of the acid sulfate aerosol forms the acid condensate, which attacks the underlying rocks and releases many cations and anions to form subaerial sulfate minerals at the Zhenzhu Spring.
To compare the growth and biosynthetic ability of long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) of the genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) (Oreochromis niloticus) in different water salinities, an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on the GIFT juveniles at 0, 12 and 24 ‰ (parts per thousand; ppt), respectively, with three isonitrogenous (32 %) and isolipidic (8 %) diets (D1–D3). Diet D1 with fish oils (rich in LC-PUFA) as lipid source was used as the control, while D2 and D3 with vegetable oil (free LC-PUFA) blends as lipid source contained different ratios of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3) at 4·04 (D2) and 0·54 (D3), respectively. At the end of feeding trial, the growth performance of D2 and D3 groups under all salinity treatments was as good as that of D1 group, which indicates that the GIFT juveniles may convert dietary LA and ALA into LC-PUFA to meet the requirement of essential fatty acids for normal growth and physiology. When fed the same diets, GIFT at 12 ppt had a better growth performance coupled with a higher liver and muscle arachidonic acid content than those in freshwater. Furthermore, brackish water (24 ppt) significantly promoted the mRNA levels of elongase 5 of very long-chain fatty acids (elovl5) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (pparα) in liver, when compared with freshwater. These results suggest that the GIFT may display better growth performance together with a relatively higher endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic ability under brackish water (12 and 24 ppt), probably through improving the expression of elovl5 and pparα in liver.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Written word recognition in Chinese links the perception of individual characters with whole words. With experience in reading, a high-quality word representation can provide top-down influence on the perception of its constituent characters, thus producing a word superiority effect (WSE). In experiments using the Reicher–Wheeler paradigm, we examined the WSE in two-character words for native Chinese readers (Experiment 1) and low-proficiency adult Chinese learners with Thai (Experiment 2a) and Indonesian (Experiment 2b) as native language backgrounds. For native Chinese readers, the WSE was smaller for high-frequency than low-frequency characters, reflecting rapid access to more frequently experienced characters and a consequent reduction of top-down word-level effects. Learners of Chinese, however, showed a strong WSE for both low-frequency and high-frequency characters, reflecting less well-established character representations combined with word-level knowledge sufficient to support character recognition. The results suggest that native Chinese readers develop strong representations at both the character and the word level, while low-proficiency Chinese learners are more dependent on the word level. We discuss the possibility that a word-level emphasis Chinese foreign language instruction is one reason for this pattern.
In this paper new materials and substrate approaches are discussed which have potential to provide (Al)GaN buffers with a better crystal quality, higher critical electrical field, or thickness and have the potential to offer co-integration of GaN switches at different reference potentials, while maintaining lower wafer bow and maintaining complementary metal–oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. Engineered silicon substrates, silicon on insulator (SOI) and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)-matched substrates have been investigated and benchmarked with respect to each other. SOI and CTE-matched offer benefits for scaling to higher voltage, while a trench isolation process combined with an oxide interlayer substrate allows co-integration of GaN components in a GaN-integrated circuit (IC).
Environmental characteristics (for example, temperature, photoperiod) as seasonal cues can affect the offspring sex ratio and reproductive tactics of many hymenopteran insects. Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle is the most critical invasive insect pest of Eucalyptus spp. in the world and displays thelytokous reproduction. In the current study, we studied the effects of temperature and photoperiod on offspring sex ratio and reproductive tactics in L. invasa. Results show that sex ratio (female: male) of L. invasa was under 15, 25 and 35 °C with both L 12: D 12 and L 16: D 8, and cold and thermal acclimation were 74.5:1, 71.0:1, 59.0:0, 17.3:1, 53.0:0, 64.0:0, 47.0:1 and 56.0:0, respectively, which was highly significantly female biased and with no significant difference due to temperature or photoperiod. Offspring virgin females oviposited and induced the bump-shaped galls on plants under the same conditions as described above. Constant temperature, photoperiod and their interaction, and cold and thermal acclimation had no significant effect on the infestation rates of Eucalyptus branches induced by offspring virgin females. Thus, temperature, photoperiod and cold and thermal acclimation did not influence female-biased sex ratio and tactics with thelytokous reproduction of offspring females in L. invasa.
An analytical method is proposed to reduce the memory effects and third-order intermodulation distortions for improving the linearity of wideband power amplifier (PA). An excellent linearity can be obtained by reducing the second-harmonic output power levels and reducing the envelope voltage components in the megahertz range. An improved wideband Chebyshev low-pass matching network including the bias network is analyzed and designed to validate the proposed method. The measured results indicate that a wideband high-efficiency linearized PA is realized from 1.35 to 2.45 GHz (fractional bandwidth = 58%) with power added efficiency of 60–78%, power gain of 10.8–12.3 dB, and output power of 40.0–41.2 dBm. For a 20 MHz LTE modulated signal, the adjacent channel leakage ratios (ACLRs) of the proposed PA with digital pre-distortion (DPD) linearization are −55.7 ~ −53.9 dBc across 1.5–2.4 GHz at an average output power of 32.4–33.6 dBm. For a 40 MHz two-carrier LTE modulated signal, the ACLRs of the proposed PA with DPD linearization are −51.1 ~ −48.2 dBc at an average output power of ~30.5 dBm in the frequency range from 1.5 GHz to 2.4 GHz.
To investigate the effects of both non-meltwater and meltwater-related post-depositional processes on chemical species within the snow–firn pack, a research program, the Program for Glacier Processes Investigation, was initiated in July 2002 by the Tien Shan Glaciological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The seasonal variability of the ionic concentrations in surface snow samples and ion elution behavior in the snow–firn pack were assessed from surface samples collected year-round and 1011 samples collected from a snow pit at weekly intervals from September 2003 through September 2004. The results indicate that elevated ionic concentrations in spring and summer result from Asian dust-storm-derived aerosol input and other aerosols entrained in precipitation. Potential sources of these chemical species are explored using correlation and factor analyses. The elution sequence through the snow–firn pack was determined to be SO42– >Ca2+> Na+>NO3− >Cl−>K+> Mg2+ >NH4+. The elution of ions at the sampling site was found to be driven primarily by air temperature and became evident when a diurnal mean temperature of –3.6˚C was attained. At 0.3˚C all of the year-round new ionic input was leached from the snow.
The processes involved in the evolution of vertical profiles of Mg2+, Ca2+ and microparticle concentrations, as well as their seasonal variation in surface snow, were studied by weekly sampling from September 2003 to September 2004 of a snow pit on Ürümqi glacier No. 1, eastern Tien Shan, China. The development of the microparticle and Mg2+ and Ca2+ stratigraphy in the snow pit is closely related to the physical development of the snow–firn pack. The sampling site is located at 4130 ma.s.l. in the percolation zone of the glacier, and in addition to the effects of sublimation and wind erosion, melting plays a crucial role in both the physical and chemical evolution processes. During the winter, soluble aerosol concentrations in the surface layers are altered slightly by sublimation and wind erosion, and the concentrations are further modified as the wet season begins in late April. In contrast, soluble aerosol stratigraphy in the deeper layers remains relatively unchanged through the winter. In early summer, as melting occurs in the upper part of the snow–firn pack, meltwater carries chemical species to different depths in the underlying snow–firn layers, such that at the end of the ablation season, all of the surface cations might be leached out from the upper layers. In addition, the possible source of calcium and magnesium is discussed in this paper.