Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) can structurally characterize fullerenes1 in solvents with strong SANS contrast (e.g. CS2). Deuterated solvents (e.g. toluene-d8) have a high scattering length density (SLD), which is close to that of C60 and C70 moieties. Hence, there is virtually no SANS contrast with the solvent and these particles are practically “invisible” in such media. On the other hand, the negative scattering length of hydrogen means that the SLD of H1-containing materials is much lower, so they have strong contrast with toluene-d8. Thus, SANS makes it possible to study the size and shapes of modified buckyballs such as the polymer-substituted fullerenes, or flagellenes2. These consist of C60 cores to which 1-4 polystyrene chains (with a molecular weight, MW ≃ 2000) are attached. The extrapolated cross section at zero angle of scatter [dΣ/dΩ(0)]s is a function of the number of pendant chains, so SANS can be used to assess the number of “arms” which are covalently attached to the fullerene “sphere”. Close agreement (± 4%) between the measured and calculated values of dΣ/dΩ(0) along with independent estimates of the radius of gyration (Rg) and second virial coefficient (A2) for a calibration linear polystyrene sample serves as a cross check on the validity of this methodology.