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The value of Google Flu Trends (GFT) remains unclear after it overestimated the proportion of physician visits related to influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States in 2012–2013. However, GFT estimates (%GFT) have not been examined nationally in Canada nor compared with positivity for respiratory viruses other than influenza. For 2010–2014, we compared %GFT for Canada to Public Health Agency of Canada ILI consultation rates (%PHAC) and to positivity for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinoviruses. %GFT correlated well with %PHAC (ρ = 0·77–0·90) and influenza A positivity (ρ = 0·64–0·96) and overestimated the 2012–2013 %PHAC peak by 0·99 percentage points. %GFT peaks corresponded temporally with peaks in positivity for influenza A and rhinoviruses (all seasons) and RSV and hMPV when their peaks preceded influenza peaks. In Canada, %GFT represented traditional surveillance data and corresponded temporally with patterns in circulating respiratory viruses.
Epitaxial magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films prepared on Si(0 0 1) substrates revealed the contraction of its lattice constants along both out-of-plane and in-plane directions. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) verified the epitaxial growth with the relation of MgO(1 0 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [cubic on cubic growth] with large lattice misfit of ~22% instead of the relation of MgO(1 1 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [45° rotation growth] with lattice mismatch of ~9%. Although the domain epitaxy explaining the cubic on cubic growth is preferred in terms of crystallography, structural stability is not considered in the concept of the domain epitaxy. In order to explain the contraction of lattice constant from point of view of structural stability, ab initio method was used to evaluate all-electron total energy, and optimal lattice constant was estimated with point defects in the MgO structure.
A serious sugarcane pest, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, remains in the soil during most of its life cycle except for a short period for mating. Mating disruption by an artificial release of the sex pheromone (R)-2-butanol (R2B), therefore, may be a feasible method to control this pest. We examined the effects of artificial release of R2B and its related compounds, (S)-2-butanol (S2B) and the racemic 2-butanol (rac-2B), on the mating success of this beetle both in the laboratory and in the field. In flight tunnel experiments, almost all males orientated towards a R2B-releasing source and 40% of them landed on the source. When the atmosphere was permeated with R2B, the frequency of males landing on the model was significantly reduced. Both rac-2B and S2B were less effective, but substantial reduction in landing success by males was achieved at higher rac-2B concentrations. R2B released from polyethylene dispensers in sugarcane plots greatly reduced not only the proportion of females mated with males but also the number of males caught by R2B-baited traps, indicating that male mate-searching behaviour was strongly affected by the released R2B. Similar inhibitory effects on male behaviour were also observed when tube- or rope-type dispensers released high rac-2B concentrations in the field. These results indicate that it would be highly possible to control D. ishigakiensis through the disruption of the sexual communication by releasing either synthetic R2B or rac-2B.
A new chemical vapor deposition method for the growth of ZnO films using the reaction between dimethylzinc (DMZn) and thermally excited H2O produced by a Pt-catalyzed H2–O2 reaction was investigated. The thermally excited H2O molecules formed by the exothermic reaction of H2 and O2 on the catalyst were ejected from a fine nozzle into the reaction zone and allowed to collide with DMZn ejected from another fine nozzle. The ZnO films were grown directly on a-plane (11-20) sapphire substrates at substrate temperatures of 773-873 K with no buffer layer. X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited intense (0002) and (0004) peaks from the ZnO(0001) index plane. The smallest full width at half maximum (FWHM) value of the ω- rocking curve of ZnO(0002) was less than 0.1º. The largest Hall mobility and the smallest residual carrier concentration of the ZnO films were 169 cm2V−1s−1 and 1.7×1017 cm−3, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room temperature exhibited a band edge emission at 3.29 eV, with a FWHM of 104 meV. Green luminescence from deeper levels was generally about 1.5% of the band edge emission intensity. PL spectra at 5 K showed a strong emission peak at 3.3603 eV, attributed to the neutral donor-bound exciton Dºx. The FWHM was as low as 1.0 meV. Free exciton emissions also appeared at 3.3757 eV (FXA, n=1) and 3.4221 eV (FXA, n=2).
To determine whether intraoperative systemic dexmedetomidine improves postoperative pain and interacts with epidural neostigmine to produce analgesic effects.
Sixty patients undergoing gynaecological surgery were randomly divided into four groups to receive epidural neostigmine and/or systemic dexmedetomidine: control (Group C), epidural neostigmine (Group N), systemic dexmedetomidine (Group D) and co-administered neostigmine and dexmedetomidine (Group ND). Epidural neostigmine (0.3 mg) was administered with 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine before the induction of general anaesthesia. Systemic dexmedetomidine (loading dose of 1 μg kg−1 over 10 min followed by 0.4 μg kg−1 h−1) was infused after the induction of general anaesthesia and continued until the end of surgery. The pain status of patients was assessed using the visual analogue scale at 2, 4, 6, 24 and 72 h postoperatively.
Intraoperative systemic dexmedetomidine alone did not reduce postoperative pain scores. However, co-administered neostigmine and dexmedetomidine significantly decreased scores at 24 and 72 h (Group C: 3.0 [1.0–5.8] and 2.0 [0.3–3.0]; Group N: 1.5 [0.3–3.4] and 0 [0–1.3]; Group D: 3.5 [0–5.0] and 0 [0–1.4]; and Group ND: 0 [0–1.0]* and 0 [0–0]†; median [interquartile range] *P = 0.0031, †P = 0.0045 compared with Group C).
The intraoperative systemic infusion of dexmedetomidine alone at doses causing sedation does not result in postoperative analgesic effects. However, the co-administration of systemic dexmedetomidine and epidural neostigmine at higher doses may be a useful method to improve postoperative pain although side-effects have to be evaluated.
We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R[max] = 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9–1.35 μm. WINERED employs an innovative optical system; a portable design and a warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide precise positions, distances, and proper motions of the bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical composition will be measured by WINERED. These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument for observations of single objects by the end of 2008 and to attach it to various 4–10m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. We hope to upgrade WINERED with a multi-object feed in the future for efficient survey of the JASMINE bulge stars.