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An unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus diseases (EVD) occurred in West Africa from March 2014 to January 2016. The French Institute for Public Health implemented strengthened surveillance to early identify any imported case and avoid secondary cases.
Febrile travellers returning from an affected country had to report to the national emergency healthcare hotline. Patients reporting at-risk exposures and fever during the 21st following day from the last at-risk exposure were defined as possible cases, hospitalised in isolation and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Asymptomatic travellers reporting at-risk exposures were considered as contact and included in a follow-up protocol until the 21st day after the last at-risk exposure.
From March 2014 to January 2016, 1087 patients were notified: 1053 were immediately excluded because they did not match the notification criteria or did not have at-risk exposures; 34 possible cases were tested and excluded following a reliable negative result. Two confirmed cases diagnosed in West Africa were evacuated to France under stringent isolation conditions. Patients returning from Guinea (n = 531; 49%) and Mali (n = 113; 10%) accounted for the highest number of notifications.
No imported case of EVD was detected in France. We are confident that our surveillance system was able to classify patients properly during the outbreak period.
To describe the consequences of medical care interruptions (MCIs) we selected patients with at least two medical encounters between January 2006 and June 2013 in the Dat'AIDS cohort. Patients with any time interval >15 months between two visits were defined as having a MCI, as opposed to uninterrupted follow-up (UFU). Patients’ characteristics at the time of HIV diagnosis and at the censoring date were compared between groups. Cox proportional hazards models were built to assess the role of interruptions on survival (total and AIDS-free). Of 11 116 patients, 824 had at least one MCI. These patients were younger at the time of HIV diagnosis (30 vs. 33 years, P < 0·0001). MCI was less frequent in men having sex with men vs. heterosexual patients [odds ratio (OR) 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·69–0·96)], and a centre effect was described. MCI was independently associated with AIDS (OR 2·54, 95% CI 2·10–3·09) and death (OR 2·65, 95% CI 1·94–3·61). At the censoring date, 52·2% of patients with at least one MCI had viral load below detection vs. 85·3% of the UFU group (P < 0·0001). In conclusion, MCIs were associated with patients’ survival and with the proportion of viral loads below detection in our cohort, compromising individual and collective treatment benefits.
Optimal antiretroviral strategies for HIV-infected patients still need to be established. To this end a decision tree including different antiretroviral strategies that could be adopted for HIV-infected patients was built. A 10-year follow-up was simulated by using transitional probabilities estimated from a large cohort using a time-homogeneous Markov model. The desired outcome was for patients to maintain a CD4 cell count of >500 cells/mm3 without experiencing AIDS or death. For patients with a baseline HIV viral load ⩾5 log10 copies/ml, boosted protease inhibitor-based immediate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) allowed them to spend 12% more time with CD4 ⩾500/mm3 than did delayed HAART (6·40 vs. 5·69 and 5·57 vs. 4·90 years for baseline CD4 ⩾500 and 350–499/mm3, respectively). In patients with a baseline HIV viral load ⩽3·5 log10 copies/ml, delayed HAART performed better than immediate HAART (6·43 vs. 6·26 and 5·95 vs. 5·18 for baseline CD4 ⩾500 and 350–499/mm3, respectively). Immediate HAART is beneficial in patients with a baseline HIV viral load ⩾5 log10 copies/ml, whereas deferred HAART appears to be the best option for patients with CD4 ⩾350/mm3 and baseline HIV viral load <3·5 log10 copies/ml.
The aim was to investigate the impact of the main prognostic factors on HIV evolution. A multi-state Markov model was applied in a cohort of 2126 patients to estimate impact of these factors on patients' clinical and immunological evolutions. Clinical progression and immunological deterioration shared most of their prognostic factors: male gender, intravenous drug use, weight loss, low haemoglobin level (<110 g/l), CD8 cell count (<500/mm3) and HIV viral load (>5 log10 copies/ml). Highly active retroviral therapy reduced the risks of clinical progression and immune deterioration whatever patients' CD4 cell count. Risk reductions were 41–60% for protease inhibitor-based and 27–68% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Three-year transition probabilities showed that only patients with a CD4 cell count ⩾350 CD4/mm3 could in most cases maintain their immunity. This model provides ‘real life’ transition probabilities from one immunological stage to another, allowing decision analyses that could help determine the beneficial therapeutic strategies for HIV-infected patients.
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for acute diarrhoea (AD) during the summer
in France. A matched case-control study was conducted at a national level among patients of
500 general practitioners (GPs). From July to September 1996, 468 case-control pairs were
included. Cases were more likely than controls (i) to live away from their main residence (OR
3·0; 95% CI 1·6–5·7), (ii) to have returned from a country at high risk of AD (OR 4·6; CI
0·9–23·1), and (iii) to have been in contact with a case of AD (OR 2·0; CI 1·3–3·1). A
significantly decreased risk of AD was found for consumption of well-cooked chicken (OR 0·5;
CI 0·3–0·8) and raw or undercooked home-made egg-containing products (OR 0·6; CI 0·4–0·8).
These findings suggest that travel to high-risk areas, or travel within France, and being in
contact with a case of AD, are risk factors for the occurrence of AD in summer in France.
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