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Previously the GABA(A) receptor beta-2 subunit gene GABRB2 was found to be associated with schizophrenia (SCZ). for SNPs and haplotypes in GRBRB2, the associations with bipolar disorder (BPD), the functional consequences on GABRB2 expression and their relationship to demographic and clinical characteristics in BPD and SCZ remain to be elucidated.
Case-control analysis was performed for association study of GABRB2 with BPD, and its mRNA expression in postmortem BPD brains was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Quantitative trait analysis was subsequently employed to assess the covariate effects of demographic and clinical characteristics on genotypic correlation of GABRB2 expression in SCZ and BPD.
Significant association of GABRB2 with BPD and reduction in GABRB2 mRNA expression in BPD brains were observed in the present study. Duration of illness (DOI) was found to be a significant covariate for the correlation of the disease-associated SNPs rs1816071, rs1816072 and rs187269 with GABRB2 expression in both SCZ and BPD. for individuals with homozygous major genotypes of these SNPs, while GABRB2 expression increased with age in the controls, it decreased with DOI and age in SCZ, and with DOI in BPD. with age of onset as covariate, these three SNPs were significantly correlated with antipsychotic dosage in SCZ.
These results have thus revealed correlations of GABRB2 SNPs and expression not only with the occurrence of SCZ and BPD, but also with the clinical characteristics of patients, therefore providing support for a shared etiological role played by the gene in both diseases.
In our attempt to investigate the basic active galactic nucleus (AGN) paradigm requiring a centrally located supermassive black hole (SMBH), a close to Keplerian accretion disk and a jet perpendicular to its plane, we have searched for radio continuum in galaxies with H2O megamasers in their disks. We observed 18 such galaxies with the Very Large Baseline Array in C band (5 GHz, ~2 mas resolution) and we detected 5 galaxies at 8 σ or higher levels. For those sources for which the maser data is available, the positions of masers and those of the 5 GHz radio continuum sources coincide within the uncertainties, and the radio continuum is perpendicular to the maser disk’s orientation within the position angle uncertainties.
The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male–female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations.
The imaginary part of the Clausius-Mossotti factor, Ki, is crucial for quantitative particle/cell manipulation and characterization using travelling wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) and electrorotation (ER). It can be measured rather easily using twDEP instead of using ER, as numerical calculation of the electric field and complicated devices are not needed for evaluating Ki using twDEP. However, the current single frequency twDEP method works only for particles/cells exhibiting negative dielectrophoresis (DEP), which is in general the case when cells are manipulated in physiological strength buffers with conductivity of order of 1S/m. In order to remove such a restriction, a modified twDEP method is proposed using dual frequency operation here capable of measuring the Ki spectra of particles/cells for the entire range of medium conductivity, irrespectively of whether the particles/cells exhibit positive or negative DEP. The success of the modified method relies on the adequate design of force balance between various forces in a designed micro channel, which was discussed in details. The method was validated, and demonstrated by measuring Ki spectra of three human cancer cells for medium conductivity from 0.01 ~ 1.2S/m. Both the method and the cell result find biomedical and other industrial applications.
We made dynamical black hole mass measurements from nineteen Seyfert 2 galaxies which host sub-parsec H2O maser disks using the H2O megamaser technique. The nearly perfect Keplerian rotation curves in many of these maser systems guarantee the high accuracy and precision of the black hole mass measurements. With the stellar velocity dispersion (σ∗) of the galaxy bulges measured with the Dupont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in the South and the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope in the North, we found that H2O maser galaxies, most of which host pseudo bulges rather than classical bulges, do not all follow the MBH–σ∗ relation shown in the literature. This result is well consistent with the latest findings by Kormendy & Ho (2013) that only early type galaxies and galaxies with classical bulges follow a tight MBH–σ∗ relation. Such a tight correlation may not exist in pseudo bulge galaxies.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
Singularity-free workspace is a very important criterion for the design of manipulators, especially for parallel manipulators which are well known for their limited workspace and complex singularities. This paper studies geometric parameters and dexterity measures that affect the size of a singularity-free joint space and proposes methods for the development of 6-DOF Stewart–Gough parallel manipulators that have better singularity-free joint space. With a local dexterity measure as the objective function, a systematic method is employed to search for the design with a maximal singularity-free joint space. The related workspaces are also investigated. It is shown that the workspace is not proportional to the size of the joint space and that manipulators with a larger singularity-free workspace usually have relatively poor dexterity.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The effects of source field plates on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor reliability under off-state stress conditions were investigated using step-stress cycling. The source field plate enhanced the drain breakdown voltage from 55V to 155V and the critical voltage for off-state gate stress from 40V to 65V, relative to devices without the field plate. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the degradation of the gate contacts. The presence of cracking that appeared on both source and drain side of the gate edges was attributed to the inverse piezoelectric effect. In addition, a thin oxide layer was observed between the Ni gate contact and the AlGaN layer, and both Ni and oxygen had diffused into the AlGaN layer. The critical degradation voltage of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors during off-state electrical stress was determined as a function of Ni/Au gate dimensions (0.1-0.17μm). Devices with different gate length and gate-drain distances were found to exhibit the onset of degradation at different source-drain biases but similar electric field strengths, showing that the degradation mechanism is primarily field-driven. The temperature dependence of sub-threshold drain current versus gate voltage at a constant drain bias voltage were used to determine the trap densities in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) before and after the off-state stress. Two different trap densities were obtained for the measurements conducted at 300-493K and 493-573K, respectively.
Water vapor megamasers from the center of active galaxies provide a powerful tool to trace accretion disks at sub-parsec resolution and, through an entirely geometrical method, measure direct distances to galaxies up to 200 Mpc. The Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) is formed by a team of astronomers with the aim of identifying new maser systems, and mapping their emission at high angular resolution to determine their distance. Two types of observations are necessary to measure a distance: single-dish monitoring to measure the acceleration of gas in the disk, and sensitive VLBI imaging to measure the angular size of the disk, measure the rotation curve, and model radial displacement of the maser feature. The ultimate goal of the MCP is to make a precise measurement of H0 by measuring such distances to at least 10 maser galaxies in the Hubble flow. We present here the preliminary results from a new maser system, Mrk 1419. Through a model of the rotation from the systemic masers assuming a narrow ring, and combining these results with the acceleration measurement from the Green Bank Telescope, we determine a distance to Mrk 1419 of 81 ± 10 Mpc. Given that the disk shows a significant warp that may not be entirely traced by our current observations, more sensitive observations and more sophisticated disk modeling will be essential to improve our distance estimation to this galaxy.
The Hubble constant H0 describes not only the expansion of local space at redshift z ~ 0, but is also a fundamental parameter determining the evolution of the universe. Recent measurements of H0 anchored on Cepheid observations have reached a precision of several percent. However, this problem is so important that confirmation from several methods is needed to better constrain H0 and, with it, dark energy and the curvature of space. A particularly direct method involves the determination of distances to local galaxies far enough to be part of the Hubble flow through water vapor (H2O) masers orbiting nuclear supermassive black holes. The goal of this article is to describe the relevance of H0 with respect to fundamental cosmological questions and to summarize recent progress of the ‘Megamaser Cosmology Project’ (MCP) related to the Hubble constant.
This study presents an analytical model for describing propagation of Rayleigh waves along the impermeable surface of an unsaturated poroelastic half-space. This model is based on the existence of the three modes of dilatational waves which employ the poroelastic equations developed for a porous medium containing two immiscible viscous compressible fluids (Lo, Sposito and Majer, ). In a two-fluid saturated medium, the three Rayleigh waves induced by the three dilatational waves can be expressed as R1, R2, and R3 waves in descending order of phase speed magnitude. As the excitation frequency and water saturation are given, the dispersion equation of a cubic polynomial can be solved numerically to obtain the phase speeds and attenuation coefficients of the R1, R2, and R3 waves. The numerical results show the phase speed of the R1 wave is frequency independent (non-dispersive). Comparatively, the R1 wave speed is 93 ∼ 95% of the shear wave speed, and 28% to 49% of the first dilatational wave speed for selected frequencies between 50Hz & 200Hz and relative water saturation ranging from 0.01 to 0.99. However, the R2 and R3 waves are dispersive at the frequencies examined. The ratios of R2 and R3 wave phase speeds to the second and third dilatational wave speeds fall between 56% and 90%. The R1 wave attenuates the least while the R3 wave has the highest attenuation coefficient. Furthermore, the phase speed of the R1 wave under an impermeable surface approaches 1.01 ∼ 1.37 times of the R1 wave under a permeable boundary. Impermeability has significant influence on the phase speeds and attenuation coefficients of the R1 and R2 waves at high water saturation due to the existence of confined fluids.
AlxGa1- xN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures grown by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are focused-ion-beam implanted with 300 keV Gd-ions at room temperature. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of these HEMT structures is located 27 nm underneath the sample surface. At 4.2 K, current-voltage characteristics across implanted rectangles show that the structures remain conducting up to a Gd-dose of 1×1012 cm-2. Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is observed at T = 4.2 K for structures implanted with Gd, whose dose is 3×1011 cm-2. Measurements of AHE in the wide temperature range from 2.4 K to 300 K show that the magnetic ordering temperature of these structures is around 100 K. Therefore, these Gd-implanted HEMT structures containing the still conducting 2DEG, which is now embedded in a ferromagnetic semiconductor, open the possibility to polarize the electron spins.
A determination of the Hubble Constant (H0) to better than 3% would be the best complement to cosmic microwave background (CMB) data to constrain the equation of state of Dark Energy. Water vapor megamasers provide perhaps the best opportunity for measuring direct distances to galaxies out to about 200 Mpc. We have formed a team of astronomers in the Megamaser Cosmology Project to pursue the ambitious goal of making a precise measurement of H0 by measuring such distances using the techniques pioneered on the disk maser in NGC 4258 by Herrnstein et al (1999). In recent surveys we have made significant progress identifying new maser systems analogous to that in NGC 4258, but more distant. Once the appropriate candidates are identified, two types of observations are necessary to ultimately measure a distance: single-dish monitoring to measure the acceleration of gas in the disk, and sensitive VLBI imaging in order to measure the angular size of the disk, measure the rotation curve, and model radial displacement of the systemic maser features. We have recently obtained preliminary VLBI maps of the masers in two systems, NGC 6323 and UGC 3789. The maser disks in both galaxies were discovered and monitored with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and subsequently imaged with the High Sensitivity Array (VLBA + GBT + Effelsberg). In this contribution we present a map of the maser distribution in one of those systems, NGC 6323. The map demonstrates that pc-scale maser disks as distant as ~ 100 Mpc can be imaged with existing telescopes. Results on UGC 3789 will be presented in a later publication.
We present an atlas of extragalactic water vapor masers. As of 2007, one hundred galaxies have been detected as sources of water vapor maser emission, two thirds of them discovered since 2003. Extragalactic water masers fall in at least three categories: those associated with nuclear jets or winds, those in starbursts or star-forming regions, and those in AGN accretion disks. While all maser systems offer the possibility of unique investigations into their physical environments, it is the disk masers that have been most aggressively sought because of their potential for use as precision distance indicators. Type 2 Seyfert and LINER galaxies are hosts to such disk masers. Insingle-dish spectra, disk masers are often revealed by the presence of high-velocity emission features (defined roughly by having anomalous velocities in excess of 200 km s−1). About one third of the extragalactic water masers detected to date show evidence of disk origin. Only a few galaxies are currently identified as jet-type or star-forming type. The remaining systems show only a few narrow doppler components, usually near the systemic velocity, and are difficult to categorize. These unclassified systems are detected toward AGNs and are also possibly associated with disks or winds near the nucleus. Detection rates in large maser surveys are typically 5% or less, but the observing efficiency and sensitivity of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) allow for short integration times (typically 10 minutes to detect a narrow 30 mJy line) so many galaxies can be searched. Recently, GBT surveys targeting type 2 Seyfert galaxies identified by the SDSS have been the most productive, identifying 17 systems in surveys observed during 2006.
Twenty-one Candida albicans isolates from three HIV-infected patients were collected over a period of 3 years and characterized for fluconazole susceptibility, infectivity and genetic relatedness. Fluconazole resistance was found in five isolates, four exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility and the remainder were fully susceptible to this agent. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SfiI restriction digests of the genomic DNA from the isolates revealed that isolates from the same swab specimen were identical despite differences in susceptibility to fluconazole and isolates recovered over time from the three patients retained clonally related DNA fingerprints within each patient. This small-scale study confirms the persistence of oral colonization of C. albicans strains in HIV-infected patients. Clinical data also suggests that the primary infecting strain may become a persistent colonist in the oral cavity once the immune function of the patient has been restored.
Susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of 628 clinical yeast strains collected from 22 hospitals in Taiwan were determined. A total of 53 isolates (8·4%) were resistant to fluconazole. Each hospital had different resistance rate to fluconazole ranging from 0% to 24%. None of the 186 isolates from eight of the 22 hospitals was resistant to fluconazole. In contrast, isolates from nine of the remaining 14 hospitals had greater than 10% resistance rate to fluconazole. Consistently, 88·9% (8/9) fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates were from hospitals having a high resistance rate to fluconazole. The prevalence of various Candida spp. in each hospital was different. A positive association was found between the prevalence of C. tropicalis and the resistance rate to fluconazole for individual hospitals. Although only three isolates (0·5%) were resistant to amphotericin B, a co-resistance to both amphotericin B and fluconazole was observed, which highlights the emerging problem of drug resistance.