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Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated complex behavioral abnormalities. There is strong support for a genetic basis to the disorder, however, the precise pattern of transmission and the identification of underlying genes has remained elusive. Recently, mutations in a gene termed SLIT- and NTRK-like family, member 1 (SLITRK1) have been shown to lead to rare forms of TS and associated disorders. The SLITRK family (SLITRK 1-6) includes neuronal transmembrane proteins that can control neurite outgrowth. Structurally, SLITRK family members are characterized by two leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains located on the extracellular/intralumenal domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular/cytoplasmic domain that is of varying lengths. SLITRK1 has a cytoplasmic domain that is most different from the others, being both the shortest (53 amino acids), and lacking conserved potential sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We are using molecular methods to dissect SLITRK1 signaling and metabolism.
We developed a bait from the human SLITRK1 protein and used it to screen libraries for SLITRK1-interacting proteins. In addition, we studied the metabolism of SLITRK1 in situ.
We completed screens of both an adult and a fetal brain library and are characterizing the validated SLITRK1-interacting proteins. We have also characterized SLITRK1 metabolism and the effects of SLITRk1 mutations on its metabolism.
SLITRK1-interacting proteins may represent susceptibility loci for TS and related disorders, and are likely involved in the development of the central nervous system.
This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
The near-infrared absorption line Fe I 15648 Å, which has a Landé g-factor of 3, shows a particularly large Zeeman splitting. We regularly take full-disk polarization maps of the Sun in the Fe I 15648 Å line (as well as the He I 10830 Å line) with an infrared spectropolarimeter installed at the Solar Flare Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). It is known that weak, mostly horizontal magnetic fields are ubiquitously distributed in the quiet regions of the Sun, while the strong magnetic fields are concentrated in active regions and network boundaries. The weak horizontal field has not been sufficiently investigated due to the difficulty of such observations. The polarization maps in Fe I 15648 Å show the magnetic field strength at each pixel, regardless of the filling factor, so we can easily isolate the weak horizontal field signals from strong magnetic field ones using the Stokes V profiles of the Fe I 15648 Å line. Here we present instrumental aspects and observational results of solar near-infrared full-disk polarimetry. We highlight the weak horizontal field inferred from Fe I 15648 Å.
The microfabrication technologiesfor organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are essential to the fabrication of the next generation of light-emitting devices. The micro-OLEDs fabricated by room-temperature curing nanoimprint lithography (RTC-NIL) using diamond molds have been investigated. However, light emissions from 10 μm-square-dot OLEDs fabricated by the RTC-NIL method have not been uniform. Therefore, we proposed the fabrication of micro-OLEDs by room-temperature curing nanocontact-print lithography (RTC-NCL) using the diamond-like carbon (DLC) mold. The DLC molds used in RTC-NCL were fabricated by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion shower with polysiloxane oxide mask in electron beam (EB) lithography technology. The mold patterns are square and rectangle dots which has 10 µm-width, 10 µm-width and50 µm-length, respectively. The height of the patterns is 500 nm. The DLC molds were used to form the insulating layer of polysiloxane in RTC-NCL. We carried out the RTC-NCL process using the DLC mold under the following optimum conditions: 0.1 MPa-pressure for coating DLC mold with polysiloxane film, 2.1 MPa-pressure for transferring polysiloxane from DLC mold pattern to indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate. We deposited N, N'-Diphenyl -N, N'-di (m-tolyl)benzidine (TPD) [40 nm-thickness] as hole transport layer / Tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3) [40 nm-thickness] as electron transport layer / Al [200 nm-thickness] as cathode on ITO glass substrateas anode in this order. We succeeded in formation of the insulating layer with square and rectangle dots which has 10 µm-width,10 µm-width and 50 µm-length, and operation of micro-OLEDs by RTC-NIL using DLC molds.
In order to measure precisely the polarization of Crab Nebula and Cygnus X-1, we have been developing a hard X-ray polarimeter for balloon-borne experiments called PHENEX (Polarimetry of High ENErgy X-rays). It consists of several detectors called unit counters. The unit counter has a detection efficiency of 20% and a modulation factor of 53% at 80 keV. Up to now, we have finished the installation of eight unit counters to the polarimeter, that will be launched in Spring 2009 to observe the Crab Nebula. If the polarization of this source is more than 30%, the PHENEX polarimeter will be able to measure the degree and the direction of the polarization with errors less than 10% and 10°, respectively.
X-ray astronomy has been much advanced by three observations: spectroscopy, timing, and imaging. Also in the hard X-ray region, these three observations will be realized by ASTRO-H and XEUS. However, the observation of the polarization is at the moment left out in spite of its potential usefulness. This is because of the difficulty of developing polarimeters with high sensitivity. Since the origin of the polarization is often due to nonthermal radiation processes such as synchrotron radiation, observations in the hard X-ray region are possibly more important than those in the soft X-ray region: it is expected that the degree of polarization in the hard X-ray region would be higher than that at lower energies.
We propose new measurement system for direct detection of WIMPs with directional information using nano imaging tracker (NIT) and X-ray microscope. The NIT made of fine grains of emulsion has a good spatial resolution of several tens nanometer and the X-ray microscope can work as a readout instrument for sub-micron track structure instead of ordinary optical microscope. Wolter type-I fluorescence X-ray microscope utilizing Ag-L line can be applied to this system. Crucial issues are reduction of background event due to random fog and to develop fast selection method of WIMP event candidates.
The rapid crystallization of amorphous silicon utilizing a
very-high-frequency (VHF) inductive coupling thermal microplasma jet of
argon is demonstrated. Highly crystallized Si films were synthesized by
adjusting the translational velocity of the substrate stage and flow rate of argon. The H concentration in the crystallized Si films decreased from
1021 cm−3 to 1019 cm−3 with no marked increases in
oxygen and nitrogen impurity concentrations and defect density. The
thin-film transistors of a 40-nm-thick crystallized a-Si film showed a
field-effect mobility of 30–55 cm2/V s with a threshold voltage of 3–5 V. P-i-n thin-film solar cells were also fabricated for 1.5-μm-thick crystallized a-Si films, which showed an efficiency of 5.5% and filled factor of 0.52. The crystallization proceeded with time constants of
10 ms, which was of 4–6 orders of magnitude lower than the conventional laser-crystallization of a-Si. The crystallization process is discussed in terms of the viscous flow of Si-network, due to the rapid local heating and melting of a-Si.
Zn1-yMgyO bandgap controllable transparent conducting films were used for the wide-gap Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film solar cells. Undoped Zn1-yMgyO and Al doped Zn1-yMgyO films were deposited by co-sputtering using a carousel type sputtering apparatus. Zn1-yMgyO films with Mg content y of up to 0.10 were examined. For Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 with band gap energy ˜1.38 eV, the cell performance was slightly improved by using Zn1-yMgyO and Al doped Zn1-yMgyO instead of ZnO and Al doped ZnO. An unexpected improvement of short circuit current density was observed.
A 2-dimensional Doppler coronagraph “NOGIS” (NOrikura Green-line Imaging System) at the Norikura Solar Observatory, NAOJ, is a unique imaging system that can provide both intensity and Doppler velocity of 2 MK plasma from the green coronal line emission $\lambda$5303 Å of Fe xiv. We present the first detection of a CME onset by NOGIS. The event was originally induced by a C9.1 confined flare that occurred on 2003 June 1 at an active region NOAA $\#$10365 near the limb. This flare triggered a filament eruption in AR 10365, which later evolved into a partial halo CME as well as an M6.5 flare at the same AR 10365 on 2003 June 2. The CME originated in a complex of two neighboring magnetic flux systems across the solar equator: AR 10365 and a bundle of face-on tall coronal loops. NOGIS observed i) a density enhancement in between the two flux systems in the early phase, ii) a blue-shifted bubble and jet that later appeared as (a part of) the CME, and iii) a red-shifted wave that triggered a periodic fluctuations in Doppler shifts in the face-on loops. These features are crucial to understand unsolved problems on a CME initiation (e.g., mass supply, magnetic configuration, and trigger mechanism) and on coronal loop oscillations (e.g., trigger and damping mechanisms). We stress a possibility that interaction between separatrices of the two flux systems played a key role on our event.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Relationships between leaf expansion and MeOH-soluble (cytosol) and cell-wall fractions, and their sugar composition prior to silking in flint corn lines were studied. A greater husk leaf area of one genotype, X-15 is mainly due to prolonged and higher rate of expansion. Prior to rapid expansion of husk leaf area, neutral sugars in the cytosol fraction accounted for most of the non-starch carbohydrates (56–62%), while hemicellulose and cellulose fractions accounted for less than 20%. In mature leaf parts, however, sugars in the cytosol fraction decreased but those in hemicellulose and cellulose fractions increased by 30% and 42%, respectively. The predominant sugar in the cytosol fraction was glucose (Glc), while in the hemicellulose fraction xylose (Xyl) and arabinose (Ara) dominated. During rapid expansion of husk leaves, 13C was incorporated at a higher rate into hemicellulose than cellulose, and this process was more active in X-15 than in other genotypes. During an identical period, 13C atom % excess in Xyl increased markedly in the hemicellulose fraction, however it remained low in the cytosol one. The current results suggest that synthesis of Xyl and xylan plays an important role in renewal of hemicellulose, which may be required for expansion.
Supposing coronal magnetic fields are in a force-free state from the chromosphere to the height of two solar radii, we reconstruct 3D force-free magnetic fields by making use of a new numerical technique, in which the fields are represented by a boundary integral equation based on a specific Green's function. Vector magnetic fields observed on the photospheric surface can be taken as the boundary conditions of this equation. Magnetic fields in AR8270 on 14 July 1998 were employed as an example to exhibit the capability of this numerical technique.
This paper describes the effects of porosity and thermal ageing at 950°C for 4000 hr. in air on in-plane cracking behavior of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) made up of 8 % yittria-stabilized zirconia. The in-plane TBC cracking was analyzed by a protruded TBC bend testing technique together with finite element stress analysis. As-deposited and aged TBC protruded specimens showed a large variation of porosity depending on the location of specimen extraction. The critical local tensile stress (s) necessary for the initiation of in-plane cracks for each specimen with different porosity was determined using elastic moduli (E) estimated from the porosity dependence of E. The s for in-plane cracking of the as-deposited TBC initially increased with increasing porosity and showed a peak when the porosity reached 0.23. It was shown that in-plane cracking at the interface of TBC and thermally grown oxides required much higher s than that at the interface of TBC and bond coatings. The thermal ageing led to a slight increase in s for away-from-interfacial TBC cracking. The dependence of in-plane TBC cracking behavior on the porosity is discussed in terms of effective critical stress via the Griffith criterion for porous materials.
Consumption of caffeine-rich beverages, which have diuretic properties, may decrease serum uric acid concentrations. We examined cross-sectionally the relationship of coffee and green tea consumption to serum uric acid concentrations in 2240 male self-defence officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at four hospitals of the Self-Defence Forces between 1993 and 1994. The mean levels of coffee and green tea consumption were 2·3 and 3·1 cups/d respectively. There was a clear inverse relationship between coffee consumption and serum uric acid concentration. When adjusted for hospital only, those consuming less than one cup of coffee daily had a mean serum uric acid concentration of 60 mg/l, while that of those drinking five or more cups of coffee daily was 56 mg/l (P < 0·0001). No such relationship was observed for green tea, another major dietary source of caffeine in Japan. The relationship between coffee consumption and serum uric acid concentration was independent of age, rank in the Self-Defence Forces, BMI, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum total cholesterol and serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations, smoking status, alcohol use, beer consumption and intake of dairy products. These findings suggest that coffee drinking may be associated with lower concentrations of serum uric acid, and further studies are needed to confirm the association.
A solution flow system for hydrothermal-electrochemical synthesis has been constructed in our laboratory. This equipment can operate at 20°-200°C, under the pressure of 1-50 atm., at flow rate of 1-50 cm3/min. Applicability of the flow system for low-temperature, hydrothermalelectrochemical synthesis of single-layer and multilayered thin films has been demonstrated using the BaTiO3-SrTiO3 system as an example. Single phase thin films as well as double layers have been deposited at 150°C, current density of 1 mA/cm2, and flow rates of 1-50 cm3/min. The flow rate is an important parameter allowing additional control of the films' morphology by affecting the growth rate. The multilayers can be prepared in only one experiment by simply changing the flowing solution. Processing using the solution flow cell may serve as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of fabricating any multilayered thin films, including magneto-optic films.
The asymmetrical forward versus reverse - bias DC electrical conductivity (macroscopic and also nanoscopic) through Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers and monolayers of γ-(nhexadecyl) quinolinum tricyanoquinodimethanide, C16H33Q-3CNQ (1) is attributable to rectification of electrical current by a single molecule.
This paper describes examination of in-service coating degradation in land based gasturbine blades by means of a small punch testing (SP) method and scanning Auger microprobe(SAM). SP tests on coated specimens with unpolished surfaces indicated large variations ofthe mechanical properties because of the surface roughness and curvature in gas turbine blades, SP tests on polished specimens better characterized the mechanical degradation of bladecoatings. The coated specimens greatly softened and the room temperature ductility of thecoatings and substrates tended to decrease with increasing operation time. The ductile-brittletransition temperature of the coatings shifted to higher temperatures during the bladeoperation. From SAM analyses on fracture surfaces of unused and used blades, it has beenshown that oxidation and sulfidation near the coating surface, which control the fractureproperties, result from high temperature environmental attack.
With appropriate processing conditions, nanoscale ferromagnetic particles precipitate from nonmagnetic matrix phase in the Co-Cr and Cr-Fe systems. In these heterogeneous alloys, unique magnetic properties are observed. In order to correlate such magnetic properties with the microstructures, we have employed an atom probe field ion microscope (APFIM) and a three dimensional atom probe (3DAP). In the Co-22Cr thin film sputter-deposited at elevated temperatures (~500 K), both APFIM and 3DAP data convincingly showed that the film was composed of lamellae-like ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of approximately 8 nm in thickness. On the other hand, it was shown that the films sputter-deposited at ambient temperature was composed of s-Co single phase without significant compositional heterogeneity. Based on these observations, we conclude that phase separation progresses during the growth of the film on a heated substrate. In the Cr-Fe alloy, large negative MR was observed in the as-quenched alloy at liquid helium temperature. However, the MR behavior changes as the phase decomposition progresses by annealing. The change in the MR behavior observed in this alloy with various heat treatment conditions will be discussed based on the microstructural characterization results by APFIM and 3DAP.
This paper reports recent atom probe analysis results of Fe-Zr-B(-Cu) and Al-Ni-Ce(-Cu) amorphous alloys, in which nanocrystalline microstructures develop by primary crystallization. In these alloy systems, enrichment of slow diffusing solute was found at the interfaces between primary crystals and amorphous matrix during the nucleation and growth stage. In the case of ternary Fe-Zr-B, no evidence for compositional heterogeneities were found prior to the onset of crystallization reaction. On the other hand, clustering of Cu atoms was observed in quaternary Fe-Zr-B-Cu alloy prior to the crystallization reaction. In the ternary Fe-Zr-B alloy, nucleation sites seem to be provided by the quenched-in nuclei which were observed as medium range ordered (MRO) domains by HREM. In the as-quenched Al-Ni-Ce(-Cu) alloy, compositional fluctuations were present from the as-quenched state. These observations suggest that nuclei for primary crystallization are provided in various forms such as MRO domains, solute clusters and compositional heterogeneities.
Adsorption of C60, C70, C60(x)C70(1-x) and Sc2C84 on the Cu(111)1×1 and Ag(l11)1×1 surfaces has been investigated by field ion-scanning tunneling microscopy (FI-STM). On the Cu(111) and Ag(111) surfaces, the fullerene molecules are mobile on the terrace at room temperature and segregate to the steps to form linear chains then two-dimensional islands with a close-packed configuration. Upon monolayer adsorption, highly ordered 4×4 commensurate phases form in the case of the C60, C70 and C60(x)C70(1−x) adsorption on the Cu(111) surface, while close-packed hexagonal multiple phases, with nearest-neighbour distance equal to that of the bulk phase, form in the case of the C60 and Sc2C84 adsorption on the Ag(111) surface. These observations imply the competition between the adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions. The intramolecular structures observed in the STM images of the C60 and C70 molecules in the Cu(111)-4×4 phases are analyzed to determine the adsorption geometry and are interpreted as the local density of the states of the C60 and C70 molecules.