To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Robots often need to accomplish some complex tasks such as surveillance, response and obstacle avoidance. In this paper, a dynamic search method is proposed to generate optimal robot trajectories satisfying complex task requirement in uncertain environment. The LTL-A* algorithm is presented to generate a global optimal path and the A* algorithm is provided to modify the global optimal path. The task is specified by a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula, and a weighted transition system according to the known information in uncertain environment is modeled to describe the robot motion. Subsequently, a product automaton is constructed by combining the transition system with the task requirement. Based on the product automaton, the LTL-A* algorithm is proposed to generate a global optimal path. The local path planning based on the A* algorithm is employed to deal with the environment change during the process of tracking the global optimal path for the robot. The results of the simulation and experiments show that the proposed method can not only meet the complex task requirement in uncertain environment but also improve the search efficiency.
A compact wideband out-of-phase power divider (PD) with improved isolation performance is proposed. This divider is formed by connecting an additional stub for isolation to output ports of a traditional Marchand balun with a defected ground structure (DGS) been used. To verify the design, a prototype divider is fabricated and tested. The measured results validate the 53.86% band-width centered at 3.43 GHz with more than 15 dB return loss at all ports, more than 17 dB isolation, respectively.
In a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system, a study was conducted to determine the effects of different fertilization regimens (no fertilization, replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer with composted pig manure, chemical fertilizer only, and straw return combined with chemical fertilizer) on the weed communities and wheat yields after 4 and 5 yr. The impact of the long-term recurrent fertilization regimen initiated in 2010 on the composition and diversity of weed communities and the impact of the components and total amount of fertilizer on wheat yields were assessed in 2014 and 2015. Totals of 19 and 16 weed species were identified in experimental wheat fields in 2014 and 2015, respectively, but the occurrence of weed species varied according to the fertilization regimen. American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald], water starwort [Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench], and lyrate hemistepta (Hemistepta lyrata Bunge.) were adapted to all fertilization treatments and were the dominant weed species in the experimental wheat fields. The greatest number of weed species were observed under the no-fertilization treatment, in which 40% of the weed community was composed of broadleaf weeds and the lowest wheat yields were obtained. With fertilizer application, the number of weed species was reduced, the height of weeds increased significantly, the density of broadleaf weeds was significantly reduced, the biodiversity indices of weed communities decreased significantly, and higher wheat yields were obtained. Only the chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure treatment and the chemical fertilizer–only treatment increased the density of grassy weeds and the total weed community density. The treatment with chemical fertilizer only also resulted in the highest density of B. syzigachne. Rice straw return combined with chemical fertilizer yielded the lowest total weed density, which suggests that it inhibited occurrence of weeds. The different fertilizer regimens not only affected the weed species composition, distribution, and diversity, but also the weed density. Our study provides new information from a rice–wheat rotation system on the relationship between soil amendments and agricultural weed infestation.
Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively.
Adults aged 45–60 years (n 939).
‘Healthy’, ‘high-fat and high-salt’, ‘Western’ and ‘traditional Chinese’ dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed.
Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual’s dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.
The intracellular concentration of calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) is a critical regulator of cell signaling and contractility of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we employed an atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation-based approach to investigate the role of [Ca2+]i in regulating the cortical elasticity of rat cremaster VSMCs and the ability of rat VSMCs to adhere to fibronectin (Fn) matrix. Elevation of [Ca2+]i by ionomycin treatment increased rat VSMC stiffness and cell adhesion to Fn-biofunctionalized AFM probes, whereas attenuation of [Ca2+]i by 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM) treatment decreased the mechanical and matrix adhesive properties of VSMCs. Furthermore, we found that ionomycin/BAPTA-AM treatments altered expression of α5 integrin subunits and α smooth muscle actin in rat VSMCs. These data suggest that [Ca2+]i regulates VSMC elasticity and adhesion to the extracellular matrix by a potential mechanism involving changing dynamics of the integrin–actin cytoskeleton axis.
A novel Gysel power divider with high power-handling capability based on half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) has been presented in this paper. A HMSIW ring is used and good input/output impedance matching is achieved based on HMSIW-microstrip taper transition. Two microstrip stubs are introduced in HMSIW ring to assemble two isolation resistors to improve the isolation between the output ports. The even- and odd-mode analysis method is used for the presented circuit. A prototype of the presented power divider is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results show a reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.
A miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider based on composite right/left-handed transmission line is presented. The composite right/left-handed transmission line and conventional microstrip transmission line are utilized to realize the 0° phase shift transmission line, which is used to replace the 180° transmission line of the conventional Bagley Polygon power divider. As a result, miniaturization is realized, without deteriorating the isolation between the output ports. The design equations are presented. This power divider shows advantages compared with other miniaturized ones. For verification, a miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider is designed and fabricated. The 58.2% length reduction of the counterpart is realized. The measurement and simulation results show good agreement.
A miniaturized tri-passband power divider integrating a power divider with two tri-band bandpass filters is presented. The short- and open-stub-loaded resonators are used in this presented power divider to implement the bandpass-filtering response. Then, the presented power divider has not only the power-dividing/combining function, but also the tri-passband filtering response. When the central frequency of the second passband is fixed, the other two passband central frequencies of the tri-band power divider can be flexibly controlled by changing the lengths of the stubs. The even- and odd-mode equivalent circuits of the proposed tri-band power divider are analyzed, and the design equations are derived, which can be used to guide the design of the presented miniaturized tri-passband power divider. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones.
A wide-stopband bandpass-filtering power divider with high-frequency selectivity has been proposed in this paper. The input and output feeding lines and eight 1/4 wavelength resonators are used to realize the signal transmission. In order to obtain good frequency selectivity, source-load coupling transmission path is used to generate transmission zeros near the passband. A four-way power divider with bandpass-filtering response and high-frequency selectivity is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results agree with the simulated ones closely in the desirable frequency range. The measured center frequency of the power divider is 2.38 GHz with input return loss of 31.2 dB, while the measured insertion loss is about 1 dB (not including ideal 6 dB four-way power dividing insertion loss). Moreover, the measured 3-dB bandwidth is 12% and the measured stopband attenuation is >15 dB from 2.59 to 7.7 GHz. In addition, two transmission zeros of 1.9 and 2.8 GHz are located near the passband. The measured output isolations are all >15.7 dB.
CVD remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with abnormal lipid metabolism as a major risk factor. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipids in Chinese adults. Data were extracted from the 2009 phase of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 6774 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18–65 years. The frequency of consumption and degree of pungency of spicy food were self-reported, and regular spicy food consumption was assessed using three consecutive 24-h recalls. Total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in fasting serum were measured. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipid profiles. The results showed that the frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake were both inversely associated with LDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (all Pfor trend<0·05) after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects. HDL-cholesterol in participants who usually consumed spicy food (≥5 times/week) and who consumed spicy food perceived as moderate in pungency were significantly higher than those who did not (both P<0·01). The frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake and the degree of pungency in spicy food were positively associated with TAG (all Pfor trend<0·05). Spicy food consumption was inversely associated with serum cholesterol and positively associated with serum TAG, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings as well as to elucidate the potential roles of spicy food consumption in lipid metabolism.
A new integration of the acquisition and tracking modes is proposed for the integration of a Celestial Navigation System (CNS) and a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS). After the integration converges in the acquisition mode, it switches to the tracking mode. In the tracking mode, star pattern recognition is unnecessary and the integration is implemented in a cascaded filter scheme. A pre-filter is designed for each identified star and the output of the pre-filter is fused with the attitude of the SINS in the cascaded navigation filter. Both the pre-filter and the navigation filter are designed in detail. The measurements of the pre-filter are the positions on the image plane of one identified star. Both the starlight direction and its error are estimated in the pre-filter. The estimated starlight directions of all identified stars are the measurements of the navigation filter. The simulation results show that both the reliability and accuracy of the integration are improved and the integration is effective when only one star is identified in a period.
The Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an, South China hosts well-preserved phosphatized microfossils known as the Weng'an biota. A laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of rare earth element (REE) characteristics of the fossil-bearing black phosphorite unit of the Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an was conducted, with the aim of unravelling the depositional conditions and diagenetic processes during formation of the phosphorites. Spherical phosphatized microfossils and phosphatic clasts were analysed, and the REE data display middle REE (MREE) -enriched shale-normalized REE patterns. The spherical phosphatized microfossils show an increase in total REE contents (∑REE) from core to rim. Negative correlations between ∑REE and the extent of MREE enrichment over the other REE (indicated by LaN/SmN, YbN/SmN) are observed for analysed spots within individual phosphatic grains, which may be due to complex diagenetic history of the phosphatic grains, with fluctuations in REE sources and chemical parameters in a high-energy shallow-water environment being additional factors. The LaN/YbN and LaN/SmN characteristics of the phosphatic grains suggest they were mostly influenced by early diagenetic alteration rather than late extensive recrystallization. The negative Ce anomalies in the samples suggest they formed under oxic-bottom-water conditions. Positive Eu anomalies are present in all samples, and are likely to reflect involvement of hydrothermal fluids rather than changes in redox conditions of porewater. Overall this study has major implications for phosphorites as important archives for the study of geochemical proxies, the Ediacaran period and also evolutionary changes.
A novel miniaturized dual-mode bandpass filter (BPF) using hexagonal loop resonator is presented. In order to reduce the circuit size, capacitive loading structure is applied to enhance the self-capacitance and electrical length of the hexagonal loop resonator. The frequency selectivity and out-of-band rejection of the proposed BPF can be improved by the two inherent transmission zeros in each side of the passband. Compared with the conventional hexagonal loop resonator without capacitive loading structure, the size of the proposed resonator is reduced by 46.6%. The simulated and measured results are presented and show good agreement.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and on the expressions of heat shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21±1°C, and high, 32±1°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet, either as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or as organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in any of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease Cu Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase in malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expressions of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels compared with those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70, HSF1 and HSF3 expressions in the tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance the heart’s antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.