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Experimental Echinococcus multilocularis infection and deworming was repeated three or five times in nine dogs at various re-infection schedules. The mean number of worms decreased more than 91% in dogs with repeated infection, compared to first infection controls (n= 6). The copro-antigen assay and the egg count in the faeces suggested that the worm burden gradually decreased each time the dogs were re-infected. To examine whether such worm exclusion was a non-specific response, five dogs were sequentially infected with the parasite four times and subsequently fed freely for 6 months. Even after the 6-month interval, the five dogs that were infected five times with the parasite were still able largely to exclude the adult worms. The results suggested that the ability of worm exclusion in dogs that developed a resistance did not become rapidly extinct. Observation of the condition of faeces and the excretion of hooks in the faeces of repeatedly infected dogs revealed that the exclusion of worms started at the first week after the re-infection, and it continued during the patent period. Serum antibodies specific to the parasite antigen increased gradually until the third infection and significantly decreased during the 6-month interval. There was little enhancement of serum antibodies after the fifth infection in most dogs, although no clear correlation was observed between the antibody response and the worm burden. These findings suggested the possibility of developing a vaccine.
Cortical mapping during awake surgery assesses intraoperative neurological change in response to electrical stimulation to provide direct information regarding the anatomical localization of the primary motor area (M1). The goal of the present study was to analyze the reliability of the identification of the precentral knob in the axial image of magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) for the detection of M1.
Materials and Methods:
Among patients with brain tumors within or near M1 in whom awake surgery was employed from April 2004 through March 2007, 14 cases were analyzed in which either the M1 or premotor area (PMA) was successfully detected by mapping during awake surgery.
The precentral knob was localized to the PMA in 4 cases and to M1 in 10 cases. By contrast, the gyrus activated by hand clenching in fMRI on the affected side at least partially corresponded to M1 in all cases, while those on the unaffected side corresponded to M1 in 12 of 12 cases.
These results indicate that the precentral knob corresponds to PMA as well as to M1, whereas the gyrus activated in fMRI corresponds to M1 on the affected and unaffected side.
Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observations are performed on 4H-SiC(0001) surfaces after wet-chemical preparation steps including HF treatments.1×1 structures are formed on a terrace together with other local structures. Their atomic images are investigated in conjunction with low-energy electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. It is suggested that each bright dot forming the 1×1 phase corresponds to an OH-terminated Si atom.
A satisfactory understanding of the origin of the dependence of galaxy properties on their environment has remained, so far, out of reach. In the light of numerous observational results and substantial theoretical progress obtained for clusters of galaxies in the last few years, a primary goal is to understand how the star formation activity depends on cluster substructure, i.e. on the merging/accretion history of a cluster. In this contribution we present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for an abrupt change in the star formation histories of a subset of galaxies in the Coma cluster.
A main topic at this meeting is how galaxies are affected when they enter for the first time the cluster environment from the outskirts. Most of the times we are forced to infer the environmental effects indirectly, relying on systematic variations of galaxy properties with environment, but there aren't many examples of direct observations able to unveil ongoing transformations, and the corresponding mechanism producing it. We present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for a recent, abrupt change in the evolutionary history of galaxies.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
We report here the results of deep optical spectroscopy of the very extended emission-line region (VEELR) found serendipitously around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 in the Virgo cluster. The Hα recession velocities of most of the filaments of the region observed are highly blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The velocity field is complicated, and there seem to be several streams of filaments ranging from ~ −100 km s−1 to ~ −700 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The emission-line ratios of the VEELR filaments are well explained by power-law photoionization models with solar abundances. In addition to photoionization, shock heating probably contributes to the ionization of the gas. We conclude that the VEELR was formerly the disk gas of NGC 4388, which has been stripped by ram pressure due to the interaction between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) and the galaxy.
The survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 in marine area was carried out in the Port of Osaka, Japan in 1987–2001, and 51 V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated. All strains were identified to be of El Tor biotype, Ogawa serotype and classic Ubon Kappa-phage type, and were cholera toxin (CT)-negative and CT gene-negative. In order to clarify certain ecological aspects of V. cholerae O1 in the marine environment of the temperate zone, we performed molecular analysis of the isolated strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with NotI and SfiI restriction enzymes. We found the indistinguishable strains by DNA analysis using PFGE with strains passed for 1 year, and also found the closely related strains with that passed for 3 and 12 years. Those results indicated that V. cholerae O1 can survive over one winter at least, and that it survives in marine water for a long time by undergoing continuous mutation.
Previous studies using monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4C9 specific for a 32 kDa antigen (p32) of Theileria parva demonstrated
expression of the antigen on the surface of the sporozoite, making it a potential antigen for sporozoite neutralization. A
full-length cDNA encoding the major merozoite/piroplasm surface antigen (mMPSA) of T. parva was cloned and
expressed in bacteria. The expressed product reacted strongly with mAb 4C9, demonstrating identity between the p32
and mMPSA of T. parva. Using immunoblot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy with mAb 4C9 it was shown that
the mMPSA is a major antigen of the merozoite and piroplasm at the cell surface, while lower levels of antigen are expressed
in the sporozoite and schizont stages. Upregulation of the mMPSA occurs at merogony and can be induced by culturing
schizont-infected lymphocytes at 42 °C. Recombinant mMPSA of T. parva induced high titres of specific antibodies in
cattle but failed to confer protection against a T. parva sporozoite stabilate challenge. The pre-challenge sera also failed
to neutralize infectivity of sporozoites in an in vitro assay. Possible reasons for the lack of parasite neutralization in vivo
and in vitro are discussed.
We observed three 0.44 square degree fields centered on the Coma cluster center (Coma-1), about 1 degree SW of the Coma center (Coma-3), and on a control field in SA57 with the mosaic CCD camera at the prime focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We detected 5628, 5020, and 4323 galaxies down to R = 22 mag in Coma-1, Coma-3, and SA57 fields, respectively. We measure the magnitude and color within the variable aperture r90 in which about 90% of the total flux is included. The histograms of (B–R) colors of galaxies are made for four magnitude bins of width ΔR = 2 mag covering 13 < R < 21 mag for each of the three fields. The mean colors and the 1σ scatters of the Coma galaxies are obtained by a histogram subtraction technique (Coma-1/3 minus SA57). We find a very shallow slope of the color-magnitude relation (CMR), Δ(B–R)/ΔR=−0.0037, which indicates nearly a constant (B–R) color over 6 magnitude in 15 < R < 21 mag (−19.5 < MR < −13.5 at Coma cluster). Dwarf galaxies are dominant in this magnitude range, and we conclude that the mean color of dwarf galaxies in the Coma clusters is nearly constant at (B–R) ∼ 1.6–1.7, which is similar to the color of the faint end of giant elliptical galaxies.
The mesostructured vanadia/surfactant composites are synthesized by self assembled processes and phase transition has been investigated. The lamellar mesostructure of the vanadia/surfactant has been shifted to monoclinic and hexagonal mesophase by low temperature annealing, possibly due to the change of the inorganic/surfactant ratio.
A microwave plasma generator, which functions under high pressure, has been developed and used in the fabrication of fine carbon particles. The plasma generator is a two-stage-type resonator, which consists of rectangular and semi-cylindrical-type resonators which are coupled in series for torching plasma and keeping it stable under high pressure. The plasma can be torched in helium gas at 3 × 106 Pa by tuning the dimensions of apparatus elements. Fine carbon particles of ~50 nm are obtained using a mixture of helium and methane gas. The particles are found to be crystalline from the results of transparent electron microscopy and diffraction analysis.
The kinetics of serum antibody response against infection with
Echinococcus multilocularis eggs was evaluated in AKR
mice. The animals were infected by oral inoculation with 300 parasite eggs,
and necropsied at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 16 weeks
post-infection (p.i.), respectively. The parasite formed the laminated
at 4 weeks p.i., the brood capsule with a massive
proliferation of germinal cells at 9 weeks p.i. and protoscoleces at
16 weeks p.i. Serum antibody responses of the mice to
antigen preparations from metacestodes of different stages and protoscoleces
were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting
and immunohistochemistry. In ELISA, the antibody responses began to
increase at 4 weeks and became more apparent
at 9 weeks p.i. and thereafter. Immunoblots using sera collected at
16 weeks p.i. showed some common bands among the
3 different antigen preparations. In addition to this, the germinal cells
and brood capsules of mature metacestodes were
stained strongly in an immunohistochemical study. From above, it is suggested
that some antigen molecules are expressed
in the parasite through these stages and stimulated host antibody responses.
Background. We examined interleukin-2 (IL-2) related immune pathways in depression to elucidate mechanisms underlying various immunological disturbances associated with depression.
Methods. Subjects comprised 35 unmedicated patients with a major depressive
episode without psychotic features and 36 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The immune parameters examined included the numbers of B and T cells, IL-2 receptor-mediated blastoformation (IL-2R-mediated blastoformation), IL-2 production and expression of the IL-2 receptor α-subunit.
Results. The patients with a severe episode showed significantly lower IL-2R-mediated blastoformation than the controls. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between IL-2R-mediated blastoformation and the severity of depression at the time of entry.
Conclusion. The reduced IL-2R-mediated blastoformation may partly explain several previously reported abnormal immune functions associated with depression.
At present, the photometric data for clusters at z ≲ 0.2 mainly come from photographic photometry. The lack of CCD data for such clusters is simply due to the fact that no CCD camera had been available until recently that covers the wide extension of clusters within a reasonable amount of observing time. We have developed a large mosaic CCD camera and conducted multicolor imaging observations of z ≲ 0.2 clusters using the 40-inch Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.
Recent developments in techniques of real space observations of surfaces are notable. In them reflection electron microscopy (REM) is a unique technique where in-situ real time observations of wide areas of surfaces are possible. In the present paper recent studies of surface dynamic processes on Si surfaces are reviewed. Observed dynamic processes are adsorption induced successive phase transitions, adsorbate induced facet formations and step rearrangements induced by a reversal of specimen heating current direction(so called current effect) and by a reversal of the sign of the surface strain(strain effects).
Figure 1 reproduces a series of REM images and RHEED patterns taken during successive phase transition induced by Au deposition on a clean Si(lll) surface at 780°C[l]. (a) shows a REM image taken before Au deposition. Line images with zigzag in shape are atomic steps on the surface. The surface steps up to the right as indicated by a step mark. The corresponding RHEED pattern in (b) shows that the surface has the 7×7 structure.
Highly oriented SnO2 thin films have been grown successfully from tetra-n-butyltin on heated glass substrates by a pneumatic spraying system. The effects of film growth rate and substrate temperature on the microstructures of the films were investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The SnO2 films of preferentially oriented (110) crystal plane were grown under the optimum growth conditions.
High resolution plan view images of clean and Au deposited Si(111) surfaces are presented. Corner holes and small holes between dimers of the DAS model of the 7×7 structure were clearly resolved. In the case of the Si (111) 5×1-Au structure the 5 times period fringes did not show fine details.
High resolution plan view images of clean and Au deposited Si(111) surfaces are presented. Corner holes and small holes between dimers of the DAS model of the 7×7 structure were clearly resolved. In the case of the Si(111)5×1-Au structure the 5 times period fringes did not show fine details.
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