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Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
Between May 1983 and July 1984 glaciological parties of the 24th and 25th Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (JARE–24 and 25) carried out ice-core drilling using a thermal drill, down to 700.5 m depth at Mizuho Station (70°41'53"S, 44°19'54"E), as a part of the Glaciological Research Program in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica.
The thermal drill, 3.9 m long and capable of taking a core 1.5 m long and 130 mm in diameter, is an improved version of a drill used by JARE–15 in 1975. The most important improvement was the monitoring system during drilling, for which a micro-computer was fitted in the drill. By using this system, such accidents as heater burn-out, tank overflow and failure of water suction would immediately be brought to our attention. The drilling speed was about 1.6 m/h, when the optimum output was 3.6 kW. The core recovery rate was above 99%.
The core quality was good down to a depth of 80 m. Between 80 and 120 m, cracks were found at intervals of 0.15–0.5 m, and horizontal cracks were found continuously at intervals of 0.01 m or less.
Immediately after the core was pulled, the stratigraphy was observed and bulk density was measured. A dust band, presumably volcanic particles, was seen at only 500.2 m depth during stratigraphic observation. The following analyses were carried out at Mizuho Station within a month of recovery:
(1)Density determination by the hydrostatic method.
(2)Measurement of total gas content.
(3)Thin-section analyses, including observation of cracking around air bubbles and the crystalline texture, and ice-fabric studies.
The 700.5 m core has been brought to Japan, and the following analyses are now under way:
A point source of cosmic rays at δ = 0°, α = 5h 30m, was reported at the Mexico Meeting of IUPAP in September 1955 (Nature, Lond.177, 35, 1956). The existence of the point source was verified by further observation. This phenomenon suggests the possibility of a direct method of exploring interplanetary space.
We report here the results of deep optical spectroscopy of the very extended emission-line region (VEELR) found serendipitously around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 in the Virgo cluster. The Hα recession velocities of most of the filaments of the region observed are highly blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The velocity field is complicated, and there seem to be several streams of filaments ranging from ~ −100 km s−1 to ~ −700 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The emission-line ratios of the VEELR filaments are well explained by power-law photoionization models with solar abundances. In addition to photoionization, shock heating probably contributes to the ionization of the gas. We conclude that the VEELR was formerly the disk gas of NGC 4388, which has been stripped by ram pressure due to the interaction between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) and the galaxy.
Since the discovery of fading X-rays from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with BeppoSAX (Piro et al. 1997, Costa et al. 1997), world-wide follow-up observations in optical band have achieved the fruitful results. The case of GRB 970228, there was an optical transient, coincides with the BeppoSAX position and faded (Paradijs et al. 1997, Sahu et al. 1997). These optical observations also confirmed the extended component, which was associated with the optical transient. The new transient are fading with a power-law function in time and the later observation of HST confirmed the extended emission is stable (Fruchter et al. 1997). This extended object seems to be a distant galaxy and strongly suggests to be the host.
We investigate the cosmological model dependence of galaxy luminosity function (GLF) obtained by the Press–Schechter (PS) prescription. We consider the power–law spectra as well as a CDM spectrum for primordial density fluctuations, assuming a variety of cosmological models. We do not consider any galaxy luminosity (chemical) evolution in this report.
We made a search of quiescent X-ray counterparts of two Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), GRB930131 and GRB940217. These GRBs were detected with BATSE, EGRET, COMPTEL on board CGRO together with the GRB detector on Ulysses spacecraft, then they were localized in small error regions. These observations showed that the bursts were remarkably bright accompanying delayed high energy gamma-rays. ASCA observations have found a single X-ray source for each GRB on the possible location determined with the above instruments.
The High Energy Transient Explorer 2 is a small scientific satellite designed to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The coordinates of GRBs detected by HETE-2 will be distributed to interested ground-based observers within seconds of burst detection, thereby allowing detailed observations of the initial phases of GRBs. HETE-2 was launched successfully on October 9, 2000. The GRB positions will start to be delivered after a few months of the complete testing and calibration of the spacecraft system and the science instruments.
We developed a slit-scanning type 3D-spectroscopic system named as Spectronebulagraph (hereafter SNG; Kosugi et al. 1994) at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. A detailed description about SNG is presented by Ohtani et al. elsewhere in this colloquium. We present here the results of the 3D-spectroscopy of four nearby active galaxies by using SNG.
This nearby (at distance of 5.4 Mpc) Magellanic irregular galaxy has many H II regions in its main body suggesting violent star-formation activity. We performed tridimensional observations of NGC 4449 using SNG in order to obtain detailed kinematic structure and then to investigate the star-formation mechanism of NGC 4449. Hα intensity map, Hα velocity field are shown in figure 1. As is obvious in lower panel of figure 1, no global rotational motion was detected. Most impressive feature of the velocity field is kpc-scale mosaic structure of low velocity and high velocity components. Also, many filamentary components were newly found in 3D-datacube of the SNG observation.
The Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a GAmma Ray Observatory in the Outback operates two large telescopes at Woomera (South Australia), which detect the Čerenkov light images produced in the atmosphere by electronpositron cascades initiated by very high energy (~1 TeV or 1012 eV) gamma rays. These gamma rays arise from a different mechanism than at EGRET energies: inverse Compton (IC) emission from relativistic electrons.
The spoke-like images are recorded by a multi-pixel camera which facilitates the rejection of the large numbers of oblique and ragged cosmic ray images. A field of view ~3.5° is required. The Australian team operates a triple 4 m diameter mirror telescope, BIGRAT, with a 37 photomultiplier tube camera and energy threshold 600 GeV. The Japanese operate a single, highly accurate 3.8 m diameter f/1 telescope and high resolution 256 photomultipler tube camera. In 1998 a new 7 m telescope is planned for Woomera with a design threshold ~;200GeV.
The hexagonal domain suppression-effects in cubic-GaNAs grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) is reported. A thin buffer layer (20 nm) was first grown on a substrate at 853 K using trimethylgallium and dimethylhydrazine (DMHy), and GaNAs samples were grown at different AsH3 flow rates (0 ∼ 450 μmol/min) at 1193 K. As a result, three types of surface morphologies were obtained: the first was a smooth surface (AsH3 = 0 μmol/min); the second was a mirrorlike surface having small and isotropic grains (AsH3 : 45 ∼ 225 μmol/min ); and the third involved three-dimensional surface morphologies (above 450 μmol/min of AsH3 flow rate). Furthermore, it was confirmed using X-ray diffraction that the mixing ratio of hexagonal GaNAs in cubic GaNAs decreased with an increase of the AsH3 flow rate. We could obtain GaNAs having a cubic component of above 85% at AsH3 flow rates above 20 μmol/min. Therefore, the MOCVD growth method using AsH3 and DMHy was mostly effective for suppressing hexagonal GaNAs. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of GaNAs was decreased with increase of arsine flow rate.
One of promising photorechargeable electrode, which has two functions of photovoltaic and electrical energy storage, is a composite film of mesoporous TiO2 and conducting polymer polyaniline. Galvanostatic charge/discharge characteristics of the TiO2-polyaniline composite were examined to reveal how fast the film was charged. The film with a specific capacity 60-120 mAh g–1 was found to be fully charged at high charging rate 20 mA cm–2 which is comparable to high performance solar cells. Such high charging rate was achieved by the compact polyaniline layer covering the large specific surface area of mesoporous TiO2 film.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted during January to August 2001 to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira serovars in five species of livestock in Thailand and to identify associations between seropositivity and sex, age, species and geographical locations. Sera from 14188 livestock (9288 cattle, 1376 buffaloes, 1898 pigs, 1110 sheep, 516 goats) from 36 provinces were tested for antibodies against 24 Leptospira serovars with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for which the criterion for a positive result was set at a titre of ⩾1:50. A total of 1635 [11·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11·0–12·0] animals were seropositive and the highest prevalence (30·4%, 95% CI 28·2–32·5) of evidence of infection was recorded in the northeast region followed by the central region (22·2%, 95% CI 20–24·6). Seroprevalences recorded for cattle, buffaloes, pigs, sheep and goats were 9·9% (95% CI 9·3–10·5), 30·5% (95% CI 28·1–32·9), 10·8% (95% CI 9·5–12·3), 4·7% (95% CI 3·6–6·1) and 7·9% (95% CI 5·8–10·5), respectively. Buffaloes were 3·1 (95% CI 2·8–3·4) times more likely than cattle to be seropositive. The most commonly detected antibodies were against L. interrogans serovars Ranarum, Sejroe, and Mini in cattle, Mini, Sejroe, and Bratislava in buffaloes, Ranarum, Pomona, and Bratislava in pigs and Mini, Shermani, and Ranarum in sheep and goats. Seroprevalences in cattle and buffaloes trended upwards with increasing age and there was no difference in the risk of seropositivity between males and females.
We report the case of a patient with extensive pneumocephalus extending into the lateral ventricles from a brain abscess arising from a cholesteatoma-induced defect in the skull base.
A 70-year-old man with cholesteatoma presented with right-sided otalgia, otorrhoea and progressive headaches. Computed tomography showed a tegmental defect (approximately 2 × 2 cm) at the right mastoid antrum. A T1-weighted, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scan showed pneumocephalus in both lateral ventricles, which was directly connected to the mastoid cavity via a brain abscess and a bone defect in the skull base. Radical mastoidectomy was performed to remove the cholesteatoma. The roof of the mastoid cavity was covered extensively with fascia and a pedicled temporalis muscle flap. One week post-operatively, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed no pneumocephalus.
Pneumocephalus arising from a cholesteatoma-induced brain abscess and extending into the lateral ventricles is an important entity, with an atypical appearance on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
Thermoelectric properties of the Li-doped Cu0.95-xM0.05LixO (M=divalent metal ion; Mn, Ni, Zn) were investigated at the temperature up to 1273 K. In the doped divalent metal ions, Zn2+ ion was the most effective to reduce the thermal conductivity, and the Ni2+ substitution was preferable to decrease the electrical resistivity. For the Cu0.95-xNi0.05LixO sample at x=0.03, the maxima of the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT and the power factor P at 1246 K were 4.2×10-2 and 1.6 ×10-4 W/K2m, respectively. The enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the Li-doped Cu0.95-xM0.05LixO system was discussed.