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This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
There is limited information available regarding the benefits and outcomes of resection of pulmonary metastases arising from head and neck cancers.
A retrospective review was performed of 21 patients who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases of primary head and neck malignancies at Hamamatsu University Hospital. Clinical staging, treatment methods, pathological subtype (particularly squamous cell carcinoma), disease-free interval and overall survival were evaluated.
The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of the study participants were 67.0 per cent and 55.0 per cent, respectively, as determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognosis for patients with a disease-free interval of less than 24 months was poor compared to those with a disease-free interval of greater than 24 months (p = 0.0234).
Patients with short disease-free intervals, and possibly those who are older than 60 years, should be categorised as having severe disease. However, pulmonary metastases from head and neck malignancies are potentially curable by surgical resection.
We analyze photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) using a hyperspectral imager that records spectrally resolved luminescence images of solar cell absorbers. The system is calibrated to yield the luminescence flux in absolute values. This system enables to quantitatively image physical parameters such as the photovoltage with an uncertainty of less than 30mV. The wide field illumination, low power excitation and fast acquisition brings new insights compared to classical setups such as confocal microscope. Several types of absorbers have been analyzed. For instance, we can investigate spatial fluctuations of the Quasi Fermi Levels splitting in CIGS polycristalline absorbers and link those fluctuations to transport properties. The method is general to the point that third generation PV cells absorbers can also be evaluated. We illustrate the great potential of our setup by imaging carrier temperature in Hot Carriers Solar cells absorbers and quasi Fermi levels splitting in Intermediate Band Solar cells.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
As an application to the nanoemitter, we investigated the nanofabrication of diamond-like carbon (DLC)-dot arrays by room-temperature curing imprint-liftoff (RTCIL) method using aluminum mask. The DLC film which has excellent properties similar to diamond properties was used as the patterning material. A polished glass like carbon (GC) was used as a mold material. The polysiloxane in the state of sticky liquid at room temperature and stable in air exhibits a negative-exposure characteristics. Therefore, the polysiloxane was used as electron beam (EB) resist and oxide mask material in EB lithography, and also used as RTC-imprint resist material. An aluminum was used as oxide metal mask material of liftoff. We have fabricated the GC mold of dot arrays with 5 µm-square and 500 nm-height. We carried out the RTCIL process using the GC mold under the following optimum imprint conditions: 0.5 MPa-imprinting pressure and 5 min- holding time. Aluminum film on the imprinted polysiloxane was prepared by vacuum evaporation method and its thickness is 20 nm. Finally, the polysiloxane patterns were removed with acetone and aluminum mask patterns were fabricated. We found that the maximum etching selectivity of aluminum film against DLC film was as high as 35, which was obtained under an ion energy of 400 eV. Then we processed the patterned aluminum on DLC film with an ECR oxygen ion shower. We fabricated DLC-dot arrays with 5 µm-square and 400 nm-height with an aspect ratio of 0.08.
The fabrication of diamond-like carbon (DLC) micro-gear by room temperature curing nanoimprint lithography (RTC-NIL) using glass-like carbon (GC) molds as applications to the DLC-based medical MEMS (Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems) was investigated. The DLC film which has excellent properties similar to chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films was used as the patterning material. We propose GC as mold material because GC has higher etching selectivity than a diamond film. The etching selectivity of polysiloxane film against a GC substrate is about 5 times as high as that of a diamond film. Therefore we fabricated the GC molds that have micro-gear patterns with 30 µm-tip diameter and 500 nm-tooth thickness. We carried out the RTC-NIL process using the GC micro-gear molds under the following optimum conditions. 1 min-time from spin-coating to imprint: t1, 0.5 MPa-imprinting pressure: P and 5 min-holding time: t2, and then the imprinted polysiloxane pattern on DLC film was processed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion shower. However, we were not able to fabricate micro-gear patterns in high accuracy because of a remaining residual layer on the DLC film. Therefore we propose the removing process for the residual layer with trifluoromethane (CHF3) ion shower under the optimum conditions of 300 eV-ion energy and 4 min-etching time. As a result, we succeeded to fabricate concave DLC-based micro-gear patterns in high accuracy which has 30 µm-tip diameter and 1 µm-depth.
The microfabrication technologiesfor organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are essential to the fabrication of the next generation of light-emitting devices. The micro-OLEDs fabricated by room-temperature curing nanoimprint lithography (RTC-NIL) using diamond molds have been investigated. However, light emissions from 10 μm-square-dot OLEDs fabricated by the RTC-NIL method have not been uniform. Therefore, we proposed the fabrication of micro-OLEDs by room-temperature curing nanocontact-print lithography (RTC-NCL) using the diamond-like carbon (DLC) mold. The DLC molds used in RTC-NCL were fabricated by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion shower with polysiloxane oxide mask in electron beam (EB) lithography technology. The mold patterns are square and rectangle dots which has 10 µm-width, 10 µm-width and50 µm-length, respectively. The height of the patterns is 500 nm. The DLC molds were used to form the insulating layer of polysiloxane in RTC-NCL. We carried out the RTC-NCL process using the DLC mold under the following optimum conditions: 0.1 MPa-pressure for coating DLC mold with polysiloxane film, 2.1 MPa-pressure for transferring polysiloxane from DLC mold pattern to indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate. We deposited N, N'-Diphenyl -N, N'-di (m-tolyl)benzidine (TPD) [40 nm-thickness] as hole transport layer / Tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3) [40 nm-thickness] as electron transport layer / Al [200 nm-thickness] as cathode on ITO glass substrateas anode in this order. We succeeded in formation of the insulating layer with square and rectangle dots which has 10 µm-width,10 µm-width and 50 µm-length, and operation of micro-OLEDs by RTC-NIL using DLC molds.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
We succeeded in fabricating ultra-thin (<3 nm-thick) layer on top of the surface of porous low-k. The roughness of the surface of porous low-k remains homogeneous even after covering by the thin layer. Furthermore, we found that such ultra-thin layer suppresses the diffusion of metal into porous low-k film. Concerning adhesion property, the abrasion between the thin layer and copper was not detected after annealing at 350 deg C in forming gas. TVS measurement suggested that pH control of solution is the key to reduce damages of porous low-k and mobile ions. We believe that such ultra-thin layer, which we propose here, has a potential as a pore seal layer for porous low-k films.
In this study, we fabricated and examined a series of multiphase type composites constructed of Nb-doped SrTiO3 / TiO2 fine particles. The composition of the composites and the sintering temperatures were selected in a two-phase region where a perovskite SrTiO3 and a rutile TiO2 phases coexist. The composites obtained here were found to commonly have a mosaic type texture constructed of TiO2 and SrTiO3 fine particles with a typical size of about 500 nm. In some samples we also found additive phases such as Sr6Ti7Nb9O42. The thermal conductivity values measured for the most samples with different contents are ranged between 2 and 5 Wm-1K-1. The values are apparently lower than the value for single crystal SrTiO3 samples presented in literature. A sample with rather low relative density of about 80% showed a quite low thermal conductivity, about 1 Wm-1K-1. Taking account the other TE data, e.g. Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, we calculated dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, to be at maximum 0.24 at 600°C.
We propose a parallel resistance model (PRM) in which total resistance (Rtotal) is given by the parallel connection of resistance of a filament (Rfila) and that of a film excluding the filament (Rexcl)—that is, 1/Rtotal = 1/Rfila + 1/Rexcl—to understand direct current (dc) electric properties of resistive random-access memory (ReRAM). To prove the validity of this model, the dependence of the resistance on temperature, R(T), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of RHRS of Pt/NiO/Pt on the area of a top electrode, S, are investigated. It is clarified that both the R(T) and RSD depended on S, and all such dependencies can be explained by the PRM. The fact that Rtotal is decided by the magnitude relation between Rfila and Rexcl makes transport properties S-dependent and hinders the correct understanding of ReRAM. Smaller S is essential to observe the intrinsic transport properties of ReRAM filaments.
Newly developed interferon-gamma release assays have become commercially available to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults. However, little is known about their performance in children. We compared test results between the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold test (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in young children living with pulmonary TB patients in Cambodia. Of 195 children tested with both QFT and TST, the TST-positive rate of 24% was significantly higher than the QFT-positive rate of 17%. The agreement between the test results was considerable (κ-coefficient 0·63). Positive rates increased from 6% to 32% for QFT and from 15% to 43% for TST, according to the sputum smear grades of the index cases. The presence of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars did not significantly affect the results of TST or QFT in a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, QFT can be a substitute for TST in detecting latent TB infection in childhood contacts aged ⩽5 years, especially in those who may have a false-positive TST due to BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.
A parallel resistance model (PRM), in which the total resistance, Rtotal, is given by a parallel connection of resistance of a filament, Rfila, and that of a film excluding a filament, Rexcl, was proposed to understand DC electric properties of resistive RAM (ReRAM). Here, the relationship of 1/Rtotal = 1/Rfila + 1/Rexcl is satisfied. To prove the validity of this model, the dependence of the relationship between resistance and temperature, R(T), of Pt/NiO/Pt on an area of a top electrode, S, was investigated. It was clarified that R(T) depended on S, which is the result definitely expected by the PRM. It was also clarified that smaller S is crucial to observe intrinsic properties of a filament of ReRAM.
We study new deposition chemistry in Cu-SCFD (supercritical fluid deposition), especially effect of acetone is investigated as reducing agent and additives into H2 reducing Cu-SCFD. Acetone reduction yields Cu film deposition onto Ru coated Si substrate, because Ru has catalytic effect to generate reducing agent from acetone. When acetone is added into H2 reducing chemistry, the solubility of precursor is enhanced approximately 50 %, which is so-called “entrainer effect”. Ethanol can enhance the deposition of Cu in H2 reduction chemistry, which is a solvent effect. Two effects of entrainer effect by acetone and solvent effect by ethanol works independently, without interfering each other.
Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements with
zero-bias and reverse-bias cooling, we have observed new metastable
defects (EM1, EM2 and EM3) in n-type silicon by hydrogen implantation
at temperature as low as 88 K. We have investigated the trap
parameters of these metastable defects and their concentration
depth profiles. Hydrogen ion implantation was performed with
energies of 80 keV, 90 keV, and 100 keV to a dose of
2 × 1010 cm−2.
The silicon substrate temperature was kept at as low
as 88 K during hydrogen implantation and then was raised naturally
to room temperature. From analysis of Arrhenius plots, the energy
levels of EM1, EM2 and EM3 are obtained to be Ec-0.29 eV, Ec-0.41 eV
and Ec-0.55 eV, respectively. The depth profiles of metastable
defects in 90-keV samples have a peak in the concentration around
the depth of 0.68 µm, which is shallow compared with the projected
range of 90 keV hydrogen. The peak position becomes deeper as the
energy of ion implantation increases. This indicates that the
production of metastable defects is caused by ion implantation.
Additionally, comparison with helium-implanted samples suggests
that implanted hydrogen is included in these metastable defects.
We report on the transformation behaviour of metastable defects
labelled EM1 (Ec-0.29 eV), EM2 (Ec-0.41 eV) and EM3 (Ec-0.55 eV) which
are induced in n-type silicon by hydrogen implantation. Hydrogen implantation
was performed at 88 K with an energy of 90 keV to a dose
of 2 × 1010 cm−2. After fabrication of Schottky diodes on the
implanted surfaces, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were made to
monitor metastable behaviour of defects. All three metastable defects are
regenerated with reverse-bias cooling and removed with zero-bias cooling.
10-min isochronal annealing reveals that EM1 is regenerated around 270 K
and is removed around 220 K.
The EM2 (EM3) regeneration temperature is around 270 K (270 K) and its
removal temperature 220 K (260 K). Isothermal annealing treatments for EM1
show that its transformation follows first order kinetics for both regeneration
and removal. An activation energy is 0.94 eV and a frequency factor
6 × 1014 s−1 for regeneration of EM1, and 0.73 eV and
3 × 1013 s−1 for its removal.