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Limited information is available on the prevalence and effect of hypertriglyceridaemic–waist (HTGW) phenotype on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rural populations.
In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the prevalence of the HTGW phenotype and T2DM and the strength of their association among rural adults in China.
HTGW was defined as TAG >1·7 mmol/l and waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females. Logistic regression analysis yielded adjusted odds ratios (aOR) relating risk of T2DM with HTGW.
Adults (n 12 345) aged 22·83–92·58 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area of Henan Province in China.
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM was 23·71 % (males: 15·35 %; females: 28·88 %) and 11·79 % (males: 11·15 %; females: 12·18 %), respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, physical activity and diabetic family history, the risk of T2DM (aOR; 95 % CI) was increased with HTGW (v. normal TAG and WC: 3·23; CI 2·53, 4·13; males: 3·37; 2·30, 4·92; females: 3·41; 2·39, 4·85). The risk of T2DM with BMI≥28·0 kg/m2, simple enlarged WC and simple disorders of lipid metabolism showed an increasing tendency (aOR=1·31, 1·75 and 2·32).
The prevalence of HTGW and T2DM has reached an alarming level among rural Chinese people, and HTGW is a significant risk factor for T2DM.
To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively.
Adults aged 45–60 years (n 939).
‘Healthy’, ‘high-fat and high-salt’, ‘Western’ and ‘traditional Chinese’ dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed.
Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual’s dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.
The intracellular concentration of calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) is a critical regulator of cell signaling and contractility of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we employed an atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation-based approach to investigate the role of [Ca2+]i in regulating the cortical elasticity of rat cremaster VSMCs and the ability of rat VSMCs to adhere to fibronectin (Fn) matrix. Elevation of [Ca2+]i by ionomycin treatment increased rat VSMC stiffness and cell adhesion to Fn-biofunctionalized AFM probes, whereas attenuation of [Ca2+]i by 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM) treatment decreased the mechanical and matrix adhesive properties of VSMCs. Furthermore, we found that ionomycin/BAPTA-AM treatments altered expression of α5 integrin subunits and α smooth muscle actin in rat VSMCs. These data suggest that [Ca2+]i regulates VSMC elasticity and adhesion to the extracellular matrix by a potential mechanism involving changing dynamics of the integrin–actin cytoskeleton axis.
In this paper, a 3 dB H-plane substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) power divider/combiner with improved isolation is reported. By adding two isolated ports into the Y-junction, it will perform like a multi-port coupler, so that the isolation between its dividing ports can be effectively improved as the newly-added ports are properly matched. To verify the availability and effectiveness of this concept, two prototypes, one is terminated by coaxial terminations and the other is loaded with lumped resistors, are developed. Their measured results are separately in good agreement with their corresponding simulations. Meanwhile, isolations better than 16 dB with fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 35 and 25% are achieved, respectively, as well as low phase and amplitude imbalances. Compared with some reported similar SIW power dividers, the proposed ones exhibit wider FBW with similar isolation, insertion loss, phase, and amplitude balance performance.
The ultra-wideband bandpass-response power divider with high-frequency selectivity is presented in this paper. This power divider consists of an impedance transformer, a filter network, and two isolation resistors. In order to realize the ultra-wideband filtering performance, parallel coupling lines and parallel open-circuit branches are applied to the second impedance converter. A resistor is added to the ends of the coupling lines to achieve good isolation and output return loss. The equivalent-circuit method is employed to analyze the presented power divider. The power divider, working at 3.45–8.29 GHz, is designed and fabricated. Two transmission zeros are generated at 2.8 and 9 GHz, respectively, and the out-of-band suppression is >13 dB. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.
To track multiple ships and estimate the feature parameters of multiple emitters on board using electronic intelligence satellites under clutter interference, a long and random revisit time, and other complex conditions, a novel tracking algorithm using both kinematic (position and velocity) and feature information based on an improved Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the characteristics of multi-ship tracking with multiple emitters using satellite electronic information are analysed, and a new model of an emitter is built as an extended target in geographical coordinates. Secondly, a pre-processing of measurements is utilised via hierarchical clustering using the location and feature information of emitters. Thirdly, feature information is incorporated into the MHT framework using Jensen-Shannon divergence distance and fuzzy C-means clustering to calculate track scores. Finally, we present the prediction and update of target states, especially the update of feature parameters, to realise joint kinematic and feature tracking of ships. The results of the simulation show that the proposed method has much better tracking performance than the standard MHT algorithm.
Pleiotropy, the effect of one variant on multiple traits, is widespread in complex diseases. Joint analysis of multiple traits can improve statistical power to detect genetic variants and uncover the underlying genetic mechanism. Currently, a large number of existing methods target one common variant or only rare variants. Increasing evidence shows that complex diseases are caused by common and rare variants. Here we propose a region-based method to test both rare and common variant associated multiple traits based on variable reduction method (abbreviated as MULVR). However, in the presence of noise traits, the MULVR method may lose power, so we propose the MULVR-O method, which jointly analyses the optimal number of traits associated with genetic variants by the MULVR method, to guard against the effect of noise traits. Extensive simulation studies show that our proposed method (MULVR-O) is applied to not only multiple quantitative traits but also qualitative traits, and is more powerful than several other comparison methods in most scenarios. An application to the two genes (SHBG and CHRM3) and two phenotypes (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure) from the GAW19 dataset illustrates that our proposed methods (MULVR and MULVR-O) are feasible and efficient as a region-based method.
Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores.
The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.
A wide-stopband bandpass-filtering power divider with high-frequency selectivity has been proposed in this paper. The input and output feeding lines and eight 1/4 wavelength resonators are used to realize the signal transmission. In order to obtain good frequency selectivity, source-load coupling transmission path is used to generate transmission zeros near the passband. A four-way power divider with bandpass-filtering response and high-frequency selectivity is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results agree with the simulated ones closely in the desirable frequency range. The measured center frequency of the power divider is 2.38 GHz with input return loss of 31.2 dB, while the measured insertion loss is about 1 dB (not including ideal 6 dB four-way power dividing insertion loss). Moreover, the measured 3-dB bandwidth is 12% and the measured stopband attenuation is >15 dB from 2.59 to 7.7 GHz. In addition, two transmission zeros of 1.9 and 2.8 GHz are located near the passband. The measured output isolations are all >15.7 dB.
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99–21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.
This article examines the historical role and legacy of the foreign establishment in China's temporary capital Chongqing during the Chinese War of Resistance against Japan and the Second World War. This extraordinary episode, lasting from 1938 to 1946, ushered in a new era for China's foreign diplomacy and laid the foundation for its rise to world-power status. Placing Chongqing at the very heart of this epochal chapter in modern Chinese history, this article describes the major events, trends, and actors that directly or indirectly were instrumental to China's wartime transformation from a partitioned, de facto colony to a first-rate global power with a permanent seat among the ‘Big Five’. Seventy years after the end of the Second World War, this article presents fresh perspectives on a near-forgotten episode of China's war experience. Moving beyond the traditional typecasting of ‘Chungking’ as a primitive backwater in China's remote hinterland, this article reappraises wartime Chongqing as a major international centre at the spearhead of global change and as an important cradle of the modern power that China is today.
With the rapid development of electronic information and technology, especially the explosive advance of novel electronic devices, ultra-wideband radar detector and satellite communication, the elimination of adverse electromagnetic waves (EWs) effectively is very necessary both for electronic safety and national defense security. As one of the important material basis for controlling adverse EW pollution, compatibility, shielding, and stealth capability of weaponry, microwave absorbing materials has long been an area of intense research activity. Graphene-based materials have attracted great interests for microwave absorption in recent years due to the unique structure and physicochemical properties of graphene, such as high specific surface area, ultrathin thickness, large interface, optical transmittance, and tunable conductive properties, etc. In this paper, the properties and absorption behavior of different kinds of microwave absorbing materials based on graphene were reviewed and discussed in detail. In addition, the perspective of the current challenges and key issues for achieving better microwave absorption performance of the graphene-based materials are provided.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
The present study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin A on immune function in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed graded levels of dietary vitamin A for 10 weeks, and then a challenge test using an injection of Aeromonas hydrophila was conducted for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the optimum vitamin A level, vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased fish growth performance, increased enteritis morbidity, decreased intestinal innate humoral immune response and aggravated intestinal inflammation. However, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2A/B mRNA in the DI and IL-6, IL-17D, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2 mRNA in the PI were not affected by vitamin A levels. Meanwhile, vitamin A deficiency disturbed inflammatory cytokines in the PI, MI and DI, which might be partly linked to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signalling and NF-κB canonical signalling pathway (IκB kinase β (IKKβ), IKKγ, inhibitor of κBα, NF-κB p65 and c-Rel) rather than NF-κB non-canonical signalling pathway (NF-κB p52 and IKKα). However, the signalling molecules NF-κB p65 and p38MAPK did not participate in regulating cytokines in the PI. These results suggested that vitamin A deficiency decreased fish growth and impaired intestinal immune function, and that different immune responses in the PI, MI and DI were mediated partly by NF-κB canonical signalling and p38MAPK signalling pathways. On the basis of percentage of weight gain, to protect fish against enteritis morbidity and acid phosphatase activity, the optimum dietary vitamin A levels were estimated to be 0·664, 0·707 and 0·722 mg /kg, respectively.
Container shipping is one of the most important transport modes in international trade. For a large-scale container shipping network, an optimisation model is proposed to minimise the total shipping cost of container flow. Considering the directional property of the container shipping process, a steering vector search pattern is incorporated in a Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) solving algorithm, and an orthogonal array method is adopted in parameter settings. In numerical experiments, a traditional ant colony algorithm and an MMAS algorithm based on a steering vector search pattern are used respectively to optimise the network of five node scales. The results show that a steering vector search pattern can speed up the computation process and improve the optimisation effect.
Phosphorene is a new-emerging two-dimensional material with many fascinating electronic and thermal properties. Using nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we investigate the thermoelectric transport properties of phosphorene in the ballistic transport regime. We find that while the electronic conductance and thermal conductance of phosphorene are highly anisotropic, the Seebeck coefficient is isotropic. The maximum predicted thermopower reaches 2500 μV/K. We also find that the Wiedemann–Franz law is valid only when the chemical potential is inside valence band or conduction band. When the chemical potential is near the valence band maximum or conduction band minimum; however, the Wiedemann–Franz law becomes invalid, and interestingly, the figure of merit ZT reaches its maximum value. We also find that figure of merit ZT increases with the increase of temperature, and ZT in the armchair direction is much higher than that in the zigzag direction. By analyzing the various effects on ZT, we discuss the possible routines to enhance figure of merit ZT.
Malaria remains one of the most devastating diseases. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection resulting in high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Analysis of precise mechanisms of CM in humans is difficult for ethical reasons and animal models of CM have been employed to study malaria pathogenesis. Here, we describe a new experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in KunMing (KM) mice. KM mice developed ECM after blood-stage or sporozoites infection, and the development of ECM in KM mice has a dose-dependent relationship with sporozoites inoculums. Histopathological findings revealed important features associated with ECM, including accumulation of mononuclear cells and red blood cells in brain microvascular, and brain parenchymal haemorrhages. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) examination showed that BBB disruption was present in infected KM mice when displaying clinical signs of CM. In vivo bioluminescent imaging experiment indicated that parasitized red blood cells accumulated in most vital organs including heart, lung, spleen, kidney, liver and brain. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-12, IL-6 and IL-10 were all remarkably increased in KM mice infected with P. berghei ANKA. This study indicates that P. berghei ANKA infection in KM mice can be used as ECM model to extend further research on genetic, pharmacological and vaccine studies of CM.