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The prevalence of internet game use among children and adolescents has been increased in the recent years.
Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems. Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between problematic internet game use and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital.
We analyzed data from 447 subjects who first visit the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of the Ulsan University Hospital. The level of Internet addiction was categorized as either high-risk (≥108; group 3), potential risk (95 to 107; group 2), or no risk (≤94, group 1) based on the total score. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and one-way ANOVA and multiple logistic regression method were used.
Thirteen adolescents met the criteria for high risk group of internet game addiction. in the high risk group, 10 were male and 3 were female adolescents. There was an mean difference among group 3 (high risk)< 1 (no risk),2 (potential risk) in AHI ; whereas group 3 (high risk)>1 (no risk), 2 (potential risk) in BDI, BAI, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and K-ARS score. with multiple logistic regression analysis, K-scale was significantly related with male sex, BDI, ARShyperactivity/ impulsivity score.
We conclude that having male sex, happiness and depressive symptoms is associated with the risk of developing internet use disorders.
The present study aimed to examine the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) separately among parents and their adolescents.
Parents and adolescents completed the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) survey through the National Cancer Institute. The survey assessed daily intake frequencies of food/beverage groups, psychosocial, parenting and sociodemographic factors. Generalized linear models were run for both parents and adolescents, for a total of six models (three each): (i) sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) psychosocial factors; (iii) parent/caregiver factors.
Parent participants (n 1542) were predominantly 35–59 years old (86 %), female (73 %), non-Hispanic White (71 %) or non-Hispanic Black (17 %), with household income <$US 100 000 (79 %). Adolescents (n 805) were aged 12–14 years (50 %), non-Hispanic White (66 %) and non-Hispanic Black (15 %). Parents consumed 2·9 cups fruits and vegetables (F&V) daily, while adolescents consumed 2·2 cups daily. Educational attainment (higher education had greater FVI) and sex (men consumed more than women; all P<0·001) were significant FVI predictors. Parents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and preferences for fruit reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Similarly, adolescents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and knowledge reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Parenting factors of importance were co-deciding how many F&V teens should have, rules, having F&V in the home and cooking meals from scratch (all P<0·05).
Findings suggest factors that impact FVI among parents and their adolescent(s), which highlight the importance of the role of parent behaviour and can inform tailored approaches for increasing FVI in various settings.
Background: The Gilenya® Go ProgramTM offers education and support services, including coordination of first dose observation (FDO) and follow-up contact to reinforce monitoring recommendations and compliance in fingolimod-treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Methods: Data were analyzed for patients enrolled in the Canadian Gilenya® Go ProgramTM from March 2011 to January 2016. The retention to fingolimod therapy, reasons for treatment discontinuation and incidence of adverse events (AEs) during treatment are reported. Results: At data cut-off, 3956 patients had completed FDO; 3201 patients were being actively treated. Mean age at enrolment was 41.0 years; 74.9% patients were female. The overall fingolimod exposure was 7869 patient-years. Most recent previous therapies (n=3746) included interferons (43.3%) and glatiramer acetate (29.6%). Most common reasons for switching to fingolimod (n=3674) was lack of efficacy (31.8%). Retention to therapy at data cut-off was 81.3%. AEs (45.2%) were the most common reason (n=334) for treatment discontinuation and included low lymphocyte count/abnormal hematology values (13.8%), gastrointestinal disturbances (6.9%), and elevated liver enzyme levels (7.8%). Adherence to recommended ophthalmic examination was 92.4%. Conclusions: In real-world clinical practice in Canada, adherence to both fingolimod treatment and monitoring was high. The Gilenya® Go Program™ helps to meet the safety monitoring recommendations for fingolimod-treated RRMS patients.
Thermal plasma wind tunnels with power of 0.4 MW and 2.4 MW have been constructed at Chonbuk National University (CBNU) in Korea. This facility is capable of producing a heat flux greater than 10 MW/m2, a level that is relevant for testing thermal protection materials that are used for re-entry vehicles in space transportation. A segmented arc plasma torch was adopted as a plasma source; this was designed to have high thermal efficiency and long life, and to produce a supersonic plasma flow with enthalpy greater than 10 MJ/kg. We investigated the characteristics of the supersonic plasma flow using intrusive and non-intrusive diagnostic systems. Ablation characteristics of potential thermal protection materials such as carbon/carbon composites and graphite were investigated with the plasma wind tunnel. Cracks and pores in the materials accelerated the erosion. For carbon/carbon composites, the pores grew and the cracks which occurred at the interfaces between the carbon fibres and the matrix propagated, while for the graphite, the erosion started at the pores and peeled off the surface.
Theory predicts that capping brokers’ compensation exacerbates the exploitation of retail investors. We show that regulated caps on mutual fund 12b-1 fees, effectively sales commissions, are associated with negative equity fund performance, but only after a structural shift toward maximum permitted levels of the fees around 2000. Past this break point, flow–performance sensitivity shifts from the middle- to the highest-performing funds, suggesting that the fee cap increases performance-chasing behavior by constraining brokers’ incentives to learn about lower-ranked funds. The policy implication is that regulators must reevaluate the efficacy of caps on brokerage fees.
Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police–public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress.
The Survey of Police–Public Encounters study surveyed adults residing in four US cities to examine the prevalence, demographic distribution and psychological correlates of police victimisation. Participants (N = 1615) completed measures of psychological distress (K-6 scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and two newly constructed measures of civilian-reported police–public encounters. Both measures were developed to assess police victimisation based on the WHO domains of violence, which include physical violence (with and without a weapon, assessed separately), sexual violence (inappropriate sexual contact, including public strip searches), psychological violence (e.g., threatening, intimidating, stopping without cause, or using discriminatory slurs) and neglect (police not responding when called or responding too late). The Police Practices Inventory assesses lifetime history of exposure to positive policing and police victimisation, and the Expectations of Police Practices Scale assesses the perceived likelihood of future incidents of police victimisation. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between police–public encounters and psychological distress and depression.
Psychological violence (18.6%) and police neglect (18.8%) were commonly reported in this sample and a substantial minority of respondents also reported more severe forms of violence, specifically physical (6.1%), sexual (2.8%) and physical with a weapon (3.3%). Police victimisation was more frequently reported by racial/ethnic minorities, males, transgender respondents and younger adults. Nearly all forms of victimisation (but not positive policing) were associated with psychological distress and depression in adjusted linear regression models.
Victimisation by police appears to be widespread, inequitably distributed across demographic groups and psychologically impactful. These findings suggest that public health efforts to both reduce the prevalence of police violence and to alleviate its psychological impact may be needed, particularly in disadvantaged urban communities.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether age-related differences in white matter microstructure are associated with altered task-related connectivity during episodic recognition. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging from 282 cognitively healthy middle-to-late aged adults enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention, we investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA) within white matter regions known to decline with age was associated with task-related connectivity within the recognition network. Results: There was a positive relationship between fornix FA and memory performance, both of which negatively correlated with age. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that higher fornix FA was associated with increased task-related connectivity amongst the hippocampus, caudate, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, better task performance was associated with increased task-related connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, cuneus, and hippocampus. Conclusions: The findings indicate that age has a negative effect on white matter microstructure, which in turn has a negative impact on memory performance. However, fornix microstructure did not significantly mediate the effect of age on performance. Of interest, dynamic functional connectivity was associated with better memory performance. The results of the psychophysiological interaction analysis further revealed that alterations in fornix microstructure explain–at least in part–connectivity among cortical regions in the recognition memory network. Our results may further elucidate the relationship between structural connectivity, neural function, and cognition. (JINS, 2016, 22, 191–204)
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is now recognized as a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to describe the first ETEC O169 outbreak identified in Korea. In this outbreak, we identified 1642 cases from seven schools. Retrospective cohort studies were performed in two schools; and case-control studies were conducted in five schools. In two schools, radish kimchi was associated with illness; and in five other schools, radish or cabbage kimchi was found to have a higher risk among food items. Adjusted relative risk of kimchi was 5·87–7·21 in schools that underwent cohort studies; and adjusted odds ratio was 4·52–12·37 in schools that underwent case-control studies. ETEC O169 was isolated from 230 affected students, and was indistinguishable from the isolates detected from the kimchi product distributed by company X, a food company that produced and distributed kimchi to all seven schools. In this outbreak, we found that the risk of a kimchi-borne outbreak of ETEC O169 infection is present in Korea. We recommend continued monitoring regarding food safety in Korea, and strengthening surveillance regarding ETEC O169 infection through implementation of active laboratory surveillance to confirm its infection.
Mandatory reporting of healthcare-associated infections is common, but underreporting by hospitals limits meaningful interpretation.
To validate mandatory intensive care unit (ICU) central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) reporting by Oregon hospitals.
Blinded comparison of ICU CLABSI determination by hospitals and health department–based external reviewers with group adjudication.
Forty-four Oregon hospitals required by state law to report ICU CLABSIs.
Seventy-six patients with ICU CLABSIs and a systematic sample of 741 other patients with ICU-related bacteremia episodes.
External reviewers examined medical records and determined CLABSI status. All cases with CLABSI determinations discordant from hospital reporting were adjudicated through formal discussion with hospital staff, a process novel to validation of CLABSI reporting.
Hospital representatives and external reviewers agreed on CLABSI status in 782 (96%) of 817 bacteremia episodes (k = 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.84]). Among the 27 episodes identified as CLABSIs by external reviewers but not reported by hospitals, the final status was CLABSI in 16 (59%). The measured sensitivities of hospital ICU CLABSI reporting were 72% (95% CI, 62%-81%) with adjudicated CLABSI determination as the reference standard and 60% (95% CI, 51%-69%) with external review alone as the reference standard (P = .07). Validation increased the statewide ICU CLABSI rate from 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95-1.51) to 1.54 (95% CI, 1.25-1.88) CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days; ICU CLABSI rates increased by more than 1.00 CLABSI/1,000 central line–days in 6 (14%) hospitals.
Validating hospital CLABSI reporting improves accuracy of hospital-based CLABSI surveillance. Discussing discordant findings improves the quality of validation.
Between January 2006 and May 2008, 2624 pregnant S. Korean women between 35–37 weeks gestation were screened for group B streptococcus (GBS). Resistance to antimicrobials was tested by disk diffusion and serotype determined using co-agglutination assays and microarray methods. Overall, 8% of pregnant women were colonized. Serotype III was the predominant serotype (43·8%), followed by serotypes V (20·3%), Ia (12·1%), and Ib (9·5%). GBS was frequently resistant to clindamycin (54·0%) and erythromycin (25·6%); 3·7% were resistant to cefazolin. More than three-quarters of serotype V were resistant to clindamycin or erythromycin or both, and 71% of serotype III were resistant to clindamycin but only 12% were resistant to erythromycin. GBS prevalence exceeded earlier reports by one-third. This is the first report of cefazolin resistance in Korea. These results underscore the need to establish screening measures and chemoprophylaxis guidelines regarding GBS infections in Korea.
We have fabricated the nano-floating gate memory with the TiSi2 and WSi2 nanocrystals embedded in the dielectrics. The TiSi2 and WSi2 nanocrystals were created by using sputtering and rapidly thermal annealing system, and then their morphologies were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. These nanocrystals have a spherical shape with an average diameter of 2-5 nm. The electrical properties of the nano-floating gate memory with TiSi2 and WSi2 nanocrystals were characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis curve, memory speed and retention. The flat-band voltage shifts of the TiSi2 and WSi2 nanocrystals capacitors obtained appeared up to 4.23 V and 4.37 V, respectively. Their flat-band voltage shifts were maintained up to 1.6 V and 1 V after 1 hr.