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The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine whether a DAT1 haplotype affected functional and structural brain alterations in children with ADHD and whether those alterations were associated with visual memory.
We recruited a total of 37 drug-naïve children with ADHD (17 with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype) and 37 typically developing children (17 with the CT haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype). Visual memory was assessed by the pattern recognition memory (PRM) and spatial recognition memory (SRM) tasks. We analyzed functional and structural brain architecture with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and gray matter volume (GMV).
The CT haplotype was associated with decreased ReHo in the left superior occipital gyrus, cuneus, and precuneus; and decreased GMV in the left superior occipital gyrus, cuneus, and precuneus, and in the right angular gyrus. Significant interactions of ADHD and the CT haplotype were found in the right postcentral gyrus for ReHo and in the right supplementary motor area for GMV. For the ADHD-CT group, we found negative correlations of total correct responses in PRM and SRM and positive correlations of mean latency of correct responses in PRM with the GMV in the left superior occipital gyrus, cuneus, and precuneus.
Our findings suggest that the DAT1-related GMV alterations in the posterior cortical regions may contribute to visual memory performance in children with ADHD.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the search for definite genetic etiologies remains elusive. Delineating ASD endophenotypes can boost the statistical power to identify the genetic etiologies and pathophysiology of ASD. We aimed to test for endophenotypes of neuroanatomy and associated intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) via contrasting male youth with ASD, their unaffected brothers and typically developing (TD) males.
The 94 participants (aged 9–19 years) – 20 male youth with ASD, 20 unaffected brothers and 54 TD males – received clinical assessments, and undertook structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to obtain regional gray and white matter volumes. A seed-based approach, with seeds defined by the regions demonstrating atypical neuroanatomy shared by youth with ASD and unaffected brothers, was implemented to derive iFC. General linear models were used to compare brain structures and iFC among the three groups. Assessment of familiality was investigated by permutation tests for variance of the within-family pair difference.
We found that atypical gray matter volume in the mid-cingulate cortex was shared between male youth with ASD and their unaffected brothers as compared with TD males. Moreover, reduced iFC between the mid-cingulate cortex and the right inferior frontal gyrus, and increased iFC between the mid-cingulate cortex and bilateral middle occipital gyrus were the shared features of male ASD youth and unaffected brothers.
Atypical neuroanatomy and iFC surrounding the mid-cingulate cortex may be a potential endophenotypic marker for ASD in males.
Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are commonly prescribed for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, their therapeutic neural mechanisms remain unclear.
After baseline evaluation including cognitive testing of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), drug-naive children with ADHD (n = 46), aged 7–17 years, were randomly assigned to a 12-week treatment with methylphenidate (n = 22) or atomoxetine (n = 24). Intrinsic brain activity, including the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo), was quantified via resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and week 12.
Reductions in inattentive symptoms were related to increased fALFF in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule for ADHD children treated with methylphenidate, and in the left lingual gyrus and left inferior occipital gyrus for ADHD children treated with atomoxetine. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom reductions were differentially related to increased fALFF in the methylphenidate group and to decreased fALFF in the atomoxetine group in bilateral precentral and postcentral gyri. Prediction analyses in the atomoxetine group revealed negative correlations between pre-treatment CANTAB simple reaction time and fALFF change in the left lingual gyrus and left inferior occipital gyrus, and positive correlations between pre-treatment CANTAB simple movement time and fALFF change in bilateral precentral and postcentral gyri and left precuneus, with a negative correlation between movement time and the fALFF change in the left lingual gyrus and the inferior occipital gyrus.
Our findings suggest differential neurophysiological mechanisms for the treatment effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in children with ADHD.
The collision between aqueous drops in air typically leads to coalescence after impact. Rebounding of the droplets with similar sizes at atmospheric conditions is not generated, unless with significantly large pressure or high impact parameters exhibiting near-grazing collision. Here we demonstrate experimentally the creation of a non-coalescent regime through addition of a small amount of water-soluble surfactant. We perform a direct simulation to account for the continuum and short-range flow dynamics of the approaching interfaces, as affected by the soluble surfactant. Based on the immersed-boundary formulation, a conservative scheme is developed for solving the coupled surface-bulk convection–diffusion concentration equations, which presents excellent mass preservation in the solvent as well as conservation of total surfactant mass. We show that the Marangoni effect, caused by non-uniform distributions of surfactant on the droplet surface and surface tension, induces stresses that oppose the draining of gas in the interstitial gap, and hence prohibits merging of the interfaces. In such gas–liquid systems, the repulsion caused by the addition of surfactant, as frequently observed in liquid–liquid systems such as emulsions in the form of an electric double-layer force, was found to be too weak to dominate in the attainable range of interfacial separation distances. These results thus identify the key mechanisms governing the impact dynamics of surfactant-coated droplets in air and imply the potential of using a small amount of surfactant to manipulate impact outcomes, for example, to prevent coalescence between droplets or interfaces in gases.
The relationship between white-matter tracts and executive functions (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well studied and previous studies mainly focused on frontostriatal (FS) tracts. The authors explored the microstructural property of several fibre tracts hypothesized to be involved in EF, to correlate their microstructural property with EF, and to explore whether such associations differ between ADHD and typically developing (TD) youths.
We assessed 45 youths with ADHD and 45 individually matched TD youths with a computerized test battery for multiple dimensions of EF. From magnetic resonance imaging, FS tract, superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), arcuate fasciculus (AF) and cingulum bundle (CB) were reconstructed by diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. The generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values of white-matter tracts were computed to present microstructural property of each tract.
We found lower GFA in the left FS tract, left SLF, left AF and right CB, and poorer performance in set-shifting, sustained attention, cognitive inhibition and visuospatial planning in ADHD than TD. The ADHD and TD groups demonstrated different association patterns between EF and fibre tract microstructural property. Most of the EF were associated with microstructural integrity of the FS tract and CB in TD youths, while with that of the FS tract, SLF and AF in youths with ADHD.
Our findings support that the SLF, AF and CB also involve in a wide range of EF and that the main fibre tracts involved in EF are different in youths with ADHD.
Deficits in executive function (EF), impaired school functioning and altered white matter integrity in frontostriatal networks have been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, relationships between impairments in these areas are unclear. Using a sample of youths with and without ADHD, this study examined the association between microstructural integrity of frontostriatal tracts and school dysfunction and the mediating roles of EF and ADHD symptoms in this association.
The sample included 32 Taiwanese youths with ADHD and 32 age-, sex-, handedness- and IQ-matched typically-developing (TD) youths. Participants were assessed using psychiatric interviews, parent reports on ADHD symptoms and school functioning, and EF measures from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The frontostriatal tracts were reconstructed by diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography and were subdivided into four functionally distinct segments: caudate–dorsolateral, caudate–medial prefrontal, caudate–orbitofrontal and caudate–ventrolateral tracts.
Youths with ADHD, relative to TD youths, showed altered white matter integrity in all four bilateral pairs of frontostriatal tracts (decreased general fractional anisotropy, GFA), had poor attention, vigilance and response inhibition, and showed impaired school functioning. Altered microstructural integrity in frontostriatal tracts was significantly associated with school dysfunction, which was mediated by EF measures of attention/vigilance and response inhibition in addition to inattention and hyperactivity symptoms.
Our findings demonstrate an association between white matter integrity in the frontostriatal networks and school functioning and suggest that EF deficits and ADHD symptoms may be the mediating mechanisms for this association. Future research is needed to test the directionality and specificity of this finding.
Increased intra-individual variability (IIV) in reaction time (RT) across various tasks is one ubiquitous neuropsychological finding in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, neurobiological underpinnings of IIV in individuals with ADHD have not yet been fully delineated. The ex-Gaussian distribution has been proved to capture IIV in RT. The authors explored the three parameters [μ (mu), σ (sigma), τ (tau)] of an ex-Gaussian RT distribution derived from the Conners' continuous performance test (CCPT) and their correlations with the microstructural integrity of the frontostriatal–caudate tracts and the cingulum bundles.
We assessed 28 youths with ADHD (8–17 years; 25 males) and 28 age-, sex-, IQ- and handedness-matched typically developing (TD) youths using the CCPT, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Microstructural integrity, indexed by generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), was measured by diffusion spectrum imaging tractrography on a 3-T MRI system.
Youths with ADHD had larger σ (s.d. of Gaussian distribution) and τ (mean of exponential distribution) and reduced GFA in four bilateral frontostriatal tracts. With increased inter-stimulus intervals of CCPT, the magnitude of greater τ in ADHD than TD increased. In ADHD youths, the cingulum bundles and frontostriatal integrity were associated with three ex-Gaussian parameters and with μ (mean of Gaussian distribution) and τ, respectively; while only frontostriatal GFA was associated with μ and τ in TD youths.
Our findings suggest the crucial role of the integrity of the cingulum bundles in accounting for IIV in ADHD. Involvement of different brain systems in mediating IIV may relate to a distinctive pathophysiological processing and/or adaptive compensatory mechanism.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognized as an early-onset neuropsychiatric disorder with executive dysfunctions and neurobiological deficits. The authors compared executive functions and microstructural integrity of the frontostriatal circuit in children with ADHD and typically developing children.
We assessed 25 children with ADHD and 25 age-, sex-, handedness- and intelligence-matched typically developing children by using psychiatric interviews, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – third edition, and the tasks involving executive functions in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The frontostriatal tracts were reconstructed by diffusion spectrum imaging tractography and were subdivided into four functionally distinct segments, including dorsolateral, medial prefrontal, orbitofrontal and ventrolateral tracts. Tract-specific and matched case-control analyses were used and generalized fractional anisotropy values were computed.
Children with ADHD had lower generalized fractional anisotropy of all the bilateral frontostriatal fiber tracts and poorer performance in verbal and spatial working memory, set-shifting, sustained attention, cognitive inhibition and visuospatial planning. The symptom severity of ADHD and the executive functioning performance significantly correlated with integrity of the frontostriatal tracts, particularly the left orbitofrontal and ventrolateral tracts. Children with ADHD also demonstrated loss of the leftward asymmetry in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal tracts that was present in typically developing children.
Our findings demonstrate disturbed structural connectivity of the frontostriatal circuitry in children with ADHD and add new evidence of associations between integrity of the frontostriatal tracts and measures of core symptoms of ADHD and a wide range of executive dysfunctions in both groups.
The previous monolithic active grating bender design met some basic design requirements. However, after a real grating (BM-AGM) had been fabricated and installed for testing, the results showed that the usable length is a mere 60 mm because of the higher-order term error in the surface profile. A method was thus derived to eliminate the higher-order term error by modifying the width of the bender substrate through finite-element method simulation, reducing the residual error from about 100 nm to 6 nm. Owing to the closure of the grating department of Zeiss, ruling the monolithic bender is no longer available and the design has to be modified to a composite-type bender with Si substrate. A prototype was fabricated and assembled to examine all the design situations. The surface roughness of the width-modified Si substrate is around 30 nm before assembly. The residual error after assembly and bending is less than 10 nm. It proves that the design is feasible. However, due to the manufacturing capacity of the vendor, a short-length substrate is required and the design has to be modified. The detailed design modification and testing results are presented in this paper.
Taiwan Photon Source is a new 3-GeV ring with characteristics of great brightness and small emittance, at present under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) site in Taiwan and due to be commissioned in 2013. The positioning of the magnets is highly sensitive to alignment errors, and the entire building will be constructed half underground at depth 12 m relative to Taiwan Light Source (TLS) for stability reasons; for these reasons the survey and alignment work is confined and difficult. To position magnets precisely and quickly, a highly accurate auto-tuning girder system combined with a survey network was designed to accomplish the alignment tasks. The survey network includes a preliminary Global Positioning System (GPS) network and a laser-tracking network. The position data from the survey network define a basis for the system of motorized girders to auto-tune and improve the accuracy. The detailed survey and alignment design, simulation and preliminary data are described in this paper.
A precise laser positioning system had been preliminarily developed for the girder system of the Taiwan Photon Source. This laser positioning system, a part of a girder auto-alignment scheme, will be installed on the girders located at both sides of each straight section of the storage ring. The system is composed of a laser and four sets of a position sensing device (PSD). The laser, held on one girder, propagates 13 m along the girder and plays the role of a reference line of girders of the straight section. Based on the laser linear characteristics, the other girder can be adjusted and aligned by a cam mover according to PSD data. To achieve superior precision, the whole laser positioning system should be constructed stably. After making some improvements to eliminate the unstable terms, the precision of the laser positioning system can achieve 2 µm at 13 m propagating distance every 4 h.
Taiwan Photon Source is now under construction at NSRRC Taiwan. In order to maintain the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) for normal operation, a hydrostatic levelling system and precision inclination sensor (Leica Nivel 220) were installed both in the storage ring and beamlines to monitor ground deformation arising. This paper presents the monitoring system setup and the circumstances of ground deformation including vertical settlement and floor inclination during the ground breaking period to provide a criterion for TLS operation.
Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a new 3 GeV synchrotron ring, is under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). To discover problems of design, manufacture and installation, a mockup of 1/24 section (one cell) of TPS was installed at NSRRC. A modified, precise, six-axis, prototype girder system of this mockup composed of three girders was fabricated. We discuss both the installation of the girder system and its diagnostics, and present the results including measurement of the dimensions of the components of the girder system and the vibration tests.
Noroviruses are an important aetiological agent of acute gastroenteritis. They are responsible for large outbreaks of disease in the community, hospitals and long-term-care facilities. The clinical manifestations of norovirus outbreaks in psychiatric units are rarely described. The disease burden and impact highlight the importance of timely notification and investigation of these outbreaks. We analysed the characteristics of four norovirus outbreaks which occurred during a 3-year period in an in-patient psychiatric care unit. A total of 184 patients were affected which included 172 hospitalized patients, seven healthcare workers (HCWs) and five psychiatric nursing-home residents. The mean incidence rate of norovirus gastroenteritis (NVG) in hospitalized patients during these outbreaks was 12·7%. These outbreaks were characterized by higher incidence in middle-aged male patients, predominant sickness of diarrhoea, short duration of illness, peaks in late winter and early spring, and higher susceptibility in acute psychiatric patients. HCWs had longer duration of illness than psychiatric patients. More than 10% of affected patients experienced ⩾2 infections. Infection control measures were instituted and a comprehensive, responsive standard operating procedure for NVG and outbreak management was developed. After implementation of these measures, no further outbreaks of NVG occurred during the study period.
Studies of the wafer edge uniformity step by step, from hard mask deposition, reactive ion etch, electroplating to post Cu CMP had been done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, showed that the major wafer non-uniformity comes from the Cu CMP step. Improvement of Cu CMP edge uniformity had been achieved through engineering of platen 1 using real time profile control as well as CMP head zone pressure adjustment and platen 3 slurry optimizations
The temperature versus life (T-N) curves of both centrally notched and unnotched AS-4/PEEK (APC-2) composite laminates due to constant stress amplitude tension-tension (T-T) fatigue loading were investigated systematically. The cross-ply laminate possesses the higher mechanical properties than those of the quasi-isotropic laminate at elevated temperature, and also the mechanical properties of both lay-ups are degraded significantly as the temperature increasing. Combining both effects of notch and temperature at various normalized stresses it is found the cross-ply laminate possesses more resistance to cyclic loading than that of the quasi-isotropic laminate. Additionally, the predictive strain model is in a practical and simple form. Alternatively, the T-N curves, instead of conventionally S-N curves, at variously applied stresses are accomplished for preliminary designs and applications.
This research focuses on the analysis of vibration and noise control of a fuselage. A closed cylindrical shell is chosen as the theoretical model of the fuselage of an aircraft. The noise resulted from propellers is the main source of excitation to the fuselage vibration. The vibration can further induce interior noise within the fuselage. For attenuating the vibration of the fuselage and its accompanying interior noise, several pairs of piezoelectric sheets are attached to the shell. Each piezoelectric pair connected to an appropriate electric circuit can serve as a dynamic absorber. For a better performance, feedback control algorithms are introduced to form active absorbers. The dynamic responses of the composite cylindrical shell and the corresponding interior sound fields are analytically formulated. Numerical results are presented. The active absorbers are proven to yield good effects on vibration and noise reductions. Some parameter studies are also given in this manuscript.
Understanding the organic chemistry of molecular clouds, particularly the formation of biologically important molecules, is fundamental to the study of the processes which lead to the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the Galaxy. Determining the level of molecular complexity attainable in the clouds, and the nature of the complex organic material available to protostellar disks and the planetary systems that form from them, requires an understanding of the possible chemical pathways and is therefore a central question in astrochemistry. We have thus searched for prebiologically important molecules in the hot molecular cloud cores: Sgr B2(N-LMH), W51 e1/e2 and Orion-KL. Among the molecules searched: Pyrimidine is the unsubstituted ring analogue for three of the DNA and RNA bases. 2H-Azirine and Aziridine are azaheterocyclic compounds. And Glycine is the simplest amino acid. Detections of these interstellar organic molecular species will thus have important implications for Astrobiology. Our preliminary results indicate a tentative detection of interstellar glycine. If confirmed, this will be the first detection of an amino acid in interstellar space and will greatly strengthen the thesis that interstellar organic molecules could have played a pivotal role in the prebiotic chemistry of the early Earth.