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Previous work led to the proposal that the precision feeding of a high-concentrate diet may represent a potential method with which to enhance feed efficiency (FE) when rearing dairy heifers. However, the physiological and metabolic mechanisms underlying this approach remain unclear. This study used metabolomics analysis to investigate the changes in plasma metabolites of heifers precision-fed diets containing a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios. Twenty-four half-sib Holstein heifers, with a similar body condition, were randomly assigned into four groups and precision fed with diets containing different proportions of concentrate (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% based on DM). After 28 days of feeding, blood samples were collected 6 h after morning feeding and gas chromatography time-of-ﬂight/MS was used to analyze the plasma samples. Parameters of oxidative status were also determined in the plasma. The FE (after being corrected for gut fill) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing level of dietary concentrate. Significant changes were identified for 38 different metabolites in the plasma of heifers fed different dietary forage to concentrate ratios. The main pathways showing alterations were clustered into those relating to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism; all of which have been previously associated with FE changes in ruminants. Heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher (P < 0.01) plasma total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase but lower (P ≤ 0.02) hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide than heifers fed with a low-concentrate diet, which might indicate a lower plasma oxidative status in the heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Thus, heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher FE and antioxidant capacity but a lower plasma oxidative status as well as changed carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Our findings provide a better understanding of how forage to concentrate ratios affect FE and metabolism in the precision-fed growing heifers.
X-ray reference powder patterns and structures have been determined for a series of cobalt- and tungsten-containing cubic alkaline-earth perovskites, (BaxSr1–x)2CoWO6 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9). The structure of the end members of the series, Sr2CoWO6 and Ba2CoWO6, were tetragonal and cubic, respectively, agreeing with the literature data. From Rietveld refinements, it was found that when x = 0.1 and 0.2, the structure was tetragonal I4/m (a = 5.60481(6) and 5.62305(11) Å and c = 7.97989(12) and 7.9847(2) Å, respectively; Z = 2). When x > 0.2, the structure was cubic (Fm
m, No. 225; Z = 4) (from x = 0.3 to 0.9, a increases from 7.98399(13) to 8.08871(10) Å). This tetragonal series of compounds exhibit the characteristics of a distorted double-perovskite structure. The bond valence sum values for the alkaline-earth (Ba, Sr) sites in all (BaxSr1−x)2CoWO6 members are greater than the ideal value of 2.0, indicating over-bonding situation, whereas for the W sites, as x increases, a change from under-bonding to slightly over-bonding situation was observed. Density functional theory calculations revealed that while Sr2CoWO6 is a semiconductor, Ba2CoWO6 and SrBaCoWO6 are half-metals. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of this series of compounds (BaxSr1−x)2CoWO6, with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9, have been submitted to be included in the Powder Diffraction File.
We present a long-term seasonal tree ring cellulose oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) time series created by analyzing four segments (S1, S2, S3, and S4) per year during the period of 1951–2009 from southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This intraseasonal δ18Oc reveals the onset and mature phase of the summer monsoon precipitation in this region. Analysis indicates that the δ18Oc of S1 has the strongest correlation with precipitation during the regional monsoon onset (29–33 pentads, May 21–June 10, r = −0.69), and the δ18Oc values for S2, S3, and S4 correlate strongly with June, July, and August precipitation, respectively. Combined δ18Oc of S2, S3, and S4 shows the most robust correlation (r = −0.82) with the mature-phase monsoon precipitation (June-July-August, JJA), passing rigorous statistical tests for calibration and verification in dendroclimatology. These results demonstrate the feasibility in using long-term intraseasonal δ18Oc to reconstruct the Asian summer monsoon's intraseasonal variations.
The present study was designed to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on 22q11 that was thought as being of particularly importance for genetic research into schizophrenia. We recruited a total of 176 Chinese family trios of Han descent, consisting of mothers, fathers and affected offspring with schizophrenia for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed that of three SNPs, rs10314 in the 3′-untranslated region of the CLDN5 locus was associated with schizophrenia (χ2 = 4.75, P = 0.029). The other two SNPs, rs1548359 present in the CDC45L locus centromeric of rs10314 and rs739371 in the 5′-flanking region of the CLDN5 locus, did not show such an association. The global chi-square (χ2) test showed that the 3-SNP haplotype system was not associated with schizophrenia although the 1-df test for individual haplotypes showed that the rs1548359(C)-rs10314(G)-rs739371(C) haplotype was excessively non-transmitted (χ2 = 5.32, P = 0.02). Because the claudin proteins are a major component for barrier-forming tight junctions that could play a crucial role in response to changing natural, physiological and pathological conditions, the CLDN5 association with schizophrenia may be an important clue leading to look into a meeting point of genetic and environmental factors.
To observe the changes of glucocorticoid receptors(GR) in the nucleus raphes magnus (NRM)neurons of PTSD-like rats.
25 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into PTSD model 1d, 4d, 7d, 14d groups and a normal group with 5 rats in each group. Rats in model groups were treated with SPS procedure to reproduce PTSD model.The changes of expression of GR in NRM of rats were detected by immunohistochemistry and PCR in each group, and image analysis and statistical analysis were performed in each group.
GR was distributed in the nucleus of neurons. The expression of GR was sharply decreased on 1d, but gradually increased on 4d and 7d, then decreased on 14d. All of 4d, 7d, 14d are higher than the normal (P < 0.05).
The lasting dysfunction of GR in the nucleus raphes magnus (NRM) may play an important role in post-traumatic stress disorder rats.
To explore changes of Ca2+-CaM-CaMKIIα in basolateral amygdala of PTSD rats may reveal part of the pathogensis.
The SPS-method was used to set up the rat PTSD models. A total of 90 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into1d, 4d, 7d, 14d groups of SPS and normal control groups. The intracellular free calcium level in basolateral amygdala was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometer. CaM and CaMKIIα expression in basolateral amygdala were examined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
The intracellular free calcium level reached the peak 1 day after SPS stimulation, then gradually decreased to normal level. The expression of CaM 1day after SPS is also the most and then decreased to normal level. In contrast, CaMKIIα expression showed a significant down-regulation 1day after SPS throughout and then gradually increased to normal level. This findings suggest dysfunction of Ca2+-CaM-CaMKIIα in basolateral amygdala of PTSD rats.
Thus, the trauma-induced enhanced anxiety appear to be associated with, and possibly caused by, changes of Ca2+-CaM-CaMKIIα in basolateral amygdala.
Accumulated studies indicate that schizophrenia patients are prone to present the type 2 diabetes symptoms, but the potential mechanisms behind their association remain unknown. Here we explored the pathogenetic association between SCZ and T2D based on pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction. To explore the pathway crosstalk, we constructed a pathway-based network including all of those significant pathways. Our results revealed that some pathways are shared by both SCZ and T2D diseases through a number of susceptibility genes. With 382 unique susceptibility proteins for SCZ and T2D, we further built a protein-protein interaction network by extracting their nearest interacting neighbours. Among 2,104 retrieved proteins, 364 of them were found simultaneously interacted with susceptibility proteins of both SCZ and T2D, and proposed as new candidate risk factors for both diseases. Moreover, some proteins were hub proteins with high connectivity and interacted with multiple proteins involved in both diseases.Some of these hub proteins are the components of our identified enriched pathways, including calcium signaling, g-secretase mediated ErbB4 signaling, adipocytokine signaling, insulin signaling, AKT signaling and type II diabetes mellitus pathways. Through the integration of multiple lines of information, we proposed that those signaling pathways, such as AKT signaling, that contain susceptibility genes for both diseases, could be the key pathways to bridge SCZ and T2D. AKT could be one of the important shared components and may play a pivotal role to link both of the pathogenetic processes. Our study provides the general pathway-based view of pathogenetic association between two diseases.
Posttraumtic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder caused by traumatic experience, exhibiting three major clinical symptoms: re-experience, avoidance and numbing, and hyperarousal (APA,DSM-IV, 1994). It is thought to involve a dysregulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity in response to fear. The mPFC plays an important role in regulating the stress response (RJ. Ursano et al, Textbook of Disaster Psychiatry). Studies have reported that the calcium signal in the brain cell of PTSD rats is disordered (BING XIAO et al, 2009). Calreticulin, helping to deal with misfolded proteins during the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response as molecular chaperone, is a calcium binding protein.In this study,detection of the expression level of calreticulin in mPFC of rats with PTSD provides experimental evidence reveled part pathogenesis of PTSD and Single prolonged stress (SPS) method as an established animal model for PTSD was used. A total of 75 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups: SPS1d,SPS4d,SPS7d,SPS14d, and the control group. The calreticulin expression in mPFC was examined using immunohistochemistry, western boltting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry showed calreticulin widely distributed throughout the mPFC, mainly in the cytoplasm, appeared as buffy particle. Protein level of calreticulin of SPS group gradually increased and peaked at SPS 7d. The mRNA expression of calreticulin was upward trend and peaked at SPS4d. ERS induced by SPS stimulation made misfolded protein accumulation increase, which made calreticulin separate from calcium and increase to deal with misfolded protein. Then intracellular free calcium r increased, which exacerbated ERS and induced cell apoptosis. Expression change of calreticulin caused cell apoptosis, which may be closely related to changes of emotion,cognition of PTSD rats.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant problem,The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to be significantly involved in emotional adjustment.
To discuss the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rat apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2, Bax and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal apoptosis, and to provide experimental evidence to reveal PTSD pathogenesis.
The single-prolonged stress(SPS) method was used to set up the rat PTSD models There were five groups after SPS 1 day 4 days 7 days 14 days groups and control group Serum corticosterone level was determined with chemiluminescence, mPFC neuronal apoptosis changes and detection of apoptotic index were detected with transmission electron microscopy, hoechst 33342 staining and in situ nick end labeling method (TUNEL) staining. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in the medial prefrontal cortex neuronal.
PTSD rat mPFC neuron cell apoptosis, the number of apoptotic cells gradually increased with time and reached a peak at 7 days after SPS stimulates. Bcl-2 expression reached a peak at 4d and Bax expression reached a peak at 7d after SPS stimulates, Bcl-2/Bax ratio transient increased and then gradually decreased, reached a lowest point in seventh days after SPS stimulates.
The expression of apoptosis related genes Bcl-2 and Bax increase and their ratio imbalances are likely to be one of the reasons that lead to PTSD in rat mPFC neurons apoptosis, which may provide the pathophysiology basis for PTSD.
To detect molecular chaperone calreticulin(CRT) expression on the hippocampus in the rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD), and discuss the regulation of CRT on Ca2+ in hippocampus of PTSD rats, further provide the experiment basis for pathogenesis of memory anomaly in PTSD rats.
The single-prolonged stress(SPS) is one of the animal models was used to set up the rat PTSD models. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 1, 4, 7 days groups after exposure to SPS and a normal control group. The expression of CRT was detected by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and RT-PCR. The intracellular free calcium was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometer.
The expression of CRT in the hippocampus obviously increased after SPS stimulation, and reached the peak at SPS 4d. The intracellular free calcium level in the hippocampus obviously increased, and reached the peak at SPS 1d, then gradually decreased.
PTSD caused endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS), calcium overload, up-regulated expression of CRT, activation of unfolded protein response(UPR), which maybe result in cell apoptosis and maybe the pathogenesis basis on memory anomaly in PTSD rats.
The mechanism of PTSD is not fully understood until now. Previous studies showed PTSD induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Grp 78 plays important role in ERS.
To explore changes of Grp78 and Ca2+-CaM-CaMKIIα in hippocampus of PTSD rats may reveal part of the pathogensis.
The models of PTSD were created by SPS, which is an established animal model for PTSD. Wistar rats were selected for this study and randomly divided into a normal control group and SPS groups of 1d, 4d and 7d. The expression of GRP78 was examined by immunofluorescence, western blotting and RT-PCR. The intracellular free calcium level was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometer. CaM and CaMKIIα were examined by RT-PCR. Apoptosis was examined by TUNEL and TEM.
The results showed the intracellular free calcium level reached the peak 1 day after SPS stimulation, then gradually decreased to normal level. The expression of CaM 1 day after SPS is the most and then decreased. CaMKIIα expression showed a significant down-regulation 1 day after SPS throughout and then gradually increased to normal level. Grp 78 reached the peak 4 day after SPS stimulation. TUNEL-positive cells significantly more than the normal control group and peaked at 7d after SPS stimuli, then gradually decreased to normal level. Furthermore, some cells had a characteristics change, including chromatin condensation, appearance of chromatin crescents, and nucleus fragmentation.
The results suggest that Grp 78 and changes of Ca2+-CaM-CaMKIIα in hippocampal might play an important role in the pathology of PTSD.
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe and chronic forms of mental illness. Quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) test may be useful as a biological marker for the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders of Schizophrenia.
To evaluate reliability and psychiatric clinical value of QRS via thought disorder detection.
We studied 1014 schizophrenic patients, 155 patients with bipolar disorders patient, and 100 normal controls. Thought disorder symptoms of same subjects obtained from QRS test and psychiatrists' diagnoses were compared. Also Thought disorder symptoms of renumbered 65 schizophrenia patient and 100 normal controls were discriminated using QRS test.
Kappa values of thought disorders detection and diagnosed were more than 65% in 6/9 symptoms of schizophrenia, and more than 74% in all 3 symptoms of bipolar disorder. Same consistency could also be seen in Pearson R value, and ROC AUC. In the discriminated analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive of delusion, looseness of thought and paralogism thinking detected utilizing QRS are more than 70% same compared with psychiatrists diagnoses.
QRS in thought disorder detection seem to have a predictable value for outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, would become an objective identification and diagnosis instrument, and might promote psychiatric clinical diagnosis.
Schizophrenia and mood disorders are chronic forms of mental illness. Quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) test may be useful as a biological marker for the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders of mental illness.
To evaluate reliability and psychiatric clinical value of quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) in affective disorders detection.
We studied 1014 schizophrenic patients and 248 patients with mood disorders (including 93 major depression patients). Affective disorder symptoms of same subjects obtained from QRS test and psychiatrists’ diagnoses were compared. Also 3 affective disorder symptoms of renumbered 93 major depressive patients were discriminated using QRS.
Kappa values of affective disorder detection and diagnosed were more than 0.69 in all 3 symptoms of schizophrenia, and more than 0.65 in 6/7 symptoms of mood disorder. Same consistency could also be seen in Pearson R value, and ROC AUC. In the discriminated analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive of hypothymia, anxiety, and irritability detected utilizing QRS are more than 0.66 compared with psychiatrists’ diagnoses.
The study is limited by no collected psychiatric rating scale data.
QRS in affective disorder detection seem to have a predictable value for outcome in schizophrenia and mood disorder, would become an objective identification and diagnosis instrument, and might promote psychiatric clinical diagnosis.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience. Some studies showed low hippocampal volumes in PTSD patients. Our previous research indicated apoptosis induced such atrophy in the hippocampus. Endoplasmic reticulum stress -induced apoptosis has been implicated in the development of disorder diseases.
Our study was to reveal whether apoptosis induced by single-prolonged stress (SPS) in the hippocampus involved in Endoplasmic reticulum-related pathway through observation expression of three important apoptosis-related indicators on ER pathway: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78; calcium/calmodulin/CaM kinaseIIα and caspase-12.
Wistar rats were killed at 1, 4 and 7 days after exposure to SPS. The apoptotic cells in the hippocampus were assessed by TUNEL method and the free intra¬cellular Ca2+ concentration was measured. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR were used to detection expression of GRP78, Ca2+/Calmodulin/ CaM kinase IIα and caspase-12.
Our results showed that apoptosis exactly occurred in hippocampus of SPS rats. Both GRP78 and Caspase-12 were significantly up-regulated during early PTSD. They reached peak in the 4 days and then returned to normal levels in 7 days after SPS. The free intra¬cellular Ca2+ concentration was significantly higher in 1 day after SPS and decreased in 7 days; However, CaM expression significantly increased, while CaMKIIα expression significantly decreased in the hippocampus 1 day after SPS.
SPS induced the change of GRP78, Ca2+ and caspase-12 in the hippocampus of PTSD rat, indicating that the endoplasmic reticulum pathway was involved in the process of SPS-induced apoptosis.
We describe an analytical method of SH-SY5Y cell membrane chromatography (SH-SY5Y/CMC) for recognition, separation and identification of active components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). SH-SY5Y cells by means of culture with SH-SY5Y cell lines were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention components by the SH- SY5Y/CMC model were collected and active components then analyzed by SH-SY5Y/CMC under the optimized conditions. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the SH-SY5Y /CMC method using risperidone, sertraline and clozapine as standard compounds, this method was applied in screening active components from the extracts of TCMs such as Radix Gentianae, Radix Bupleuri, stir-baked semen ziziphi spinosae, rehmannia dride rhizome, uncaria rhynchophylla. Retention components from the extracts in the SH-SY5Y/CMC model were gentiopicrin and rosmarinci acid identified by the GC/MS method. In vitro pharmacological trials indicated that gentiopicrin and rosmarinci acid could concentration dependently protect the SH-SY5Y pre-treated by H2O2 (P < 0.05). The SH-SY5Y/CMC method is an effective screening system that can rapidly detect target components from a complex sample for antipsychotic candidate drug.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an important manifestation of mental and behavioral disorders after the disaste Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is an received established animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder.
To investigate endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway and unfolded protein reaction plays an important role in medial Prefrontal Cortex of PTSD rats by Single-prolonged stress (SPS).
Determined by the change of free intracellular Ca2+ the glucose-regulated Protein (GRP)94 and apoptosis-related cacaspase-12 expression.
A total of 60 healthy, male Wistar rats were selected for this study,randomly divided into a normal control group and SPS groups of 1d,4d,7d,14day and 28day. Behavioral of learning and memory capabilities of rats was observed by using Morris water maze. The expression of, GRP94 and cacaspase-12 was detected using immunohistochemical,Western Blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
In this study compared with control groups the intracellular free calcium level in mPFC was increased 1 day after SPS exposure (P< 0.05) decreased 7 days after SPS. The expression cacaspase-12 peaked at SPS 7d and then gradually decreased. GRP94 express in normal control group and increased 1 day after SPS exposure peaked at SPS 7d and then gradually decreased, at SPS 28d still higher than normal control group.
In SPS-PTSD rats the learning and memory capabilities of the rats decline;mPFC free intracellular Ca2+ may relate to endoplasmic reticulum stress;Endoplasmic reticulum stress launch unfolded protein reaction Endoplasmic reticulum apoptotic process which may relate to the pathogenesis of medial prefrontal cortex abnormal function in PTSD.
The present study compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among patients with SSD, major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls.
Gene expression profiling was conducted in peripheral blood leucocytes from drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD, and matched controls (8 subjects in each group) using global mRNA expression arrays. Support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized for training and testing on candidate signature expression profiles from signature selection step.
We identified SSD and MDD gene signatures from blood-based gene expression profile and build a SSD- MDD disorder model with higher predictive power. Firstly, we identified 63 differentially expressed SSD signatures in contrast to control (P <= 5.0E-4) and 30 differentially expressed MDD signatures in contrast to control, respectively. Then, 123 gene signatures were identified with significantly differential expression level between SSD and MDD. Secondly, in order to conduct priority selection for biomarkers for SSD and MDD together, we selected top gene signatures from each group of pair-wise comparison results, and merged the signatures together to generate better profiles used for clearly classify SSD and MDD sets in the same time. In details, we tried different combination of signatures from the three pair-wise compartmental results and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures with 100% accuracy.
Blood cell-derived RNA may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and identifying disease biomarkers in SSD and MDD. These 48 gene model could classify SSD, MDD, and healthy controls.
This study aimed at comparing the factors associated with the natural progression between typical progressors (TPs) and rapid progressors (RPs) in HIV-infected individuals. A retrospective study was conducted on 2095 eligible HIV-infected individuals from 1995 to 2016 in a high-risk area of Henan Province, China. Propensity score matching was used to balance covariates, and the conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors of natural disease progression among HIV infectors. A total of 379 pairs of RPs and TPs were matched. The standardised difference values of all covariates were less than 10%. HIV-infected individuals transmitted through sexual transmission (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36–0.85) were more likely to progress to AIDS compared with those infected through contaminated blood. Older age at diagnosis of HIV-infected individuals (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58–0.89) exhibited a faster progression to AIDS. HIV-infected individuals identified through a unique survey (OR 7.01, 95% CI 2.99–16.44) were less likely to progress to AIDS compared with those identified through medical institutions. HIV-infected individuals who had higher baseline CD4+T cell counts (OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.59–4.38) had a slower progression to AIDS. These findings provide evidence for natural disease progression from HIV to AIDS between TPs and RPs.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) enters latency after primary infection and can reactivate periodically with virus excreted in body fluids which can be called shedding. CMV shedding during the early stage of pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. The shedding pattern in healthy seropositive women who plan to have babies has not been well characterised. Vaginal swabs, urine and blood were collected from 1262 CMV IgG-positive women who intended to have babies and tested for CMV DNA by fluorogenic quantitative PCR method. Serum IgM was also detected. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and CMV shedding prevalence was analysed. Among 1262 seropositive women, 12.8% (161/1262) were detected CMV DNA positive in at least one body fluid. CMV DNA was more frequently detected in vaginal secretion (10.5%) than in urine (3.2%) and blood (0.6%) also with higher viral loads (P < 0.00). CMV shedding was more likely detected in IgM-positive women than IgM-negative women (29.5% (13/44) vs. 12.2% (148/1218); OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.55–5.93; P = 0.001). CMV shedding in vaginal secretion was highly correlated with shedding in urine, the immune state of IgM, the adverse pregnant history and younger age. CMV shedding was more commonly detected in vaginal secretion than in urine or blood with higher viral loads among healthy seropositive women of reproductive age. Further studies are needed to figure out whether the shedding is occasional or continuous and whether it is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of burns management. The optimal macronutrient intake for wound healing after burn injury has not been identified, although high-energy, high-protein diets are favoured. The present study aimed to identify the optimal macronutrient intake for burn wound healing. The geometric framework (GF) was used to analyse wound healing after a 10 % total body surface area contact burn in mice ad libitum fed one of the eleven high-energy diets, varying in macronutrient composition with protein (P5−60 %), carbohydrate (C20−75 %) and fat (F20−75 %). In the GF study, the optimal ratio for wound healing was identified as a moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat (P:C:F) ratio of 1:4:2. High carbohydrate intake was associated with lower mortality, improved body weight and a beneficial pattern of body fat reserves. Protein intake was essential to prevent weight loss and mortality, but a protein intake target of about 7 kJ/d (about 15 % of energy intake) was identified, above which no further benefit was gained. High protein intake was associated with delayed wound healing and increased liver and spleen weight. As the GF study demonstrated that an initial very high protein intake prevented mortality, a very high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet (P40:C42:F18) was specifically designed. The dynamic diet study was also designed to combine and validate the benefits of an initial very high protein intake for mortality, and subsequent moderate protein, high carbohydrate intake for optimal wound healing. The dynamic feeding experiment showed switching from an initial very high-protein diet to the optimal moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet accelerated wound healing whilst preventing mortality and liver enlargement.