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IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models. Protein (soybean proteins, casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch, cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by bacteria isolated from fresh feces obtained from three sows in three carbonate-based incubation media differing in reducing agent: (i) Na2S, (ii) cysteine-HCl and (iii) control with a mere saturation with CO2 and devoid of reducing agent. The gas production during fermentation was recorded over 72 h. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production after 24 and 72 h and microbial composition of the fermentation broth after 24 h were compared between ingredients and between reducing agents. The fermentation residues after 24 h were also evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Results showed that the effect of the ingredient induced higher differences than the reducing agent. Among the latter, cysteine-HCl induced the strongest differences compared with the control, whereas Na2S was similar to the control for most parameters. For all ingredients, final gas produced per g of substrate was similar (P>0.10) for the three reducing agents whereas the maximum rate of gas production (Rmax) was reduced (P<0.05) when carbohydrate ingredients were fermented with cysteine-HCl in comparison to Na2S and the control. For all ingredients, total SCFA production was similar (P>0.10) after 24 h of fermentation with Na2S and in the control without reducing agent. Molar ratios of branched chain-fatty acids were higher (P<0.05) for protein (36.5% and 9.7% for casein and soybean proteins, respectively) than for carbohydrate (<4%) ingredients. Only fermentation residues of casein showed a possible cytotoxic effect regardless of the reducing agent (P<0.05). Concerning the microbial composition of the fermentation broth, most significant differences in phyla and in genera ascribable to the reducing agent were found with potato starch and casein. In conclusion, saturating the incubation media with CO2 seems sufficient to generate a suitable anaerobic environment for intestinal microbes and the use of a reducing agent can be omitted.
An 8-cm optical telescope is constructed for use at the south pole. It is designed to make photoelectric observations of selected stars continuously through an austral winter. The automated operation is controlled by a computer. The aim is to study the variability of the star γ2 Velorum as well as the condition of the polar sky and the performance of the instrument.
We have examined the global properties of 250 galaxies and galaxy pairs observed as part of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey with respect to bar type and arm type, and we have compared the results with the global properties of the same galaxies as a function of morphological type. The bar types of the galaxies were taken from RC2, and the arm types for 48% of the sample were taken from Elmegreen and Elmegreen (1987). We find the following:
1) There is little dependence of the star formation efficiency, as measured by the global FIR luminosity to molecular gas mass ratio, on bar type. Similarly, we find no obvious correlation between the global ratio of molecular to atomic gas mass and the bar type.
2) Variations of up to a factor of 6 are seen in the mean star formation efficiency with arm type, where flocculent galaxies appear to have slightly higher global star formation efficiencies than spirals with clearly delineated arms. Variations in the mean molecular to atomic gas mass ratio of a factor of 5 are seen as a function of arm type, but there is no apparent trend from flocculent to grand design spirals.
3) The decrease of a factor of 20 in the molecular to atomic gas mass ratio observed as a function of morphological type (Young and Knezek 1989) is more pronounced than the same ratio as a function of bar or arm type.
Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Patients with psychosis display the so-called ‘Jumping to Conclusions’ bias (JTC) – a tendency for hasty decision-making in probabilistic reasoning tasks. So far, only a few studies have evaluated the JTC bias in ‘at-risk mental state’ (ARMS) patients, specifically in ARMS samples fulfilling ‘ultra-high risk’ (UHR) criteria, thus not allowing for comparisons between different ARMS subgroups.
In the framework of the PREVENT (secondary prevention of schizophrenia) study, a JTC task was applied to 188 patients either fulfilling UHR criteria or presenting with cognitive basic symptoms (BS). Similar data were available for 30 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, education and premorbid verbal intelligence. ARMS patients were identified by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Adult Version (SPI-A).
The mean number of draws to decision (DTD) significantly differed between ARM -subgroups: UHR patients made significantly less draws to make a decision than ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. Furthermore, UHR patients tended to fulfil behavioural criteria for JTC more often than BS patients. In a secondary analysis, ARMS patients were much hastier in their decision-making than controls. In patients, DTD was moderately associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as disorganization and excitement.
Our data indicate an enhanced JTC bias in the UHR group compared to ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. This underscores the importance of reasoning deficits within cognitive theories of the developing psychosis. Interactions with the liability to psychotic transitions and therapeutic interventions should be unravelled in longitudinal studies.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
A synthesis of the upper Moscovian sedimentological and palaeontological record of terrestrial habitats across the Variscan foreland and adjacent intramontane basins (an area which is referred to here as Variscan Euramerica) suggests a contraction and progressive westward shift of the coal swamps. These changes can be correlated with pulses of tectonic activity (tectonic phases) resulting from the northwards migration of the Variscan Front. This tectonic activity caused disruption to the landscapes and drainage patterns where the coal swamps were growing, which became less suitable to growth of the dominant plants of the swamps, the arborescent lycopsids. They were progressively replaced by vegetation dominated by marattialean ferns, which through a combination of slower growth and larger canopies resulted in less evapo-transpiration. This in turn caused localised reductions in rainfall, which further affected the ability of the lycopsids to dominate the swamp vegetation. These changes were initially localised and where the coal swamps were able to survive the lycopsids and pteridosperms show little change in either species diversity or biogeography, indicating that at this time there was minimal regional-scale climate change taking place. By Asturian times, however, the process had accelerated and the swamps in Variscan Euramerica became progressively replaced by predominantly conifer and cordaite vegetation that favoured much drier substrates. Except in localised pockets in intramontane basins of the Variscan Mountains, the last development of coal swamps in Variscan Euramerica was of early Cantabrian age. Further west, lycopsid-dominated coal swamps persisted for a little longer. The last remnants of the lycopsid-dominated coal swamps in the Illinois Basin disappeared probably by middle-late Cantabrian times, as the cycle of contracting wetlands and regional reductions in rainfall generated its own momentum, and no longer needed the impetus of tectonic instability. This tectonically-driven decline in the Euramerican coal swamps was probably responsible for an annual increase in atmospheric CO2 of c. 0.37 ppm, and may have been implicated in the marked increase in global temperatures near the Moscovian – Kasimovian boundary, and the onset of the Late Pennsylvanian interglacial.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
Submillimeter dust continuum emission traces high molecular column densities and, thus,
dense cloud regions in which new stars are forming. Surveys of the Galactic plane in such
emission have the potential of delivering an unbiased view of high-mass star formation
throughout the Milky Way. The location of the APEX telescope on the Chajnantor plateau in
Chile is ideally suited for mapping the inner Galaxy. ATLASGAL, The APEX Telescope Large
Area Survey of the Galaxy at 870 μm, is a survey of the Galactic plane
using the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA), in the Galactic longitude and latitude
ranges of ±60 and ±1.5°, respectively. This survey is providing an unbiased sample of
cold dusty clumps in the Galaxy at submillimeter wavelength and a variety of molecular
line follow-up observations have been started to characterize the physical and chemical
conditions in the newly found clumps. Here, first results from this survey and its
follow-up programs are described.
A series of Ca1-xSrxS:Eu2+y mol% phosphors were synthesized with solid state reactions and with various Ca/Sr ratio and Eu2+ doping concentrations. The influences of the lattice composition and the Eu2+ doping level on photoluminescent properties were analyzed. With doping concentrations between 0.1 to 3 mol%, concentration quenching takes place leading to the decrease of luminance; the emission maxima are also red-shifted. Further, this work reports enhanced photosynthetic activities of intact spinach leaves due to spectral modification of simulated solar irradiation by one synthesized phosphor (Ca0.4Sr0.6S:Eu1 mol%). The CO2 assimilation rates of intact spinach leaves were monitored with an effective homemade photosynthesis measurement system with controlled light conditions. The phosphor could efficiently convert the photosynthetically less active green part of the solar spectrum into the red, with a broad-band red emission centered at 650 nm and a halfband-width of 68 nm, giving an excellent match with the absorption spectrum of spinach chloroplasts. By careful referencing the photon flux, we found an enhanced photosynthetic activities by about 30 % due to the emission of the phosphor.
In August 2007, Illinois passed legislation mandating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) admission screening for intensive care unit patients. We assessed hospital staff perceptions of the implementation of this law.
Mixed-methods evaluation using structured focus groups and questionnaires.
Eight Chicago-area hospitals.
Three strata of staff (leadership, midlevel, and frontline) at each hospital.
All participants completed a questionnaire and participated in a focus group. Focus group transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed. The proportion of staff agreeing with statements about MRSA and the legislation was compared across staff types.
Overall, 126 hospital staff participated in 23 focus groups. Fifty-six percent of participants agreed that the legislation had a positive effect at their facility; frontline staff were more likely to agree than midlevel and leadership staff (P < .01). Perceived benefits of the legislation included increased awareness of MRSA among staff and better knowledge of the epidemiology of MRSA colonization. Perceived negative consequences included the psychosocial effect of screening and contact precautions on patients and increased use of resources. Most participants (59%) would choose to continue the activities associated with the legislation but advised facilities in states considering similar legislation to educate staff and patients about MRSA screening and to draft clear implementation plans.
Staff from Chicago-area hospitals perceived that mandatory MRSA screening legislation resulted in some benefits but highlighted implementation challenges. States considering similar initiatives might minimize these challenges by optimizing messaging to patients and healthcare staff, drafting implementation plans, and developing program evaluation strategies.
The synthesis of superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O thin films on metal foils (Au and Ag) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been investigated. Ba-Ca-Cu-O-(F) films are first prepared via MOCVD using fluorinated “second generation” metal-organic precursors. After an intermediate anneal with water vapor-saturated oxygen to promote removal of F, Tl is introduced by annealing in the presence of a mixture of oxides (Tl2O3, BaO, CaO, CuO) of a specific composition. Characterization of the thin films by scanning electron microscopy, EDX, x-ray diffraction, and variable temperature magnetization measurements has been carried out. High temperature superconductor (HTS) films of Tl2Ba2Ca1Cu2O8−x on Au foil exhibit a magnetically derived Tc = 80K and a high degree of texturing with the crystallite c-axes oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface as evidenced by enhanced (000 x-ray diffraction reflections. Thin film coverage on Ag foil becomes non-contiguous during the (Tl2O3, BaO, CaO, CuO) mixture anneal.
Tl-2223 phase with a composition of Tl1.7Ca2.3Ba2Cu3O10 was prepared via a solid-state reaction route and systematically annealed under various conditions, including flowing oxygen, sealed quartz in vacuo, high oxygen pressures and hot isostatic press in an attempt to enhance the superconducting properties in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-0 system. An almost monophasic sample was obtained by sintering at 910 °C for 3 hours in flowing oxygen. Most anneals enhance the Tc by 2 – 7 K, depending on the environment. When the sample is post-annealed at 820 °C for 16 hours in flowing oxygen it results in an optimal Tc of 127 K, as confirmed by magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance measurements.
We have carried out finite-inductance calculations of the critical current vs, flux(Ic-φ) and voltage vs, flux (V-φ) characteristics of superconducting interferometers with many Josephson junctions (JJ's) in parallel. At least two features of our calculations suggest that interferometers with many junctions, which we call Superconducting QUantum Interference Gratings, or SQUIG's, might be advantageous for the detection of magnetic flux. First, the voltage noise can potentially be reduced significantly as compared to a dc SQUID with the same overall voltage-to-flux transfer coefficient - a feature which might reduce 1/f noise and enhance the magnetic flux sensitivity of both low and high Tc superconducting (HTS) devices. In addition, nonuniformity of the junction critical currents appears to have little adverse effect on the predicted diffraction-grating like enhancement and narrowing of the peaks in the Ic-φcharacteristic, suggesting that flux uniformity, rather that critical current uniformity, is of primary importance.
Thin films of YBa2Cu3O7/Ag multilayered structures have been grown by dc magnetron sputtering on MgO(lOO) substrates. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and resistivity measurements. Multilayers with YBCO layer thickness above 40nm show superconducting transitions and zero resistances higher than 70K. These layers show c-axis growth perpendicular to the substrate and the silver layers have preferential (111) orientation normal to the substrate too. Finally STM images reveal screw dislocation spirals at the YBCO layer surface even when the superconducting layer is grown on silver (111) underlayers.
Dense Bi2Sr1.7CaCu2Ox (2212) superconductor pellets were made by hot isostatic pressing in an inert atmosphere. The pellets exhibited a small amount of preferred orientation of the grains. The transport critical current density (Jc) values were very low for all specimens. Dislocations, planar faults, and intergrowths of the Bi2Sr2CuOx phase, which were produced during the pressing, caused the intragranular Jc to increase substantially.