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A smooth adaptive sliding-mode-based controller is developed for BTT missiles considering nonlinear couplings and aerodynamic uncertainties, wherein fixed-time stability theory is synthesised into sliding-mode control algorithm, such that control variables follow the desired command within fixed-bounded convergence time. Unlike other terminal sliding-mode-related works, the bound of settling time is independent of initial states, indicating that performance metrics, for instance the convergence rate, can be evaluated in advance. The control input is designed to be intrinsically smooth, based on adaptive estimations, and therefore the problem of singularity and chattering is effectively eliminated. Simulation results demonstrate the satisfactory performance and validate the effectiveness of the designed approach.
The present study aimed to identify the factors that affect immediate (within 24 h after farrowing onset) postnatal piglet mortality in litters with hyperprolific sows, and investigate their associations with behaviour of postpartum sows in two different farrowing housing systems. A total of 30 sows were housed in: (1) CRATE (n=15): the farrowing crate closed (0.80×2.20 m) within a pen (2.50×1.70 m), and (2) OPEN (n=15): the farrowing crate open (0.80×2.20×1.80 m) within a pen (2.50×2.40 m) with a provision of 20 ls of hay in a rack. A total of 518 live born piglets, produced from the 30 sows, were used for data analyses during the first 24 h after the onset of parturition (T24). Behavioural observations of the sows were assessed via video analyses during T24. Total and crushed piglet mortality rates were higher in OPEN compared with CRATE (P<0.01, for both). During T24, the OPEN sows tended to show higher frequency of postural changes (P=0.07) and duration of standing (P=0.10), and showed higher frequencies of bar-biting (P<0.05) and piglet trapping (P<0.01), when compared with the CRATE sows. During T24, the mortality rates caused by crushing were correlated with the piglet trapping event (r=0.93, P<0.0001), postural changes (r=0.37, P<0.01), duration of standing (r=0.32, P<0.01) and frequency of bar-biting behaviour (r=0.51, P<0.01) of the sows (n=30). In conclusion, immediate postnatal piglet mortality, mainly due to crushing, may be associated with potential increases in frequency of postural changes, duration of standing and incidence of piglet trapping in postpartum sows in the open crate system with large litters.
Noroviruses (NoVs) are major causal agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans. NoV GII.4 is the predominant genotype globally. However, uncommon and minor types of NoVs are consistently detected and some have been shown to dominate over GII.4. Therefore, the prevalence of dominant and uncommon NoVs makes the identification of these viruses important for the prediction and prevention of pandemics. In this study, the full-genome sequence of a NoV (strain JW) detected in Korea was extensively characterized. The full-length genome was 7510 nucleotides long, and phylogenetic analysis based on the whole-genome sequences, including open reading frame (ORF)1, ORF2, and ORF3, indicated that it belonged to the GII.21 genotype. Strain JW showed maximum identity with strain YO284; however, comparison of the amino acid sequence of ORF2, which functions as an antigen, showed substitutions in several amino acids. GII.21 is not a prevalent epidemiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in humans, but it is consistently found in gastroenteritis patients from several countries. The present study provides the first full-genome sequence analysis of NoV GII.21 isolated from a patient in Korea. Our findings provide not only valuable genome information but also data for epidemiology studies, epidemic prevention, and vaccine development strategies.
An attempt has been made to examine the nature of 3-minute umbral oscillations in order to identify their origin. For this purpose we have calculated, on the basis of Musielak and Rosner (1987), the fast-mode energy spectra generated in a typical sunspot convection zone (Yun 1968). The computed energy spectrum is fed into the lower boundary of the sub-photospheric resonant cavity to examine the characteristics of the wave propagation through the SS umbral atmosphere (Avrett 1981). The upward velocity spectra computed at various heights are presented and their behaviour compared with observations.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with abnormal cognitive and emotional functions and these dysfunctions may be dependent on the disruption of dynamic interactions within neuronal circuits associated with emotion regulation. Although several studies have shown the aberrant cognitive–affective processing in OCD patients, little is known about how to characterize effective connectivity of the disrupted neural interactions. In the present study, we applied effective connectivity analysis using dynamic causal modeling to explore the disturbed neural interactions in OCD patients.
A total of 20 patients and 21 matched healthy controls performed a delayed-response working memory task under emotional or non-emotional distraction while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.
During the delay interval under negative emotional distraction, both groups showed similar patterns of activations in the amygdala. However, under negative emotional distraction, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited significant differences between groups. Bayesian model averaging indicated that the connection from the DLPFC to the OFC was negatively modulated by negative emotional distraction in patients, when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected).
Exaggerated recruitment of the DLPFC may induce the reduction of top-down prefrontal control input over the OFC, leading to abnormal cortico-cortical interaction. This disrupted cortico-cortical interaction under negative emotional distraction may be responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive and emotional processing in OCD patients and may be a component of the pathophysiology associated with OCD.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable psychiatric disorder. Additionally, environmental factors such as perinatal stress and early adversities contribute to the occurrence and severity of ADHD. Recently, DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism that potentially mediates gene–environmental interaction effects in the aetiology and phenomenology of psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated whether serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) methylation patterns were associated with clinical characteristics and regional cortical thickness in children with ADHD.
In 102 children with ADHD (age 6–15 years), the methylation status of the SLC6A4 promoter was measured. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was obtained and ADHD symptoms were evaluated.
A higher methylation status of the SLC6A4 promoter was significantly associated with worse clinical presentations (more hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and more commission errors). Additionally, a negative correlation was observed between SLC6A4 methylation levels and cortical thickness values in the right occipito-temproral regions.
Our results suggest that the SLC6A4 methylation status may be associated with certain symptoms of ADHD, such as behavioural disinhibition, and related brain changes. Future studies that use a larger sample size and a control group are required to corroborate these results.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children.
A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated.
Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri.
The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD.
As a benefit of modularization of complex systems, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) can choose suppliers in a less constricted way when faced with new or evolving requirements. However, new suppliers usually add uncertainties to the system development. Because suppliers are tightly integrated into the design process in modular design and therefore greatly influence the outcome of the OEM's products, the uncertainty along with requirements satisfaction of the suppliers and their modules should be controlled starting from potential supplier identification. In addition, to better satisfy new requirements, the potential supplier identification should be combined with architecture generation to enable the new technology integration. In this paper, we propose the Architecture & Supplier Identification Tool, which generates all possible architectures and corresponding suppliers based on new requirements through matrix mapping and propagation. Using the Architecture & Supplier Identification Tool, the overall uncertainty and requirements satisfaction of generated architectures can be estimated and controlled. The proposed method aims at providing decision support for early design of complex systems, thereby helping OEMs have an integrated view of suppliers and system architectures in requirements satisfaction and overall uncertainty.
Motivation for cardiac tissue regeneration in vitro
Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to the death of cardiomyocytes, and the infarct area becomes replaced by a fibroblastic scar tissue that has no contractile function. This reduces the pumping ability of the heart and the cardiac output. In addition, the scar tissue thins due to the lack of vasculature to provide oxygen and nutrients to the infarct site, thus leading to high wall stress and cardiac dilatation, which may ultimately lead to heart failure.
The adult heart has a limited regenerative capacity. The shortage of donor organs further suggests a need to develop new treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac tissue regeneration can be achieved through several strategies, including (1) gene therapy, (2) cell transplantation, and (3) implantation or injection of biomaterials or engineered cardiac tissues. The goal of these cardiac tissue regeneration strategies is to repair the damaged myocardium through supporting vascularization and cell survival, in turn reducing wall thinning and preventing dilatation and heart failure. Gene therapy is not a specific topic of this chapter, in which the focus will be on bioreactors for cell expansion and engineering of cardiac tissues for cardiac tissue regeneration. Instead, we refer the reader to excellent reviews [1–3].
Low-cost La(FexSi1-x)13 alloys exhibiting the large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) are one of the most promising magnetic refrigerant candidates for room temperature magnetic refrigeration. The NaZn13-type phase (hereinafter 1:13 phase) is believed to play a key role in the MCE of these alloys. While the formation of the 1:13 phase directly from the melt upon cooling was challenging, in this paper we demonstrate that the 1:13 phase can be formed directly during solidification. We found that three kinds of solidification microstructure were formed because a competitive nucleation occurred between the 1:13 and α-(Fe,Si) phase during the solidification of LaFe11.5Si1.5 alloy. In case of a high cooling speed, a large amount of NaZn13–type phase with equiaxed grains and a small amount of α-(Fe,Si) phase were formed because of a dominant nucleation rate of 1:13 phase. When the cooling rate was small, a large number of α-(Fe,Si) phase with dendrites were formed because the nucleation rate of α-(Fe,Si) phase is larger than that of the 1:13 phase. These results revealed that nucleation rates of phases is very important to the composition formation and microstructure of LaFe11.5Si1.5 alloys.
We study hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium (a-SiGe:H) deposited by HWCVD for the use as low band gap absorber in multijunction junction solar cells. We deposited layers with Tauc optical band gaps of 1.21 to 1.56 eV and studied the hydrogen bonding with FTIR for layers that were deposited at several reaction pressures. For our reaction conditions, we found an optimal reaction pressure of 38 µbar. The material that is obtained under these conditions does not meet all device quality requirements for a-SiGe:H, which is, as we hypothesize, caused by the presence of He that is used to dilute the GeH4 source gas. We present an initial single junction n-i-p solar cell with a Tauc optical band gap of 1.45 eV and a short circuit current density of 18.7 mA/cm2.
It has been reported that the characteristics of a very old wood charcoal sample are different from those of modern wood charcoal according to its state of preservation (Cohen-Ofri et al. 2006; Rebollo et al. 2008). It can be assumed that these differences may lead to some difficulties when radiocarbon dating very old wood charcoal samples. To investigate this problem, we studied a carbonized trunk of Prunus pendula for. acendens tree buried in lava and found at the Hantan River lava plateau on the Korean Peninsula. The 14C date of this sample was previously measured as >30,000 BP. However, separate 14C results of its outer crust and inner wood showed a considerable difference, exceeding the estimated age differences by tree-ring counting. To study the reason for this discrepancy, optical microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) were performed to examine the differences in the structural and chemical states of the samples. For reference data and to expand our understanding of very old wood charcoal, we applied the same analysis tools (AMS, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDS, and optical microscopy) to a variety of wood charcoals and original wood. From these analyses, we noticed considerable chemical changes in the outer crust sample, and this might explain the age discrepancy. Although it seems that the age difference might be due to the digestion of 14C-free CO2 from a volcanic environment, this explanation would not account for such a large value in the age difference.
We previously developed and validated an index of socioeconomic status (SES) termed HOUSES (housing-based index of socioeconomic status) based on real property data. In this study, we assessed whether HOUSES overcomes the absence of SES measures in medical records and is associated with risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. We conducted a population-based case-control study of children in Olmsted County, MN, diagnosed with IPD (1995–2005). Each case was age- and gender-matched to two controls. HOUSES was derived using a previously reported algorithm from publicly available housing attributes (the higher HOUSES, the higher the SES). HOUSES was available for 92·3% (n = 97) and maternal education level for 43% (n = 45). HOUSES was inversely associated with risk of IPD in unmatched analysis [odds ratio (OR) 0·22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·05–0·89, P = 0·034], whereas maternal education was not (OR 0·77, 95% CI 0·50–1·19, P = 0·24). HOUSES may be useful for overcoming a paucity of conventional SES measures in commonly used datasets in epidemiological research.
A new Mo potential, developed recently by using an ab initio quantum mechanics theory, was used to study formation and time evolution of radiation defects, such as self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), vacancies, and small clusters of SIAs, using molecular dynamics (MD). MD models were developed for calculation of the diffusion coefficients of vacancies, self-interstitials, and small dislocation loops containing 2 to 37 SIAs; and the rate constants were calculated. Interactions of small SIA loops with SIAs were simulated. The results show that rotation of SIA from one <111> to another equivalent direction is an important mechanism that significantly contributes to kinetic coefficients.
The preparation of metal nanoparticles is a major research area in technical engineering due to their unusual properties, such as catalytic activity, novel electronic, optic and magnetic properties and biotechnology. Specially, silver has been used for years in the medical field for antimicrobial applications because it known for its antimicrobial properties and even has shown to prevent HIV binding to host cells. Common synthesis, chemical and physical methods using chemical reducing agent and organic solvent are not too suitable to have application to bioengineering because they should have associated environmental toxicity or biological hazards. Development of sustainable processes through green chemistry is attractive about the elimination or minimization of chemical waste. Here, we introduce the green method for preparation of silver nanoparticles using chitosan oligomer as both reducing and stabilizing agent in water. We expect that the use of environmentally benign solvent and chitosan oligomer to prepare silver nanoparticles offers numerous benefits and compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.
This study aimed to analyse demographic profiles and pre-injection stroboscopic findings for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, to investigate possible predictive factors for voice outcomes of injection laryngoplasty.
Materials and methods:
Fifty-nine unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients underwent vocal fold augmentation, using transcutaneous Artecoll (polymethyl methacrylate microspheres plus bovine collagen) injection into the paralysed vocal fold via the cricothyroid space. Three months later, patients were divided into improved (n = 44) and unimproved (n = 15) groups, using the perceptual grade-roughness-breathiness-asthenia-strain scale, and their clinical characteristics and pre-operative stroboscopic findings compared.
The improved group were significantly younger than the unimproved group (p = 0.000). The size of the posterior gap on phonation was closely associated with the outcome of injection laryngoplasty (p = 0.015).
Younger patients with a smaller posterior glottic gap on phonation can be expected to have a more favourable outcome following injection laryngoplasty for correction of glottic insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
We analysed the Spitzer maps of Stephan's Quintet in order to investigate the nature of the dust emission associated with the X-ray emitting regions of the large scale intergalactic shock and of the group halo. This emission can in principle be powered by dust-gas particle collisions, thus providing efficient cooling of the hot gas. However the results of our analysis suggest that the dust emission from those regions is mostly powered by photons. Nonetheless dust collisional heating could be important in determining the cooling of the IGM gas and the large scale star formation morphology observed in SQ.