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We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
Co-receptor tropism has been identified to correlate with HIV-1 transmission and the disease progression in patients. A molecular epidemiology investigation of co-receptor tropism is important for clinical practice and effective control of HIV-1. In this study, we investigated the co-receptor tropism on HIV-1 variants of 85 antiretroviral-naive patients with Geno2pheno algorithm at a false-positive rate of 10%. Our data showed that a majority of the subjects harboured the CCR5-tropic virus (81.2%, 69/85). No significant differences in gender, age, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and transmission routes were observed between subjects infected with CXCR4-tropic or CCR5-tropic virus. The co-receptor tropism appeared to be associated with the virus genotype; a significantly more CXCR4-use was predicted in CRF01_AE infections whereas all CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were predicted to use CCR5 co-receptor. Sequences analysis of V3 revealed a higher median net charge in the CXCR4 viruses over CCR5 viruses (4.0 vs. 3.0, P < 0.05). The predicted N-linked glycosylation site between amino acids 6 and 8 in the V3 region was conserved in CCR5 viruses, but not in CXCR4 viruses. Besides, variable crown motifs were observed in both CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses, of which the most prevalent motif GPGQ existed in both viral tropism and almost all genotypes identified in this study except subtype B. These findings may offer important implications for clinical practice and enhance our understanding of HIV-1 biology.
Many real-world networks exhibit a multicores-periphery structure, with densely connected vertices in multiple cores surrounded by a general periphery of sparsely connected vertices. Identification of the multicores-periphery structure can provide a new lens to understand the structures and functions of various real-world networks. This paper defines the multicores-periphery structure and introduces an algorithm to identify the optimal partition of multiple cores and the periphery in general networks. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm by applying it to a well-known social network and a patent technology network, which are best characterized by the multicores-periphery structure. The analyses also reveal the differences between our multicores-periphery detection algorithm and two state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting the single core-periphery structure and community structure.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
The Caledonides of Britain and Ireland include terranes attributed to both Laurentian and Gondwanan sources, separated along the Solway line. Gondwanan elements to the south have been variably assigned to the domains Ganderia and East Avalonia. The Midland Platform forms the core of East Avalonia but its provenance is poorly known. Laser ablation split-stream analysis yields information about detrital zircon provenance by providing simultaneous U–Pb and Lu–Hf data from the same ablated volume. A sample of Red Callavia Sandstone from uppermost Cambrian Stage 3 of the Midland Platform yields a U–Pb age spectrum dominated by Neoproterozoic and Palaeoproterozoic sources, resembling those in the Welsh Basin, the Meguma Terrane of Nova Scotia and NW Africa. Initial εHf values suggest that the Neoproterozoic zircon component was derived mainly from crustal sources < 2 Ga, and imply that the more evolved Palaeoproterozoic grains were transported into the basin from an older source terrane, probably the Eburnean Orogen of West Africa. A sample from Cambrian Stage 4 in the Bray Group of the Leinster–Lakesman Terrane shows, in contrast, a distribution of both U–Pb ages and εHf values closely similar to those of the Gander Terrane in Newfoundland and other terranes attributed to Ganderia, interpreted to be derived from the margin of Amazonia. East Avalonia is clearly distinct from Ganderia, but shows evidence for older crustal components not present in West Avalonia of Newfoundland. These three components of the Appalachian–Caledonide Orogen came from distinct sources on the margin of Cambrian Gondwana.
Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43.4±0.1 g) were randomly assigned into controls (fed only the basal diet), a group fed an OTA-contaminated diet (2 mg/kg feed), and a group fed the same OTA-contaminated feed plus 400 mg/kg of curcumin. Each treatment consisted of six replicates, each containing 30 ducklings and treatment lasted for 21 days. There was a significant decrease in average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed : gain caused by OTA (P<0.05); curcumin co-treatment prevented the decrease in BW and ADG compared with the OTA group (P<0.05). Histopathological and ultrastructural examination showed clear signs of enterotoxicity caused by OTA, but these changes were largely prevented by curcumin supplementation. Curcumin decreased the concentrations of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and malondialdehyde, and increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase induced by OTA in the jejunal mucosa of ducks (P<0.05). Additionally, curcumin increased jejunal mucosa occludin and tight junction protein 1 mRNA and protein levels, and decreased those of ρ-associated protein kinase 1 (P<0.05). Notably, curcumin inhibited the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes, and downregulated mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 and B2 caused by OTA without any effects on RNA polymerase mitochondrial (P<0.05). These results indicated that curcumin could protect ducks from OTA-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function and mitochondrial integrity.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation on growth, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). Piglets weaned at 21 d were allocated into three treatments with six pens and six piglets per pen, receiving the control diet (CON), diets supplemented with antibiotics plus zinc oxide (ANT–ZnO) and LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-4407), respectively, for a period of 2 weeks. On day 8, thirty-six piglets were selected as control without ETEC (CON), CON–ETEC, ANT–ZnO–ETEC and LY–ETEC groups challenged with ETEC until day 10 for sample collections. Piglets fed ANT–ZnO diet had the highest average daily gain and average daily feed intake (P<0·05) during the 1st week, but ADG of piglets fed the ANT–ZnO diet was similar as piglets fed LY diet during the second week. Piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC had markedly lower diarrhoea score (P<0·05) than piglets with CON–ETEC during the 24 h after ETEC challenge. Relative to piglets with CON, the counts of E. coli, urinary ratio of lactulose to mannitol, plasma IL-6 concentration, mRNA abundances of innate immunity-related genes in ileum and mesenteric lymph node tissues were increased (P<0·05), whereas the villous height of jejunum and relative protein expression of ileum claudin-1 were decreased (P<0·05) in piglets with CON–ETEC; however, these parameters did not markedly change in piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC. In summary, dietary LY supplementation could alleviate the severity of diarrhoea in piglets with ETEC, which may be associated with the improved permeability, innate immunity and bacterial profile.
Technologies are created through the collective efforts of individual inventors. Understanding inventors’ behaviors may thus enable predicting invention, guiding design efforts or improving technology policy. We examined data from 2.8 million inventors’ 3.9 million patents and found that most patents are created by ‘explorers’: inventors who move between different technology domains during their careers. We mapped the space of latent relatedness between technology domains and found explorers were 250 times more likely to enter technology domains that were highly related to the domains of their previous patents, compared to an unrelated domain. The great regularity of inventors’ behavior enabled accurate prediction of individual inventors’ future movements: a model trained on just 5 years of data predicted inventors’ explorations 30 years later with a log-loss below 0.01. Inventors entering their most related domains were associated with patenting up to 40% more in the new domain, but with reduced citations per patent. These findings may be instructive for inventors exploring design directions, and useful for organizations or governments in forecasting or directing technological change.
The fruit plus accessory parts, and thus not only the fruit or seed, is the diaspore in some species of flowering plants. Atriplex centralasiatica, a summer annual salt-secreting cold-desert halophyte of central Asia that produces flat and humped diaspores, is such a species. The dispersal/germination units of this diaspore-heteromorphic species are fruits enclosed in persistent ‘bracteoles’. Germination of black and brown fruits (i.e. ‘bracteoles’ removed) of this species has been studied in some detail previously, but little attention has been given to the germination biology of the intact diaspores. The aim of this study was to compare the germination biology of the intact diaspores of A. centralasiatica, and their fates in the field during 12 months on the soil surface and buried at 5-cm depth. Fresh flat diaspores germinated to 42.7–51.3% in light (12-h photoperiod) and to 16.0–59.3% in constant dark, over a temperature range of 15–20/30°C, while no freshly matured humped diaspores did so under any temperature/light regime. Neither gibberellin (GA3) nor potassium nitrate (KNO3) had an effect on germination of either diaspore. Both diaspores readily imbibed water, and removal of ‘bracteoles’ released most of the dormancy. Thus, the ‘bracteoles’ are primarily responsible for diaspore dormancy in A. centralasiatica. Humped diaspores persisted for a longer period in the soil than flat ones. The germination requirements of intact natural dispersal/germination units of A. centralasiatica differ from those previously reported for fruits of this species.
Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case–control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (Pinteraction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (Pinteraction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.
A novel synchronous rolling-casting for metal (SRCM) process for producing metal components is developed. In this paper, the microstructure evolution and mechanical property of ZLl04 alloy with different pouring temperatures by SRCM are investigated. In the process, the pouring temperature has great effects on the microstructure and mechanical property primarily through the crystal change in the rolling-casting area. Temperature of liquids and solids of ZL104 alloy is measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Distribution and characteristics of the microstructure of samples are examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that the samples fabricated by SRCM present uniform structure and good performance with the pouring temperature at 620 °C when the velocity of the substrate is at 10 cm/s. The tensile strength of ZLl04 alloy reaches 211.89 Mpa, while the average vickers hardness is 81.5 HV.
Cognition and sleep deficits occur in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND). However, how memory and sleep deficits differ between aMCI and VCIND remains unclear.
Fifty aMCI and 50 VCIND patients and 38 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Trail Making Test-A/B (TMT-A/B), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to quantify cognitive deficits and subjective sleep disturbance.
Compared with VCIND patients, aMCI patients had lower HVLT-R scores for total recall (p < 0.001), delayed recall (p < 0.001) and recognition (p = 0.001), and for total-recall (p = 0.002) and delayed-recall (p < 0.001) semantic clustering ratios (SCRs). However, VCIND patients exhibited more obvious executive dysfunction (TMT-A, p < 0.001; TMT-B, p < 0.001; WCST, p < 0.001), lower information processing speed (PASAT, p = 0.003; SDMT, p < 0.001), and more severe sleep disturbance (PSQI, p < 0.001; ESS, p < 0.001; ISI, p < 0.001). Additionally, sleep quality and efficiency were related to total and delayed recall (all r values from −0.31 to −0.60, p < 0.05) in aMCI and VCIND.
aMCI and VCIND differ in cognitive function, memory strategy and sleep impairment; these characteristics are helpful to identify and distinguish patients with very early cognitive impairment. Our results also suggest that memory deficits are associated with sleep disturbance in aMCI and VCIND.
We give a sufficient condition under which a semigroup is nonfinitely based. As an application, we show that a certain variety is nonfinitely based, and we indicate the additional analysis (to be presented in a forthcoming paper), which shows that this example is a new limit variety of aperiodic monoids.
Previous epidemiological studies have revealed the anti-cancer effect of dietary circulating carotenoids. However, the protective role of specific individual circulating carotenoids has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether serum carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, could lower the risk for breast cancer among Chinese women. A total of 521 women with breast cancer and age-matched controls (5-year interval) were selected from three teaching hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate OR and 95 % CI using quartiles defined in the control subjects. Significant inverse associations were observed between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. The multivariate OR for the highest quartile of serum concentration compared with the lowest quartile were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·65) for α-carotene, 0·27 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·40) for β-carotene, 0·41 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·61) for lycopene and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38) for lutein/zeaxanthin. However, no significant association was found between serum β-cryptoxanthin and the risk for breast cancer. Stratified analysis by menopausal status and oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) showed that serum α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women and among all subtypes of ER or PR status. The results suggest a protective role of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not β-cryptoxanthin, in breast cancer risk.
Recent advances in digital microfluidics have led to tremendous interest in
miniaturized lab-on-a-chip devices for biochemical analysis. Synthesis tools
have also emerged for the automated design of lab-on-a-chip from the
specifications of laboratory protocols. However, none of these tools
considers control flow or addresses the problem of recovering from fluidic
errors that can occur during on-chip bioassay execution. We present a
synthesis method that incorporates control paths and an error-recovery
mechanism in the design of a cyberphysical digital microfluidic
lab-on-a-chip. A microcontroller coordinates the implementation of the
control-flow-based bioassay by intercepting the synthesis results that are
mapped to the software programs. Real-life bioassay applications are used as
case studies to evaluate the proposed design method. For a representative
protein assay, compared with a baseline chip design, the biochip with a
control path can reduce the completion time by 30% when errors occur during
the implementation of the bioassay. A fabricated biochip is also used to
demonstrate cyberphysical error recovery in a laboratory setting.
Microfluidic biochips have now come of age, with applications to biomolecular
recognition for high-throughput DNA sequencing, immunoassays, and
point-of-care clinical diagnostics . In particular, digital microfluidic
biochips, which use electrowetting-on-dielectric to manipulate discrete
droplets (or “packets of biochemical payload”) of picoliter
volumes under clock control, are especially promising .
Thermo-camera is employed here to analyze kinds of quality abnormal and improve production process during manufacture procedure of silicon-based thin-film solar modules. It shows that thermo-camera device can help engineers to solve problem of production line quickly and accurately, and save the manpower and financial resources at the same time.
Recent evidence shows that excess nicotinamide can cause epigenetic changes in developing rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotinamide supplementation on the fetus. Female rats were randomised into four groups fed a standard chow diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of nicotinamide (low-dose group), 4 g/kg of nicotinamide (high-dose group) or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide plus 2 g/kg of betaine (betaine group) for 14–16 d before mating and throughout the study. Fetal tissue samples were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the high-dose group had a higher fetal death rate, and the average fetal body weight was higher in the low-dose group but lower in the high-dose group. Nicotinamide supplementation led to a decrease in placental and fetal hepatic genomic DNA methylation and genomic uracil contents (a factor modifying DNA for diversity) in the placenta and fetal liver and brain, which could be completely or partially prevented by betaine. Moreover, nicotinamide supplementation induced tissue-specific alterations in the mRNA expression of the genes encoding nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, DNA methyltransferase 1, catalase and tumour protein p53 in the placenta and fetal liver. High-dose nicotinamide supplementation increased fetal hepatic α-fetoprotein mRNA level, which was prevented by betaine supplementation. It is concluded that maternal nicotinamide supplementation can induce changes in fetal epigenetic modification and DNA base composition. The present study raises the concern that maternal nicotinamide supplementation may play a role in the development of epigenetic-related diseases in the offspring.