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As a typical plasma-based optical element that can sustain ultra-high light intensity, plasma density gratings driven by intense laser pulses have been extensively studied for wide applications. Here, we show that the plasma density grating driven by two intersecting driver laser pulses is not only nonuniform in space but also varies over time. Consequently, the probe laser pulse that passes through such a dynamic plasma density grating will be depolarized, that is, its polarization becomes spatially and temporally variable. More importantly, the laser depolarization may spontaneously take place for crossed laser beams if their polarization angles are arranged properly. The laser depolarization by a dynamic plasma density grating may find application in mitigating parametric instabilities in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion.
FFD (free-form deformation method) is one of the most commonly used parameterisation methods at present. It places the parameterised objects inside the control volume through coordinate system transformation, and controls the control volume through control points, thus realising the deformation control of its internal objects. Firstly, this paper systematically analyses and compares the characteristics and technical requirements of Bernstein, B-spline and NURBS (non-uniform rational b-splines) basic functions that can be adopted by FFD, and uses the minimum number of control points required to achieve the specified control effect threshold to express the control capability. Aiming at the problem of discontinuity at the right end in the actual calculation of B-spline basis function, a method of adding a small epsilon is proposed to solve it. Then, three basic functions are applied to the FFD parameterisation method, respectively, and the differences are compared from two aspects of the accurate expression of the model and the ability of deformation control. It is found that the BFFD (b-spline free-form deformation) approach owns better comprehensive performance when the control points are distributed correctly. In this paper, the BFFD method is improved, and a p-BFFD (reverse solution points based BFFD) method based on inverse solution is proposed to realise the free distribution of control points under the specified topology. Further, for the lifting body configuration, the control points of the p-BFFD method are brought closer to the airframe forming the EDGE-p-BFFD (edge constraints based p-BFFD) method. For the case in this paper, the proposed EDGE-p-BFFD method not only has fairly high parameterisation accuracy, but also reduces the expression error from 1.01E-3 to 1.25E-4, which is nearly ten times. It can also achieve effective lifting body guideline constraints, and has the ability of local deformation adapting to the configuration characteristics. In terms of the proportion of effective control points, the EDGE-p-BFFD method increases the proportion of effective control points from 36.7% to 50%, and the more control points, the more obvious the proportion increase effect. The new method also has better effect on the continuity of geometric deformation. At the same time, this paper introduces the independent deformation method of the upper and lower surfaces based on the double control body frames, which effectively avoids the deformation coupling problem of the simultaneous change of the upper and lower surfaces caused by the movement of control points in the traditional single control framework.
This study aimed to establish a model for predicting the three-year survival status of patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using artificial intelligence algorithms.
Data from 295 patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were analysed retrospectively. Training sets comprised 70 per cent of the data and test sets the remaining 30 per cent. A total of 22 clinical parameters were included as training features. In total, 12 different types of machine learning algorithms were used for model construction. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and Cohen's kappa co-efficient were used to evaluate model performance.
The XGBoost algorithm achieved the best model performance. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and kappa value of the model were 80.9 per cent, 92.6 per cent, 62.9 per cent, 77.7 per cent and 58.1 per cent, respectively.
This study successfully identified a machine learning model for predicting three-year survival status for patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma that can offer a new prognostic evaluation method for the clinical treatment of these patients.
The pulsed jet is a novel and effective active mixing enhancement approach. For the transverse pulsed jet in the supersonic crossflow, the frequency influence is investigated using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model. The averaged flow field properties of the pulsed jet are better than those of the steady jet when considering mixing efficiency and jet penetration depth, especially for the case with the pulsed frequency being 50kHz. The flow field structures of the pulsed jet are connected with the time, with periodic wave structures generating in the flow field and moving downstream. The size of the wave structures and its distance are related to the frequency, namely the size and flow distance are relatively small at 50kHz, and it takes some time for the pulsed jet to establish its influence in the full flow field. At low frequencies, the flow field produces large fluctuations, and this may be detrimental to the stable operation of the engine.
Planting patterns have significant effects on rice growth. Nonetheless, little is known about differences in annual crop yield and resource utilization among mechanized rice planting patterns in a rice–wheat cropping system. Field experiments were conducted from 2014 to 2017 using three treatments: pot seedling transplanting for rice and row sowing for wheat (PST-RS), carpet seedling transplanting for rice and row sowing for wheat (CST-RS) and row sowing for both crops (RS-RS). The results showed that, compared with RS-RS, PST-RS and CST-RS prolonged annual crop growth duration by 25–26 and 13–15 days, increased effective accumulated temperature by 399 and 212°C days and increased cumulative solar radiation by 454 and 228 MJ/m2 because of the earlier sowing of rice by 28 and 16 days in PST-RS and CST-RS, respectively. Compared with RS-RS, the annual crop yield of PST-RS and CST-RS increased by 3.1–3.8 and 2.0–2.6 t/ha, respectively, because of the increase in the number of spikelets/kernels per hectare, aboveground biomass, mean leaf area index and grain–leaf ratio. In addition, temperature production efficiency, solar radiation production efficiency and solar radiation use efficiency were higher in PST-RS, followed by CST-RS and RS-RS. These results suggest that mechanized rice planting patterns such as PST-RS increase annual crop production in rice–wheat cropping systems by increasing yield and solar energy utilization.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
The epidemic of tuberculosis has posed a serious burden in Qinghai province, it is necessary to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of TB for future prevention and control measures. We used descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial statistical analysis including spatial correlation and spatial-temporal analysis in this study. Furthermore, we applied an exponential smoothing model for TB epidemiological trend forecasting. Of 43 859 TB cases, the sex ratio was 1.27:1 (M:F), and the average annual TB registered incidence was 70.00/100 000 of 2009–2019. More cases were reported in March and April, and the worst TB stricken regions were the prefectures of Golog and Yushu. High TB registered incidences were seen in males, farmers and herdsmen, Tibetans, or elderly people. 7132 cases were intractable, which were recurrent, drug resistant, or co-infected with other infections. Three likely cases clusters with significant high risk were found by spatial-temporal scan on data of 2009–2019. The exponential smoothing winters' additive model was selected as the best-fitting model to forecast monthly TB cases in the future. This research indicated that TB in Qinghai is still a serious threaten to the local residents' health. Multi-departmental collaboration and funds special for TB treatments and control are still needed, and the exponential smoothing model is promising which could be applied for forecasting of TB epidemic trend in this high-altitude province.
The extent of the reduction of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel moisture content through drying is closely related to field temperature (or accumulated temperature; AT) following maturation. In 2017 and 2018, we selected eight maize hybrids that are widely planted in Northeastern China to construct kernel drying prediction models for each hybrid based on kernel drying dynamics. In the traditional harvest scenario using the optimal sowing date (OSD), maize kernels underwent drying from 4th September to 5th October, with variation coefficients of 1.0–1.9. However, with a latest sowing date (LSD), drying occurred from 14th September to 31st October, with variation coefficients of 1.3–3.0. In the changed harvest scenario, the drying time of maize sown on the OSD condition was from 12th September to 9th November with variation coefficients of 1.3–3.0, while maize sown on the LSD had drying dates of 26th September to 28th October with variation coefficients of 1.5–3.6. In the future harvest scenario, the Fengken 139 (FK139) and Jingnongke 728 (JNK728) hybrids finished drying on 20th October and 8th November, respectively, when sown on the OSD and had variation coefficients of 2.7–2.8. Therefore, the maize kernel drying time was gradually delayed and was associated with an increased demand for AT ⩾ 0°C late in the growing season. Furthermore, we observed variation among different growing seasons likely due to differences in weather patterns, and that sowing dates impact variations in drying times to a greater extent than harvest scenarios.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by infection with the SFTS virus (SFTSV). Five electronic databases were systematically searched to identify relevant articles published from 1 January 2011 to 1 December 2019. The pooled rates with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by a fixed-effect or random-effect model analysis. The results showed that 92 articles were included in this meta-analysis. For the confirmed SFTS cases, the case-fatality rate was 0.15 (95% CI 0.11, 0.18). Two hundred and ninety-six of 1384 SFTS patients indicated that they had been bitten by ticks and the biting rate was 0.21 (95% CI 0.16, 0.26). The overall pooled seroprevalence of SFTSV antibodies among the healthy population was 0.04 (95% CI 0.03, 0.05). For the overall seroprevalence of SFTSV in animals, the seroprevalence of SFTSV was 0.25 (95% CI 0.20, 0.29). The infection rate of SFTSV in ticks was 0.08 (95% CI 0.05, 0.11). In conclusion, ticks can serve as transmitting vectors of SFTSVs and reservoir hosts. Animals can be infected by tick bites, and as a reservoir host, SFTSV circulates continuously between animals and ticks in nature. Humans are infected by tick bites and direct contact with patient secretions.
Increasing evidence supports that 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene(5HTTLPR) might associate to bipolar disorder and affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. But the results are discrepant, furthermore, there are no data from Chinese population.
The present study was designed to investigate association between 5HTTLPR and bipolar disorder and affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in the specific Chinese population and add new evidence to the field.
There hundred and five patients with bipolar disorder and 272 normal controls were included in the present case-control study⌧Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego -autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in Chinese was used to assess affective temperament. Chi-square test, T test, Nonparametric test and ANOVA were employed to explore association between 5HTTLPR polymorphism and bipolar disorder and affective temperament of patients with bipolar disorder.
5-HTTLPR L/S polymorphism was associated with bipolar disorder in female (genotype χ2 = 6.769⌧P = 0.034⌧allele χ2 = 6.028⌧P = 0.014) and the S allele was associated with anxious temperament (t = 8.248⌧P = 0.005) in patients with bipolar disorder. the LA allele of 5-HTTLPR rs25531 A/G polymorphism was associated with hyperthymic temperament in patients with bipolar disorder (Z = −2.205⌧P = 0.027).
5-HTTLPR might have an effect on the prevalence of bipolar disorder in female and regulate affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in some degree in Chinese population.
Bioinformatic investigations indicate that has-mir-206 (microRNA-206, miRNA-206) could regulate BDNF protein synthesis by interfering with BDNF mRNA translation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder (BPD).
This study is to investigate whether miRNA-206 gene variants were associated with BPD susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.
342 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I (BPD-I) or type II (BPD-II) and 386 matched health controls were enrolled into this study. the miRNA-206 gene and +/-500bp were selected for gene sequencing. for the case-control genetic comparisons, differences in the genotype and allele distributions between patients and controls were examined using Pearson's χ2 test.
Gene sequencing showed that there are two polymorphisms rs16882131(C/T) and rs62408583 (A/C) located at the upstream of miRNA-206 gene, which are complete linkage disequilibrium. the association analysis showed that there was no significant difference for genotype frequencies (χ2 = 2.075, df = 2, P = 0.354) or for allele frequencies (χ2 = 0.041, df = 1, P = 0.839) between BPD patients and controls. Similarly, no significant difference was found between BPD-I patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 1.411, df = 2, P = 0.494; allele χ2 = 0.380, df = 1, P = 0.538). However, there was significant difference between BPD-II patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 7.933, df = 2, P = 0.019; allele χ2 = 5.403, df = 1, P = 0.020).
Our findings do not support that BPD susceptibility was associated with miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms in the studied Han Chinese population. the association between miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder type II is needed to be carefully interpreted. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the involvement miRNA-206 in the pathophysiology of BPD.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases. China has a high burden of TB and accounted for almost 13% of the world's cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Spinal TB is one reason for the resurgence of TB in China. Few large case studies of MDR spinal TB in China have been conducted. The aim of this research was to observe the epidemiological characteristics of inpatients with MDR spinal TB in six provinces and cities of China from 1999–2015. This is a multicentre retrospective observational study. Patients' information was collected from the control disease centre and infectious disease database of hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. A total of 3137 patients with spinal TB and 272 patients with MDR spinal TB were analysed. The result showed that MDR spinal TB remains a public health concern and commonly affects patients 15–30 years of age (34.19%). The most common lesions involved the thoracolumbar spine (35.66%). Local pain was the most common symptom (98.53%). Logistic analysis showed that for spinal TB patients, reside in rural district (OR 1.79), advanced in years (OR 1.92) and high education degree (OR 2.22) were independent risk factors for the development of MDR spinal TB. Women were associated with a lower risk of MDR spinal TB (OR 0.48). The most common first-line and second-line resistant drug was isoniazid (68.75%) and levofloxacin (29.04%), respectively. The use of molecular diagnosis resulted in noteworthy clinical advances, including earlier initiation of MDR spinal TB treatment, improved infection control and better clinical outcome. Chemotherapy and surgery can yield satisfactory outcomes with timely diagnosis and long-term treatment. These results enable a better understanding of the MDR spinal TB in China among the general public.
Triptorelin (TRI), a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist allowing ovulation synchronization in pigs, is indispensable for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. However, the effect of FTAI using TRI (FTAI-TRI) on the reproductive performance is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether FTAI-TRI affects reproductive performance of pigs, including pregnancy rate (PR), number of pigs born alive per litter (NBA), farrowing rate (FR) and total number of pigs born per litter (TNB). A total of 37 trials from 15 studies were extracted and analysed in Stata. A weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for NBA and TNB, and risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI was calculated for PR and FR. Pregnancy rate, TNB and NBA data were applied to a fixed-effect protocol, and FR data were applied to a random-effect protocol. We found that for weaned sows, the FTAI-TRI group had comparable reproductive performance to the artificial insemination (AI) following oestrus detection (EDAI) group. Fixed-time AI has many advantages, including the elimination of the need to heat-check twice daily, so that FTAI-TRI is a good substitute for EDAI. Subgroup analysis indicated that the optimal timing of triptorelin treatment was 96 h after weaning, which gave significant positive effects on PR (RR = 1.08, P = 0.000) and non-significant positive effects on TNB (WMD = 0.12, P = 0.452). Triptorelin at a dose of 100 μg showed better effects than 200 μg, with significant positive effects on PR (RR = 1.09, P = 0.005) and FR (RR = 1.06, P = 0.036). So a single dose of 100 μg was recommended. The optimal protocol was insemination at 24 h and again at 48 h after triptorelin administration if they remained in standing oestrus, and this provided a significantly higher NBA (WMD = 0.59, P = 0.013) that increased by 0.59. For gilts, the FTAI-TRI group showed decreased (not significant) PR (RR = 0.96, P = 0.127) and significantly decreased FR (RR = 0.93, P = 0.013), TNB (WMD = −0.85, P = 0.006) and NBA (WMD = −0.98, P = 0.000), which were inferior to those in the EDAI group. In conclusion, the effects of FTAI-TRI on the reproductive performance of pigs were parity-, treatment timing-, insemination timing-, and dosage-dependent. Fixed-time AI using triptorelin could effectively replace the EDAI protocol for sows, but not for gilts.
Copy number variations (CNVs), as an important source of genetic variation, can affect a wide range of phenotypes by diverse mechanisms. The somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) gene plays important roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recently, this gene was mapped to a CNV region, which encompasses quantitative trait loci of cattle economic traits including body weight, marbling score, etc. Therefore, SSTR2 CNV may exhibit phenotypic effects on cattle growth traits. In the current study, distribution of SSTR2 gene CNVs was investigated in six Chinese cattle breeds (XN, QC, NY, JA, LX and PN), and the results showed higher CNV polymorphisms in XN, QC and NY cattle. Next, association analysis between growth traits and SSTR2 CNV was performed for XN, QC and NY cattle. In NY, individuals with fewer copies showed better performance than those with more copies. Further, the effects of SSTR2 CNV on the SSTR2 mRNA level were also investigated, but revealed no significant correlation in either muscle or adipose tissue of adult NY cattle. The results suggested the potential for use of SSTR2 CNV as a marker for the molecular breeding of NY cattle.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata is an important crop pest in eastern Asia. Nocturnal insects, including nocturnal moths, have phototactic behavior to an artificial light source. Phototactic behavior in insects is species-specific in response to different wavelengths of light sources. Our previous study showed that green (520 nm) light emitting diode (LED) light resulted in a significantly higher phototactic behavior in M. separata moths compared to the other wavelength LED lights. The goal of the present study is to investigate the influence of green light illumination on biological characteristics of different developmental stages in M. separata. Our results revealed that when different developmental stages of M. separata were exposed to the green light illumination in a dark period, several biological characteristics in all developmental stages except for egg stage were positively changed, but those of F1 generation M. separata which are next generation of the adults exposed to the green light did not significantly change compared with the control level. These findings suggest that green light illumination at night (or dark period) has a positive effect on the development and longevity of M. separata.
Force-feeding was considered as a traditional high-efficiency approach to improve growth performance and accelerate fat deposition of Pekin ducks. However, force-feeding is a serious violation of international advocacy on animal welfare, because it can induce serious injuries to animals, such as damages to the digestive tract, effects on immunity and even severe oxidative stress. Therefore, it is urgent to stop force-feeding. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of force feeding on immune function, digestive function and oxidative stress in the mucosa of duodenum and jejunum of Pekin ducks. A total of 500 ducks were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was allowed to feed freely on a basal diet. The experimental group was force-fed by inserting a plastic feeding tube 8 to 10 inches long down the esophagus for 6 days. Compared with the control group, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in serum diamine oxidase, d-lactic acid, endotoxin and corticosterone levels in the force-feeding group. The crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups and the intestinal villus epithelium cell was severely damaged in force-feeding group. Similarly, the activities of digestive enzymes as well as the levels of immune function in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa in the force-feeding group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). However, there was a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels with a marked increase in malondialdehyde level in duodenal and jejunal mucosa (P<0.05). In summary, at the end of the fattening period with force-feeding for 6 days, Pekin ducks experienced an adverse effect on the integrity of their duodenal and jejunal mucosa epithelium cell as well as their immune function and antioxidant capacity of Pekin ducks but also had improvement in digestive enzyme activities.
In this study, poly(methyl methacrylate-maleic anhydride) (P(MMA-MAh)) was synthesized in toluene from methyl methacrylate (MMA) and maleic anhydride (MAh) monomers via free radical polymerization, in the presence of 2,2′-Azo-bis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN), as initiator at 80ºC for 8 h. The molar ratio of monomers was found to be 1 MAh:8 MMA using hydrolysis and titration. The molecular weight of co-polymer was determined to be of the order of 104 (g/mol) by gel permeation chromatography. The co-polymer was characterized using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the initial decomposition temperature was ~270ºC. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the glass transition temperature was near 126ºC.
Rectorite modified with benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (OREC) was used as an additive to modify gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which consisted of P(MMA-MAh) used as a polymer matrix, propylene carbonate (PC) as a plasticizer and LiClO4 as the lithium ion source. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that OREC can exfoliate well in GPEs when the amount of clay is suitable. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity of the resulting GPEs agreed well with the VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) relation. OREC doses of 5 phr resulted in the greatest ionic conductivity. This OREC addition considerably improved the plasticized retention levels. As a consequence of OREC occupying the free volume space in the polymer matrix of GPEs, the bulk resistance of the GPEs was reduced and the glass transition temperature (Tg) increased.
In liquid-filled batteries, the liquid electrolytes may escape or present a fire hazard and an inert spacer is needed to separate the electrodes. Alternative polymer-based electrolytes are of current technological interest. Solid polymer electrolytes are non-volatile, non-corrosive materials, which can readily be processed into any shape or size. However, despite possessing the required mechanical properties, they have inherently lower conductivity. Gel-based systems are an attempt to strike a balance between the high conductivity of organic liquid electrolytes and the dimensional stability of a solid polymer.
Rectorite was modified with dodecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride to form organic-modified rectorite (OREC). OREC was used as a filler additive to modify gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) and prepare composite gel polymer electrolytes (CPEs) which consisted of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as a polymer matrix, propylene carbonate (PC), used as a plasticizer, and LiClO4, used as a lithium ion producer. A variety of physical and chemical techniques was used to characterize the CPEs. The interlayer d spacing of OREC was much larger than that of the initial rectorite (2.22 nm). OREC also possesses a fine microscopic structure, and has a hydrophobic surface. Molau and XRD analysis of CPEs indicate that OREC has good compatibility with the components of CPEs and can be dispersed well. The effects of temperature and OREC dose on properties were studied. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity of CPEs is well fitted by the VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) relation. OREC doses of 5 phr gave the greatest ionic conductivity. This amount also greatly increased the plasticizer maintenance levels. Due to the occupancy of free volume space in the polymer matrix of CPEs by OREC, the bulk resistance of the CPEs was lowered and the glass transition temperature (Tg) increased. The sheet structure of OREC is thought to improve the decomposition temperature of CPEs.
Rectorite (REC) was modified with dodecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (1227) to form an organic-modified rectorite, termed OREC. The OREC was used as a filler additive to modify gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which consisted of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC) and LiClO4. Studies of ionic conductivity and viscosity of liquid electrolytes and pure PC, respectively, clearly showed that these properties are greatly influenced by temperature and the amount of OREC added; a consequence of the interactions between the components of CPEs. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that there were two kinds of interaction: namely (1) a strong hydrogen bond between Si–OH and C=O of PC and (2) a weak interaction between Li+ and C=O. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) research supported the FTIR interpretation, indicating that the two interactions exist and that the H bond is the stronger of the two. In CPEs, the polymer matrix of PMMA merely supports the active components and does not influence the interactions between them. The OREC greatly increased the crucial plasticizer maintenance property when the amount of clay added was optimum.