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In our attempt to investigate the basic active galactic nucleus (AGN) paradigm requiring a centrally located supermassive black hole (SMBH), a close to Keplerian accretion disk and a jet perpendicular to its plane, we have searched for radio continuum in galaxies with H2O megamasers in their disks. We observed 18 such galaxies with the Very Large Baseline Array in C band (5 GHz, ~2 mas resolution) and we detected 5 galaxies at 8 σ or higher levels. For those sources for which the maser data is available, the positions of masers and those of the 5 GHz radio continuum sources coincide within the uncertainties, and the radio continuum is perpendicular to the maser disk’s orientation within the position angle uncertainties.
We summarize the results and interpretation of a four station transcontinental VLBI experiment of the luminous water masers in the nearby galaxy NGC 4258. At a distance of 5 Mpc, the longest baseline of the experiment provides spatial resolution of less than 1016 cm. The strongest maser emission was detected on all baselines, and was found to consist of at least two features separated by about 0.1 mas (1016 cm). Weaker features are possibly spread over a region up to 1 mas in size. These results provide evidence that supports the scenario described by Claussen and Lo (1986) which suggests that the very luminous water masers reside in molecular gas that immediately surrounds the central, active nucleus.
Mid and far IR measurements of polarized dust continuum emission from within the central 5 pc of the Galaxy have been cited as evidence for magnetic alignment of dust grains. Indirect arguments have been used to infer a B-field strength of ~ 10 mG. The presence of such high B-field would play a significant role in the hydrodynamics of the ionized and neutral gas within the region. To obtain a direct measurement of the line-of-sight B-field strength, we conducted VLA observations to try and detect the Zeeman splitting in the 1667 MHz OH absorption line against the SgrA radio source. We observed with A/B configuration, 256 1.1 km s−1 channels, and 3 arcsec resolution. In addition, both left and right circular polarizations were acquired simultaneously. We used the maximum likelihood statistical analysis technique for low signal-to-noise ratio Zeeman data discussed by Sault, Killeen, Loushin, and Zmuidzinas (1989). Analysis of the resulting absorption line spectra is complicated by the many foreground clouds. Excluding the foreground clouds by judicious selection of spectral windows, the strongest absorption by the molecular material closest (in projection) to SgrA∗ is in what Güsten et al. (1987) refer to as the redshifted cloud (it does not appear to be partaking in the general rotation of the circum-nuclear disk but is thought to be in the local vicinity of SgrA∗). Preliminary analysis reveals no detections, and 3-σ upper limits to the line-of-sight magnetic field throughout the red-shifted cloud of approximately 4 mG. By careful simulation of the lines (Gaussians are quite good approximations to these broad [40 km s−1] lines) in select spatial regions of the redshifted cloud, we find that a line-of-sight field as strong as 10 mG should be clearly detectable at about the 10-σ level if it is present. Our data do not show fields at this level.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Hα + [NII] and red continuum CCD images as well as high resolution aperture synthesis CO maps were obtained in order to study the optical jet of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 4258. The CO observations show two clouds near the center of the galaxy; these clouds outline a channel and the Hα jet follows this channel. The observations are consistent with the jet being in or making a small angle with the galaxy plane. It is concluded that the interstellar medium may play an important role in making jets detectable optically and in shaping their forms.
Observations of the 12.8 μm [NeII] line emission, the OH absorption against Sgr A and the HCN emission were compared to determine the relationship between the ionized and neutral gas in the central 10 pc of the Galaxy. The distribution of the neutral gas is too asymmetric to be a ring or disk. Along the western arc, the ionized gas velocity is very different from that of the neutral gas, suggesting it may not be the ionized inner edge of the circum-nuclear neutral gas.
The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male–female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations.
The imaginary part of the Clausius-Mossotti factor, Ki, is crucial for quantitative particle/cell manipulation and characterization using travelling wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) and electrorotation (ER). It can be measured rather easily using twDEP instead of using ER, as numerical calculation of the electric field and complicated devices are not needed for evaluating Ki using twDEP. However, the current single frequency twDEP method works only for particles/cells exhibiting negative dielectrophoresis (DEP), which is in general the case when cells are manipulated in physiological strength buffers with conductivity of order of 1S/m. In order to remove such a restriction, a modified twDEP method is proposed using dual frequency operation here capable of measuring the Ki spectra of particles/cells for the entire range of medium conductivity, irrespectively of whether the particles/cells exhibit positive or negative DEP. The success of the modified method relies on the adequate design of force balance between various forces in a designed micro channel, which was discussed in details. The method was validated, and demonstrated by measuring Ki spectra of three human cancer cells for medium conductivity from 0.01 ~ 1.2S/m. Both the method and the cell result find biomedical and other industrial applications.
We made dynamical black hole mass measurements from nineteen Seyfert 2 galaxies which host sub-parsec H2O maser disks using the H2O megamaser technique. The nearly perfect Keplerian rotation curves in many of these maser systems guarantee the high accuracy and precision of the black hole mass measurements. With the stellar velocity dispersion (σ∗) of the galaxy bulges measured with the Dupont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in the South and the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope in the North, we found that H2O maser galaxies, most of which host pseudo bulges rather than classical bulges, do not all follow the MBH–σ∗ relation shown in the literature. This result is well consistent with the latest findings by Kormendy & Ho (2013) that only early type galaxies and galaxies with classical bulges follow a tight MBH–σ∗ relation. Such a tight correlation may not exist in pseudo bulge galaxies.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
Singularity-free workspace is a very important criterion for the design of manipulators, especially for parallel manipulators which are well known for their limited workspace and complex singularities. This paper studies geometric parameters and dexterity measures that affect the size of a singularity-free joint space and proposes methods for the development of 6-DOF Stewart–Gough parallel manipulators that have better singularity-free joint space. With a local dexterity measure as the objective function, a systematic method is employed to search for the design with a maximal singularity-free joint space. The related workspaces are also investigated. It is shown that the workspace is not proportional to the size of the joint space and that manipulators with a larger singularity-free workspace usually have relatively poor dexterity.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The effects of source field plates on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor reliability under off-state stress conditions were investigated using step-stress cycling. The source field plate enhanced the drain breakdown voltage from 55V to 155V and the critical voltage for off-state gate stress from 40V to 65V, relative to devices without the field plate. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the degradation of the gate contacts. The presence of cracking that appeared on both source and drain side of the gate edges was attributed to the inverse piezoelectric effect. In addition, a thin oxide layer was observed between the Ni gate contact and the AlGaN layer, and both Ni and oxygen had diffused into the AlGaN layer. The critical degradation voltage of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors during off-state electrical stress was determined as a function of Ni/Au gate dimensions (0.1-0.17μm). Devices with different gate length and gate-drain distances were found to exhibit the onset of degradation at different source-drain biases but similar electric field strengths, showing that the degradation mechanism is primarily field-driven. The temperature dependence of sub-threshold drain current versus gate voltage at a constant drain bias voltage were used to determine the trap densities in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) before and after the off-state stress. Two different trap densities were obtained for the measurements conducted at 300-493K and 493-573K, respectively.
Water vapor megamasers from the center of active galaxies provide a powerful tool to trace accretion disks at sub-parsec resolution and, through an entirely geometrical method, measure direct distances to galaxies up to 200 Mpc. The Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) is formed by a team of astronomers with the aim of identifying new maser systems, and mapping their emission at high angular resolution to determine their distance. Two types of observations are necessary to measure a distance: single-dish monitoring to measure the acceleration of gas in the disk, and sensitive VLBI imaging to measure the angular size of the disk, measure the rotation curve, and model radial displacement of the maser feature. The ultimate goal of the MCP is to make a precise measurement of H0 by measuring such distances to at least 10 maser galaxies in the Hubble flow. We present here the preliminary results from a new maser system, Mrk 1419. Through a model of the rotation from the systemic masers assuming a narrow ring, and combining these results with the acceleration measurement from the Green Bank Telescope, we determine a distance to Mrk 1419 of 81 ± 10 Mpc. Given that the disk shows a significant warp that may not be entirely traced by our current observations, more sensitive observations and more sophisticated disk modeling will be essential to improve our distance estimation to this galaxy.
The Hubble constant H0 describes not only the expansion of local space at redshift z ~ 0, but is also a fundamental parameter determining the evolution of the universe. Recent measurements of H0 anchored on Cepheid observations have reached a precision of several percent. However, this problem is so important that confirmation from several methods is needed to better constrain H0 and, with it, dark energy and the curvature of space. A particularly direct method involves the determination of distances to local galaxies far enough to be part of the Hubble flow through water vapor (H2O) masers orbiting nuclear supermassive black holes. The goal of this article is to describe the relevance of H0 with respect to fundamental cosmological questions and to summarize recent progress of the ‘Megamaser Cosmology Project’ (MCP) related to the Hubble constant.
Effects of defect evolution during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the anomalous diffusion of ion implanted boron have been studied by implanting silicon ions prior to boron implantation with doses ranging from 1 × 1014cm−2 to 1 × 1016cm−2 at energies ranging from 20 to 150 KeV into silicon wafers. Diffusion of boron atoms implanted into a Si preamorphized layer during RTA is found to be anomalous in nature, and the magnitude of boron displacement depends on the RTA temperature. While RTA of preamorphized samples at 1150°C shows an enhanced boron displacement compared to that in crystalline samples, a reduced displacement is observed in preamorphized samples annealed by RTA at 1000°C. In addition, low dose pre-silicon implantation enhances the anomalous displacement significantly, especially at high RTA temperatures (1 150°C). Finally, the anomalous diffusion is found to depend strongly on the defect evolution during RTA.
We propose a new approach, growth on compliant substrates, to achieve extended pseudomorphic limits. The compliant substrate can be approximately achieved with a corner supported membrane structure. Both thermal equilibrium model and dynamic model considering strain relaxation are used to analyze the relations between the extended critical thickness and the substrate thickness. Preliminary experimental results of InGaAs grown on GaAs membranes seem to support the theories.
The sputtering of In and Ga atoms from a “liquid” target composedof gallium coveredby a surface monolayer of indium by incident 5 keV Ar+ ions was simulated using the multiple interaction molecular dynamics technique. Yields, energy distributions, and angular distributions of sputtered atoms were obtained at a temperature above the melting point for the eutectic alloy. Similar information was obtained for a pure gallium and a pure indium target. Our results for layer yield ratios and angular distributions are in good qualitative agreement with Dumke's experimental data for the Ar+, In-Ga system. Absolute yields, however, were found to be sensitive to the detailed nature of the two-body potentials used to describe the atom-atom interactions.