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Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental illness which is characterized by the development of various detrimental clinical features, and its etiology still remains unknown. Based on the evidence from neurobiological and pharmacological research, dysfunctions in central serotonergic transmission may be involved in the development of schizophrenia. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), a newly identified isoform of tryptophan hydroxylase (the rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin), regulates the brain-specific serotonin synthesis.
To further clarify the role of TPH2 in the development of schizophrenia.
We performed a case-control study to examine the association of the TPH2 gene with schizophrenia and its clinical features.
We genotyped three putative functional polymorphisms (rs4570625, rs7305115 and rs4290270) within the gene and carried out a case-control study consisting of 304 schizophrenia patients and 362 healthy subjects. The severity of psychotic symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
The frequencies of genotypes and alleles of rs4570625, rs7305115 and rs4290270 did not differ significantly between schizophrenic patients and controls. However, the PANSS positive symptom subcore was significantly associated with rs4570625 (P = 0.022).
These results suggest that rs4570625 of TPH2 may play an important role in the development of positive symptoms in Han Chinese schizophrenic patients.
In the U.S., Medicare Part D coverage gap poses concern for antidepressant adherence, but wide availability of generic antidepressants may mitigate the effect.
Objectives and aims
To assess the effects of coverage gap and generic prescribing on antidepressant adherence among a cohort of Medicare patients experiencing a new episode of depression.
We used 2007 Medicare Part D drug event file to examine antidepressant use over the 6 months following antidepressant initiation. We estimated Cox proportional hazard models to assess the effects of the two factors on the risk of antidepressant treatment disruption. We estimated mixed-effects linear models to assess the effects on monthly days of antidepressant possession. All analyses were stratified by Part D low-income subsidy (LIS) status and Medicare entitlement (aged vs. disabled).
Receiving a generic (vs. brand) antidepressant on the first script was associated with a significantly reduced risk of treatment disruption across all four populations: hazard ratios ranged from 0.66 (p = 0.006) among disabled patients not receiving LIS to 0.88 (p = 0.020) among aged patients receiving LIS. For patients not receiving LIS, experience of coverage gap was associated with increased risk of disruption only among the disabled (hazard ratio = 2.15, p = 0.006). Analysis of monthly antidepressant possession produced consistent results and indicated that the beneficial effect of generic first script was comparable with or outweighed the detrimental effect of coverage gap.
Part D coverage gap adversely affected antidepressant adherence by disabled patients not receiving LIS. Increased generic prescribing may help improve adherence among all patients.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Ultraintense laser-driven relativistic electrons provide a way of heating matter to high energy density states related to many applications. However, the transport of relativistic electrons in solid targets has not been understood well yet, especially in dielectric targets. We present the first detailed two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of relativistic electron transport in a silicon target by including the field ionization and collisional ionization processes. An ionization wave is found propagating in the insulator, with a velocity dependent on laser intensity and slower than the relativistic electron velocity. Widely spread electric fields in front of the sheath fields are observed due to the collective effect of free electrons and ions. The electric fields are much weaker than the threshold electric field of field ionization. Two-stream instability behind the ionization front arises for the cases with laser intensity greater than
that produce high relativistic electron current densities.
The co-occurrence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is extremely rare. Here, we present the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of three cases with co-occurring CE and AE in the liver. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and 18FFluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-CT were used for preoperative diagnosis. Specimens were taken intraoperatively and sent for pathological studies to confirm the coexistence of CE and AE by laminated membrane, daughter cysts or germinal layer and infiltration structure. Albendazole was prescribed after operation for 12 months. All patients were completely recovered and showed no recurrence at last follow-up. Therefore, surgical intervention and postoperative application of albendazole are recommended for patients with concurrence of hepatic AE and CE.
A creative collective, I'm Making A Boy Band (IMMABB) discuss the issues of postcolonialism and identity/gender politics surrounding the transnational circulation of K-pop by sharing their process of making a non-Korean K-pop idol group called EXP in New York in the form of an experimental “how-to” manual. They also talk about the possibilities of fandom in relation to feminism and sexuality by using an in-depth analysis of the K-pop industry as well as themselves whilst blurring the line between fine art and pop culture.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
A layered composite of Fe2O3-pillared bentonite (Fe-P-Bet), used as a catalyst in a Fenton-like process, was prepared and then its mechanical activation was studied in detail. The optimum conditions for preparation of Fe-P-Bet and the effects of mechanical activation on the catalytic activity of Fe-P-Bet were investigated systematically. The impact of the mechanical activation on the catalytic activity was affected by the filling ratio of the grinding medium, by the combination of different sized milling balls, by the rotation speed of the planet carrier, by the milling time and by the powder-to-ball ratio. Compared with the removal ratio of orange II of 14.5%, catalysed by Fe-P-Bet, the removal ratio catalysed by activated Fe2O3-pillared bentonite (A-Fe-P-Bet) was as high as 93.6%, and A-Fe-P-Bet had the merit of good stability and only a small amount of Fe leaching during the Fenton-like process. The catalysts prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and by the BET method; A-Fe-P-Bet has a small particle size and a rough surface. The lattice distortion and decrease in the crystal size of α-Fe2O3, as well as damage to the layer structure of smectite in the bentonite, were the main reasons for the increase in the catalytic activity of A-Fe-P-Bet. The results indicated that mechanical activation was an easy and effective method for improving the catalytic activity of this bentonite-based layered composite and that A-Fe-P-Bet was a safe, ‘green’, catalyst material for use in Fenton-like oxidation during treatment of wastewater.
Many parents move from rural China to urban areas in search of job opportunities, and leave their children behind to be raised by relatives. We aimed to assess the immunisation coverage, including the 1:3:3:3:1 vaccine series (one dose of Bacilli Chalmette–Guérin vaccine; three doses of live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine; three doses of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis combined; three doses of hepatitis B vaccine; and one dose of measles-containing vaccine), in children aged 12–72 months and identify the determinants of immunisation uptake among left-behind children in Hubei Province, Central China, in 2014. In this cross-sectional study using the World Health Organization's cluster sampling technique, we surveyed 1368 children from 44 villages in 11 districts of Hubei Province. The socio-demographic and vaccination status data were collected by interviewing primary caregivers using a semi-structured questionnaire and reviewing the immunisation cards of the children. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the determinants of complete vaccination and age-appropriate vaccination. For each dose of the five vaccines, the vaccination coverage in the left-behind and non-left-behind children was >90%; however, the age-appropriate vaccination coverage for each vaccine was lower in left-behind than in non-left-behind children. For the five vaccines, the fully vaccinated rate of left-behind children were lower than those of non-left-behind children (89·1%, 92·7%; P = 0·013) and age-appropriate immunisation rate of left-behind children were lower than those of non-left-behind children (65·7%, 79·9%; P < 0·001). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that the parenting pattern, annual household income and attitude of the primary caregiver towards vaccination significantly influenced the vaccination status of children. Moreover, we noted a relatively high prevalence of delayed vaccination among left-behind children. Hence, we believe that the age-appropriate immunisation coverage rate among left-behind children in rural areas should be further improved by delivering and sustaining primary care services.
Legionnaires’ disease (LD) is a globally distributed systemic infectious disease. The burden of LD in many regions is still unclear, especially in Asian countries including China. A survey of Legionella infection using real-time PCR and nested sequence-based typing (SBT) was performed in two hospitals in Shanghai, China. A total of 265 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens were collected from hospital A between January 2012 and December 2013, and 359 sputum specimens were collected from hospital B throughout 2012. A total of 71 specimens were positive for Legionella according to real-time PCR focusing on the 5S rRNA gene. Seventy of these specimens were identified as Legionella pneumophila as a result of real-time PCR amplification of the dotA gene. Results of nested SBT revealed high genetic polymorphism in these L. pneumophila and ST1 was the predominant sequence type. These data revealed that the burden of LD in China is much greater than that recognized previously, and real-time PCR may be a suitable monitoring technology for LD in large sample surveys in regions lacking the economic and technical resources to perform other methods, such as urinary antigen tests and culture methods.
We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae, including Type Ia, II and Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the SDSS DR7. We further selected 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations > 15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. The diagrams related to Dn(4000), HδA, stellar masses, SFRs and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and Absorp galaxies. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures < 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased towards higher 12+log(O/H) (~0.1dex) at a given stellar mass, suggesting the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.
We compiled a sample of 57 galaxies with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts and SPIRE detections in all three bands at z = 2.5-6.4, and compared their SPIRE colors with SED templates from local and high-z libraries. We find that local calibrations are inconsistent with high-z observations. For high-z libraries, the templates with an evolution from z = 0 to 3 can describe the average colors of the observations at high redshift well. Based on the templates, we defined color cuts to divide the SPIRE color-color diagram into different regions with different mean redshifts. We tested this method and two other color cut methods using a larger sample (783 galaxies) with photometric redshifts. We find that these color cuts can separate the sample into subsamples with different mean redshifts, but the dispersion of redshifts in each subsample is considerably large. Additional information is needed for better sampling.
Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR 7, we investigate the environment, morphology, and stellar population of bulgeless low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample with redshift ranging from 0.024 to 0.04 and Mr ≤ −18.8. We find that, for bulgeless galaxies, the surface brightness does not depend on the environment. Irregular LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than regular LSB galaxies. These results suggest that the evolution of LSB galaxies may be driven by their dynamics, including mergers rather than by their large-scale environment.
Based on large-signal theory, a one-dimensional theoretical model of a coaxial vircator is developed to give the microwave gain of the nonlinear beam–wave interaction, and the effect of injected current premodulation on the microwave gain is analysed theoretically. In addition, a coaxial vircator with improved dual-cavity modulation structure, which has the advantage of enhancing the effect of the modulation cavity on the injected electron beam by way of feedback microwaves, is presented. The simulation results are presented to test the validity of the proposed theory, and it can be seen that the system power efficiency can become further strengthened by adjusting the parameters of the microwave feedback channel until the feedback electric field is at the proper phase. Finally, through optimization, a structure capable of generating 7.05 GW average output power and 19.5 % power conversion efficiency at 2.95 GHz operating frequency is obtained.
Co-infections of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and HIV/AIDS is rare. We report four CE cases that were HIV positive. Three out of the four patients underwent a surgical operation to remove the hydatid cysts in their livers. The operation confirmed that in two of the cases their cysts had ruptured. These patients were given 3 months of albendazole after the operation. Follow-up showed they were remarkably improved in term of their health, although they were still HIV antibody positive 6 months after surgical treatment. Interestingly, the treatment remarkably increased their CD4+ cell population. We showed that surgery is suitable for treating hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HIV/AIDS co-infection.
This study characterized Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in China in order to establish their genetic relatedness and describe the use of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to provide useful epidemiological information. A total of 215 N. meningitidis serogroup C strains, obtained from 2003 to 2012 in China, were characterized by MLVA with different published schemes as well as multilocus sequence typing. (i) Based on the MLVA scheme with a combination of five highly variable loci, 203 genotypes were identified; this level of discrimination supports its use for resolving closely related isolates. (ii) Based on a combination of ten low variable loci, clear phylogenetic relationships were established within sequence type complexes. In addition, there was evidence of microevolution of VNTR loci over the decade as strain lineages spread from Anhui to other provinces, the more distant the provinces from Anhui, the higher the genetic variation.
A calculation model is put forward to analyze the interfacial response of an elastic frictionless punch, pressed normally into a half-plane, and subject to bending moment throughout this paper to observe the important effect that different normal loads and bending moments on the contact pressure distribution and contact deformation. Results for the detailed considerations have been given to the specific different cases of ηc. A characteristic response of the punch to a surplus bending moment has been found. The small differences can be observed between both methods show characteristic features of the FEM model and the theoretical model. The presented numerical results illustrate the influences of the normal load and bending moment on the contact stresses. The results obtained can be used to analyze the crack nucleation in fretting when the punch is acted upon by the normal force and the bending moment.
Lithium-air batteries have received extraordinary attention recently owing to their theoretical gravimetric energies being considerably higher than those of Li-ion batteries. There are, however, significant challenges to practical implementation, including low energy efficiency, cycle life, and power capability. These are due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of oxygen reduction and evolution reaction kinetics and parasitic reactions between oxygen redox intermediate species and nominally inactive battery components such as carbon in the oxygen electrode and electrolytes. In this article, we discuss recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of oxygen redox reactions in nonaqueous electrolytes and the search for electrolytes and electrode materials that are chemically stable in the oxygen electrode. In addition, methods to protect lithium metal against corrosion by water and dendrite formation in aqueous lithium-air batteries are discussed. Further materials innovations lie at the heart of research and development efforts that are needed to enable the development of lithium-oxygen batteries with enhanced round-trip efficiency and cycle life.