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The risk for developing and preserving symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children seems to be multifactorial: individual, familial, socio-cultural, and biological factors interact within the developmental framework. A disruption of attachment processes with the mother in an early stage of child development has been proposed as a contributing factor; however, the evidence is controversial.
To address the research question of how childhood AN patients recognize disorder-specific provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood AN patients when imaging those symptom-provocative factors.
The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls participated in this study.
Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group.
These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.
There are a number of clinical scores to measure cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for dementia patients.
Previous BPSD scores are well established, but they usually take long time. Furthermore they were made almost 20 years ago, and therefore may not even fit a current BPSD because affective expressions may change depending on modern society change.
To make a new and simple score which fits modern change of BPSD.
Based on BPSD inquiry from 129 caregivers in local area (patients 81.6 ± 9.9 years old and female 70.5%), a new and simple BPSD score was created, and compared to standard BPSD score NPI (neuropsychiatry inventory). Time was measured to complete this new BPSD score (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) and NPI. This ABS was examined before and after a choline esterase inhibitor treatment.
We gave final scores to each BPSD items with such temporal frequencies taken into account ranging 0-9, and finalized a new BPSD score of score 0-44 between no BPSD to full BPSD. Average time to complete both NPI and ABS was 308.9 ± 86.3 sec and 46.5 ± 16.2 sec (**p< 0.01), respectively. Galantamine showed an improvement of average ABS with - 2.3 ± 1.0 (*p< 0.05) from original score of 6.1 ± 6.6 after 3 month of the treatment.
These data suggest that this new and simple BPSD score (ABS) may be beneficial to quickly evaluate BPSD before and after a treatment of dementia patients.
Optical properties of infrared-bright (IR-bright) dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are reported. DOGs are faint in optical but very bright in mid-IR, which are powered by active star formation (SF) or active galactic nucleus (AGN), or both. The DOGs is a candidate population that are evolving from a gas-rich merger to a quasar. By combining three catalogs of optical (Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam), near-IR (VIKING), and mid-IR (ALLWISE), we have discovered 571 IR-bright DOGs. Using their spectral energy distributions, we classified the selected DOGs into the SF-dominated DOGs and the AGN-dominated DOGs. We found that the SF-dominated DOGs show a redder optical color than the AGN-dominated DOGs. Interestingly, some DOGs shows extremely blue color in optical (blue-excess DOGs: bluDOGs). A possible origin for this blue excess is either the leaked AGN light or stellar UV light from nuclear starbursts. The BluDOGs may be in the transition phase from obscured AGNs to unobscured AGNs.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
A sudden break-down of a heat-exchanger in vinyl chloride plant resulted in that 141 °C, 23% concentration of hydrochloric acid spouted out over the workers around it. Eight workers suffered and Ichihara City Fire Department was deployed in response to the call 3 minutes after the onset of the incident, 17 vehicles including 5 fire engines, 6 ambulances, and two helicopters. Finally three severely (> 80% of TBSA) burned, two moderately (20–80%) burned, and three slightly (< 20%) burned victims were identified and triaged. One severely burned was transferred at first to the closest tertiary care hospital (TUCMC) which existed within 2.5 km distance by an ambulance and other two and one moderately burned were transferred by helicopters to the neighboring tertiary care hospitals. Another moderately burned one was sent to TUCMC by an ambulance about 30 minutes later than the first one. Three slightly burned victims were sent to a local hospital and treated as an outpatient. This casualty mission was ended by 120 minutes after the call. Two among the three severely burned patients lost their lives but another severe one and two moderately burned were survived. Conclusions: With these considerations, the management of this multiple burn casualty was successful, partly because of small number of the victims and of that the incident occurred in a weekday morning.
In March 1989 a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred simultaneously among schoolchildren and teachers at nine elementary schools in Toyota City, Japan. Illness was observed in 3236 (41·5%) of 7801 schoolchildren and 117 (39·4%) of 297 teachers. The main clinical symptoms were diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. Gastroenteritis was significantly associated with the consumption of school lunch served by one particular lunch preparation centre. One food handler at the centre suffered from gastroenteritis during the outbreak.Small round structured virus (SRSV) was detected in 4 of 8 stool specimens from sick persons. The school lunch contaminated by the infected food handler is the most probable source of this outbreak due to SRSV.
The inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the virucidal effect of chlorine was studied. The time required for 99·9% inactivation of ten enteroviruses and two adenoviruses by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine at pH 7·0 and 25○C was prolonged approximately 4·8–28·8 times by the addition of 30 mg/l cyanuric acid. Comparative inactivation of poliovirus 1 by free available chlorine with or without cyanuric acid revealed the following. The inactivation rate by 1·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 30 mg/l cyanuric acid or by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 1 mg/1 cyanuric acid was slower than by 0·5 mg/1 free available chlorine alone. Temperature and pH did not affect the inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the disinfectant action of chlorine. In the swimming-pool and tap water, cyanuric acid delayed the virucidal effect of chlorine as much as in the ‚clean’ condition of chlorine-buffered distilled water. The available chlorine value should be increased to 1·5 mg/l when cyanuric acid is used in swimming-pool water.
We studied, for two years, the prevalence of indigenous human enteric viruses in wild oysters gathered each month from the bottom of Mikawa Bay, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Viruses were detected periodically in 9 out of 54 oyster pools prepared by the acid or polyethylene glycol precipitation method although all these 9 pools met current national bacteriological safety standards. Since most of the serotypes of the enteric viruses detected in the oysters were identical with those of viruses isolated from sick children living in the area, it is suggested that contamination of enteric viruses in the oysters would depend on the prevalence of enteric viral infections in the local inhabitants.
Grain boundary character distribution-optimized (GBCD) Type 316 corresponding austenitic stainless steel and its cold-worked ones (GBCD+CW) are one of prospective nuclear materials to be considered for next generation energy systems. These steels were thermally-aged at 973 K for 1 and 100 h and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate microstructural stability during high temperature exposure. TEM results revealed that microstructures of both specimens prior to ageing contained step-wise boundaries which is composed of coincidence site lattice (CSL) and random grain boundaries and also that the GBCD+CW specimens had dislocation cells and networks as well as deformation twins whereas as the GBCD one possessed few dislocations. After thermal ageing, the precipitates formed on not only random grain boundaries but also dislocations, contributing to prevent significant microstructural change occurring such as recrystallization and dislocation recovery.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
The influences of self-assembled-monolayers (SAMs) modifications on the gold electrodes in organic field effect transistors are studied using benzen-thiols (BzTs) having amino (NH2), nitro (NO2) and methyl (CH3) substituents and pentacene as an organic semiconductor. The field effect transistor (FET) characteristics are found to be very sensitive to the preparation condition of the SAMs modified surfaces. This can be rationalized in terms of the barriers against carrier injections made by SAMs and this situation can be monitored using a surface contact-angle method. The enhancement in the field effect mobilities μ is observed when the SAMs modifications to the electrodes are applied, and this could be caused by the higher efficiency of carrier injection attained by the hole transfer from SAMs to pentacene molecules.
From the irradiation resistance and high-temperature strength, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are candidate materials for advanced and fusion reactors. For the development of advanced steels the key issue is to homogenize nano-particles into matrix. Recent studies have indicated that Ti addition can homogenize Y-Ti complex particles into ferrite matrix, but the reason of the effect of additional elements has not been clarified. In this model study, we focus on the effect of additional elements, such as IV and V families and other oxide formers, which can control potentially the distribution of the oxide particles. The materials used in this study were based on Fe-9Cr-Y2O3 alloys which were mechanical alloyed (MA) from the powder of Fe, Cr and Y2O3, which was added systematically with the element of Ti, Zr, Ta, V, Nb, Hf, Al, Si and others. Usually ODS fabrication process is required for hot extrusion, but we annealed up to 1150 C for simplify the microstructure. To evaluate the distribution of ODS particles; we used TEM equipped with EDS after electro-polishing or FIB techniques. (1) In the case of Si or Al addition, oxides were disappeared after MA process, which means Y2O3 and other elements should be in solution at non-equilibrium condition. Two types of oxides of Y2O3 and Al2O3 or SiO2 developed after the annealing at 850 C, but only complex oxides were developed after the annealing at 1150 C. This result suggests that the oxide formation is independent process for Y and Si or Al. (2) In the case of Ti addition, oxides also were disappeared after MA process, but developed after annealing at 1150 C. This means that Ti can stabilize complex oxides of Y and Ti, and enhance the fine distribution of the oxides comparing with simple Fe-9Cr-Y2O3 alloy.
The prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has a high priority in developed countries. An inappropriate diet may be an important risk factor for thrombotic events. The daily intake of an anti-thrombotic diet may offer a convenient and effective way of prevention. The aim of the present study was to test tomato extracts for anti-thrombotic effects and to identify those varieties that have such an effect. A shear-induced platelet-function test (haemostatometry) was used to test anti-thrombotic potential in vitro. Extracts from those tomato varieties that showed a significant anti-thrombotic activity in vitro were further assessed in vivo, using a laser-induced thrombosis test in mice. One tomato variety (KG99-4) showed significant anti-thrombotic activity both in vitro and in vivo. KG99-4 inhibited not only platelet-rich thrombus formation but also had a thrombolytic effect. It is concluded that haemostatometry can detect and classify the anti-thrombotic potential of fruits and vegetables and offers a simple way of screening for such effects.
Kawasaki Steel Corporation carried out a modernization project at the Chiba works No.2
continuous annealing line by linking the CAL with the existing skinpass mill and newly
constructed facilities in the downstream area. Because the No.2 CAL and the skinpass mill are
arranged in parallel, Kawasaki developed the world steel industry's first non-contact air floatation
type strip turning device, called the "Helical turner".
ASCA, Japanese X-ray Sattelite, can obtain the spatial distribution of density and temperature of the intracluster medium at the same time and greatly improve the accuracy for the derivation of the Hubble constant using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Table 1 shows the results of ASCA observations of 4 distant clusters of galaxies. The parameters of the density distribution were obtained assuming the β model.
Based on the ASCA observations, the X-ray features like spatial extentions and spectral properties of their component were analyzed for nearby four compact groups of galaxies; HCG62, NGC2300 group, HCG42 and HCG48. We found wide variety in their X-ray features. One of the brightest source of HCG62 shows the presence of cool component and enhanced abundance at its center, while HCG42 shows less extention and low abundance ratio of α-element to iron. For NGC 2300 group, we also found interesting feature which may be related to galaxy-intragroup medium interaction.
The X-ray background in the energy range above 2 keV is highly uniform except for an excess component along the Galactic plane. The excess along the plane is considered to be associated with our Galaxy, whereas the rest of the emission is believed to be of extragalactic origin. In this paper, the X-ray background at high Galactic latitude is discussed and is designated as the CXB (cosmic X-ray background) to distinguish it from the Galactic origin.
Multilayers have a great potentiality to improve the image quality, spectral resolution and energy coverage of x-ray optical systems. The angular resolution of a normal incidence telescope aims at approaching the diffraction limit in the soft x-ray region. Multilayer supermirror makes it possible to fabricate a grazing incidence telescope with high sensitivity in hard x-ray region. Multilayer coated gratings are also useful dispersive elements with high efficiency and spectral resolution in the 2-10keV region. The application of multilayers is expected to open up a new field in astronomical imaging and spectroscopic observations which are not accessible by present telescopes.
Much attempts of statistical approach have been made to study the origin of heavy elements, distribution of dark matter and evolution of clusters of galaxies. Henry et al.(1991) reported a power-law relation; LX ∝ kTγ, γ ~ 2.7. Edge and Stwert(1991) found significant scatter in the correlation using 45 clusters. David at al.(1993) reported γ ~ 3.4 using 104 clusters.