To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ⩾50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.
We simulated the data outputs of the first Japanese astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE,
which is scheduled to be launched by the Cyclone-4 rocket in August 2011. The simulations
were carried out using existing stellar catalogues such as the Hipparcos catalogue, the
Tycho catalogue, and the Guide Star catalogue version 2.3. Several statics are shown such
as the number of stars those will be measured distances using annual aberration
observations. The method for determining the initial direction of the satellite’s spin
axis has also been discussed. In this case, the frequency of bright stars observed by the
satellite is an important factor.
Astrometry satellites have common technological issues. (A) Astrometry satellites are
required to measure the positions of stars with high accuracy from the huge amount of data
during the observational period. (B) The high stabilization of the thermal environment in
the telescope is required. (C) The attitude-pointing stability of these satellites with
sub-pixel accuracy is also required.
Measurement of the positions of stars from a huge amount of data is the essence of
astrometry. It is needed to exclude the systematic errors adequately for each image of
stars in order to obtain the accurate positions. We have carried out a centroiding
experiment for determining the positions of stars from about 10 000 image data.
The following two points are important issues for the mission system of JASMINE in order
to achieve our aim. For the small-JASMINE, we require the thermal stabilization of the
telescope in order to obtain high astrometric accuracy of about 10 micro-arcsec. In order
to accomplish a measurement of positions of stars with high accuracy, we must make a model
of the distortion of the image on the focal plane with the accuracy of less than 0.1 nm.
We have investigated numerically that the above requirement is achieved if the thermal
variation is within about 1 K / 0.75 h. We also require the accuracy of the
attitude-pointing stability of about 200 mas / 7 s. The utilization of the Tip-tilt mirror
will make it possible to achieve such a stable pointing.
We report the results of performance evaluation of the first Japanese astrometry
satellite, Nano-JASMINE. It is a very small satellite and weighs only 35 kg. It aims to
carry out astrometry measurement of nearby bright stars (z ≤ 7.5 mag) with
an accuracy of 3 milli-arcseconds. Nano-JASMINE will be launched by Cyclone-4 rocket in
August 2011 from Brazil. The current status is in the process of evaluating the
performances. A series of performance tests and numerical analysis were conducted. As a
result, the engineering model (EM) of the telescope was measured to be achieving a
diffraction-limited performance and confirmed that it has enough performance for
Grain boundary character distribution-optimized (GBCD) Type 316 corresponding austenitic stainless steel and its cold-worked ones (GBCD+CW) are one of prospective nuclear materials to be considered for next generation energy systems. These steels were thermally-aged at 973 K for 1 and 100 h and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate microstructural stability during high temperature exposure. TEM results revealed that microstructures of both specimens prior to ageing contained step-wise boundaries which is composed of coincidence site lattice (CSL) and random grain boundaries and also that the GBCD+CW specimens had dislocation cells and networks as well as deformation twins whereas as the GBCD one possessed few dislocations. After thermal ageing, the precipitates formed on not only random grain boundaries but also dislocations, contributing to prevent significant microstructural change occurring such as recrystallization and dislocation recovery.
We proposed a new concept for densification of inert matrix fuels containing minor actinides. In this concept, magnesium silicates which are both a naturally-occurring material and asbestos waste were used as a sintering additive which protects public health by safely disposing of the asbestos waste. In this study, the effects of magnesium silicate additives on the densification behaviors of MgO, Mo and CeO2 were experimentally investigated. The densities of MgO and CeO2 pellets increased with only 1 wt.% additives of MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4. The densities of Mo pellets showed little change with additives.
Field rodent surveys for Babesia infection were performed from 2002 to 2005 in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and mainland China. Babesia microti was identified by microscopical examination and/or PCR in 1 Rattus coxinga and 1 Crocidura horsfieldii in central Taiwan and in 13 Niviventer confucianus and 1 Apodemus agrarius in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces of southeastern China. Of 15 B. microti samples detected by PCR, all except 1 were shown to be the Kobe-type, the aetiological small subunit rRNA gene-type of the first Japanese patient; the exception was also a Kobe-related type. The Kobe-type had been found in rodents only in a few places including the human infection occurrence place in Japan. The internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 sequences of the Taiwanese and Chinese Kobe-types were very similar to each other but considerably different (approx. 94% pairwise identities) from that of the Japanese Kobe-type. A Taiwanese Kobe-type strain was serologically differentiated from the Kobe strain originating from the Japanese first patient. The distribution of the Kobe-type in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and China as well as in Japan is suggestive of involvement of the Kobe-type in Asian human babesiosis.
A Japanese plan of an infrared (z-band:0.9 μas or k-band:2.2 μas) space astrometry (JASMINE-project) is introduced. JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) will measure distances and tangential motions of stars in the bulge of the Milky Way. It will measure parallaxes, positions with an accuracy of 10 μas and proper motions with an accuracy of 10 μas/year for stars brighter than z=14 mag or k=11 mag. JASMINE will observe about ten million stars belonging to the bulge component of our Galaxy. With a completely new “map” of the Galactic bulge, it is expected that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in various fields of astronomy. Presently, JASMINE is in a development phase, with a targeted launch date around 2016. Science targets, preliminary design of instruments, observing strategy, critical technical issues in JASMINE and also Nano-JASMINE project are described in this paper.
Nano-JASMINE is a nano-size astrometry satellite that will carry out astrometry measurements of nearby bright stars for more than one year. This will enable us to detect annual parallaxes of stars within 300 pc from the Sun. We expect the satellite to be launched as a piggy-back system as early as in 2009 into a Sun synchronized orbit at the altitude between 500 and 800 km. Being equipped with a beam combiner, the satellite has a capability to observe two different fields simultaneously and will be able to carry out HIPPARCOS-type observations along great circles. A 5 cm all aluminum made reflecting telescope with a aluminum beam combiner is developed. Using the on-board CCD controller, experiments with a real star have been executed. A communication band width is insufficient to transfer all imaging data, hence, we developed an onboard data processing system that extracts stellar image data from vast amount of imaging data. A newly developed 2K × 1K fully-depleted CCD will be used for the mission. It will work in the time delayed integration(TDI) mode. The bus system has been designed with special consideration of the following two points. Those are the thermal stabilization of the telescope and the accuracy of the altitude control. The former is essential to achieve high astrometric accuracies, on the order of 1 mas. Therefore relative angle of the beam combiner must be stable within 1 mas. A 3-axes control of the satellite will be realized by using fiber gyro and triaxial reaction wheel system and careful treatment of various disturbing forces.
We are preparing a reflecting telescope for Nano-JASMINE, a very small satellite for global space astrometry of milli-arcsecond accuracy. The telescope has a 5-cm diameter primary mirror and a beam-combiner in front of it. It occupies only about 12x12x17cm and is entirely made out of aluminum alloy. The telescope and its surrounding structures are carefully designed for thermal stability of the optics, especially to control changes in the relative angle of the beam-combiner.
Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration (JASMINE) aims to construct a map of the Galactic bulge with a 10 μas accuracy. We use z-band CCD or K-band array detector to avoid dust absorption, and observe about 10 × 20 degrees area around the Galactic bulge region.
In this poster, we show the observation strategy, reduction scheme, and error budget. We also show the basic design of the software for the end-to-end simulation of JASMINE, named JASMINE Simulator.
JASMINE is the acronym of the Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared (z-band: 0.9 micron) Exploration, and is planned to be launched around 2017. The main objective of JASMINE is to study the fundamental structure and evolution of the Milky Way bulge components. In order to accomplish these objectives, JASMINE will measure trigonometric parallaxes, positions and proper motions of about ten million stars in the Galactic bulge with a precision of 10 microarcsec at z = 14mag.
The primary mirror for the telescope has a diameter of 75cm with a focal length of 22.5m. The back-illuminated CCD is fabricated on a 300 micron thick substrate which is fully depleted. These thick devices have extended near infrared response. The size of the detector for z-band is 3cm×3cm with 2048×2048 pixels. The size of the field of view is about 0.6deg×0.6deg by using 64 detectors on the focal plane. The telescope is designed to have only one field of view, which is different from the designs of other astrometric satellites. JASMINE will observe overlapping fields without gaps to survey a total area of about 20deg×10 deg around the Galactic bulge. Accordingly we make a “large frame” of 20deg×10 deg by linking the small frames using stars in overlapping regions. JASMINE will observe the Galactic bulge repeatedly during the mission life of about 5 years.
The telescope geometry of JASMINE should be stabilized and monitored with the accuracy of about 10 to 100 pm or 10 to 100 prad of rms over about 10 hours. For this purpose, a high-precision interferometric laser metrology system is employed. Useful techniques for measuring displacements on extremely small scales are the wave-front sensing method and the heterodyne interferometrical method. Experiments for verification of measurement principles are well advanced.
We have developped a software of Star-Image-Extractor (SIE) which works as the on-board real-time image processor. It detects and extracts only the object data from raw image data. SIE has two functions: reducing image data and providing data for the satellite's high accuracy attitude control system.
We introduce a Japanese space astrometry project which is called JASMINE. JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) will measure distances and tangential motions of stars in the Galactic bulge with yet unprecedented precision. JASMINE will operate in z-band whose central wavelength is 0.9 micron. It will measure parallaxes, positions with accuracy of about 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with accuracy of about 10 micro- arcsec/year for the stars brighter than z=14 mag. The number of stars observed by JASMINE with high accuracy of parallaxes in the Galactic bulge is much larger than that observed in other space astrometry projects operating in optical bands. With the completely new “map of the Galactic bulge” including motions of bulge stars, we expect that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in studies of the Galactic bulge. One of them is the construction of the dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge. Kinematics and distance data given by JASMINE are the closest approach to a view of the exact dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge.
Presently, JASMINE is in a development phase, with a target launch date around 2016. We comment on the outline of JASMINE mission, scientific targets and a preliminary design of JASMINE in this paper.
Future space mission of astrometric satellite, GAIA and JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration), will produce astrometric parameter, such as positions, parallaxes, and proper motions of stars in the Galactic bulge. Then kinematical information will be obtained in the future. Accordingly it is expected that our understanding of the dynamical structure will be greatly improved. Therefore it is important to make a method to construct a kinematical and dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge immediately.
Growth of a Co/Cu/Co multilayer is investigated by molecular-dynamics simulation. The interactions between Co and Cu atoms are calculated in terms of the generic-embedded atom method potential. It is confirmed that two-dimensional island growth of Cu atoms on the Co substrate occurs in the simulations. The roughnesses of the surface and the interface are evaluated by means of the standard deviations of the heights of the surface and interface atoms. Intermixing atoms between the layers are also counted. We conclude that there exists an optimum combination of the incident energies of deposited Cu and Co atoms which minimizes both the roughness and intermixing of the interface.
The mechanical properties of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires under a unixial tension are studied using molecular-dynamics simulation. The effects of anisotropy and the fraction of the core atoms on the Young's moduli of the core-shell nanowires are examined. The values of their Young's moduli deviate from those calculated using Vegard's law. Single atom chains are formed at the final stages of elongation of the nanowires.