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The topological transformation of grains in three-dimensional normal grain growth was analyzed by Brakke's Surface Evolver method that simulated the boundary motion by curvature. The statistics on elemental processes, which change the number of faces f of a grain, were determined from the simulation. The distribution function of the number of faces P( f ) in a steady structure could be predicted from the difference in the current of grains arriving at and leaving from state f. For the disappearance of one grain, face-creation switching occurred 3.7 times and face-elimination switching occurred 13.2 times on the average.
The difference in developing of solubility lobe (s.l.) of B2 phase from the B2 NiAl point on each isothermal phase diagram of Ni-Al-Co, Ni-Al-Fe and Ni-Al-Mn is expected to be explained in terms of the pattern of free energy minimum (f.e.m.) line in the B2 phase region of these phase diagrams. To calculate such the f.e.m. line, a simple way has been proposed based on the tetrahedron approximation of the cluster variation method (CVM) making use of a relationship to correlate the conventional chemical potential of a species with some kinds of the CVM variables. The calculated results show that the f.e.m. line well reflects the solubility lobe developing of the B2 phase for both Ni-Al-Fe and Ni-Al-Co while some disagreement arises with Ni-Al-Mn. The results also show a theoretical possibility of transition from the high ordered state B2 to a low ordered one under a relatively low temperature regime so far as the present free energy model are concerned.
We describe periodic arrangements of Ge islands grown on Si (111) using Ge deposition at room temperature and post-deposit annealing. A Mesh pattern of relaxed Ge islands is obtained under conditions of a Ge thickness of 10 Å and an annealing temperature of 400°C. The Mesh pattern is due to the preferential crystallization of α-Ge films at steps and at out-of-phase boundaries of 7×7 reconstructions. We also demonstrate that the Ge island pattern is modified when Ge is grown on a substrate changed by Si homoepitaxy or In adsorption.
The Solar Flare Telescope was constructed at Mitaka in 1989. This instrument comprises four telescopes which respectively observe (a) Hα images, (b) continuum images, (c) vector magnetic fields, and (d) velocity fields in the photosphere. The instrument aims at the study of energy build-up and energy release in solar flares, in cooperation with the Solar-A satellite. The whole system has been in regular operation since 1992 July. The methods of measuring the magnetic and velocity fields are described.
High-quality single domain GaAs epitaxial layers were successfully grown on (100)Ge substrates. Growth was carried out using conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. Antiphase domain free GaAs epitaxial layers were obtained by thermal etching of the Ge surface just prior to growth. Mosaic surface morphology and antiphase boundaries characteristic of domain structures were completely absent in epi-layers following thermal etching. Photoluminescence revealed that domain free epi-layers exhibited characteristics comparable to those of GaAs homoepitaxial layers.
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