To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We report Hα imaging observations of nearby galaxies with the Kiso Schmidt telescope. For spiral galaxy NGC 628, we found no clear correlation between Hα and CO intensities, and we discuss the star formation efficiency of this galaxy. No nuclear Hα emission in this galaxy was detected. This is consistent with spectroscopic observations which indicate that the nuclear region is in the post starburst phase. We also describe the Hα image of Hickson's compact group 92 in which diffuse emission is detected extending within the group system.
Zizina emelina (de l'Orza) is listed on Japan's Red Data List as an endangered species because of loss of its principal food plant and habitat. We compared parts of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes of this species to investigate the level of genetic differentiation among the 14 extant populations. We also examined infection of the butterfly with the bacterium Wolbachia to clarify the bacterium's effects on the host population's genetic structure. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses revealed that haplotype composition differed significantly among most of the populations, and the fixation index FST was positively correlated with geographic distance. In addition, we found three strains of Wolbachia, one of which was a male killer; these strains were prevalent in several populations. There was linkage between some host mitochondrial haplotypes and the three Wolbachia strains, although no significant differences were found in a comparison of host mitochondrial genetic diversity with nuclear genetic diversity in Wolbachia-infected or -uninfected populations. These genetic analyses and Wolbachia infection findings show that Z. emelina has little migratory activity and that little gene flow occurs among the current populations.
The HYPER-II device has been constructed in Kyushu University to investigate the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma, which is an intermediate state of plasma and consists of unmagnetized ions and magnetized electrons. High density plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and the flow field structure in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is investigated with a directional Langmuir probe method and a laser-induced fluorescence method. The experimental setup has been completed and the diagnostic systems have been installed to start the experiments. A set of coaxial electrodes will be introduced to control the azimuthal plasma rotation, and the effect of plasma rotation to generation of rectilinear flow structure will be studied. The HYPER-II experiments will clarify the overall flow structure in the inhomogeneous magnetic field and contribute to understanding characteristic feature of the intermediate state of plasma.
One of promising photorechargeable electrode, which has two functions of photovoltaic and electrical energy storage, is a composite film of mesoporous TiO2 and conducting polymer polyaniline. Galvanostatic charge/discharge characteristics of the TiO2-polyaniline composite were examined to reveal how fast the film was charged. The film with a specific capacity 60-120 mAh g–1 was found to be fully charged at high charging rate 20 mA cm–2 which is comparable to high performance solar cells. Such high charging rate was achieved by the compact polyaniline layer covering the large specific surface area of mesoporous TiO2 film.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
Mg2Si bulk was fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) nano-powder, and the thermoelectric characteristics of the bulk sample were evaluated at temperatures up to 873 K. A pre-synthesized all-molten commercial polycrystalline Mg2Si source (un-doped n-type semiconductor) was pulverized into powder of 75 μm or less. To obtain nano-sized fine powder, the powder was milled using planetary ball mill equipment under an inert atmosphere. Fine Mg2Si nano-powder with a mean grain size of about 500 nm was obtained. XRD analysis confirmed that no MgO existed in the nano-powder. The fine powder was put in a graphite die to obtain a sintering body of Mg2Si and treated by SPS under vacuum conditions. The resulting Mg2Si bulk had high density and did not crack. However, the XRD analysis revealed a small amount of MgO in it. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity) were measured from room temperature to 873 K. The microstructure of the sintered body was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The maximum dimensionless figure of merit of a sample made from Mg2Si nano-powder was ZT = 0.67 at 873 K.
The thermoelectrical properties of α and γ phases of NaxCo2O4 having different amounts of Na were evaluated. The γ NaxCo2O4 samples were synthesized by thermal decomposition in a metal-citric acid compound, and the α NaxCo2O4 samples were synthesized by self-flux processing. Dense bulk ceramics were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS), and the sintered samples were of high density and highly oriented. The thermoelectrical properties showed that γ NaxCo2O4 had higher electrical conductivity and lower thermal conductivity compared with α NaxCo2O4 and that α NaxCo2O4 had a larger Seebeck coefficient. These results show that γ NaxCo2O4 has a larger power factor and dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, than α NaxCo2O4.
Disaster preparedness is one of the national priorities. In Japan, disaster medicine is defined as a part of the national medical plan initiated by Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor. The Japan Medical Association is the largest professional physicians' group in Japan, and has contributed to all kinds of disaster relief work regionally and nation-wide for years. Based on past successes, the Japan Medical Association proposes a new disaster action plan named Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT). The primary mission of JMAT is to deploy to the disaster scene requested and work for disaster relief. JMAT covers the acute to sub-acute phase of disaster response, and also collaborate with other agencies. In the preparation and mitigation phases, the Japan Medical Association work for establishing mutual disaster aid partnerships, disaster plans, networks with other agencies, team building, disaster medicine training and education, etc. In Japan, the Disaster Medical Assistant Team (DMAT) has been established based on the experience of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, when lots of preventable trauma deaths occurred because of delayed medical response. The mission of DMAT is to deploy to the scene immediately and triage/transfer the most serious disaster victims outside the scene for advanced medical care. DMAT covers the first 48 hours of disaster response phase, and then JMAT takes charge of the work. JMAT will also respond to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear disasters, and international humanitarian work. The present issues of establishing JMAT are 1.training and education for Japan Medical Association members, 2.establising cooperation with other agencies, and 3.having presence at the Central Disaster Committee, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan.
CuO and CuGaO2 thin films have been grown on Si (100) substrates using a sol-gel spincoating method. CuO films were successfully fabricated by the annealing around 700°C. At higher temperatures (>800°C), pyramidal CuO islands with 1~2μm in width and 0.4~0.8μm in height were observed. They arranged structures as a straight line parallel to the <110> and <010> directions, which suggests the self-organized growth of CuO pyramidal islands. Delafossite CuGaO2 films were fabricated as well, using Cu-Ga-O mixed solutions with Ga/(Cu+Ga) atomic ratio of 0.5. These results indicate that Cu-based compounds were fabricated by the sol-gel spincoating method.
We report an extremely rare case of an organised haematoma arising in the sphenoid sinus.
An 85-year-old woman presented with an expansile soft tissue mass in the left sphenoid sinus, with bony destruction of the sella turcica, which mimicked the extrasellar extension of a pituitary tumour. The tumour was excised using an endoscopic, transsphenoidal approach. Histopathological examination revealed an organised haematoma.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of an organised haematoma arising in the sphenoid sinus. This case indicates that organised haematoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of extensive sphenoid lesions; it also emphasises the importance of correct pre-operative diagnosis for therapeutic planning, as complete surgical resection by an endoscopic approach is curative.
This study aimed to determine the expression of the Cap43 gene in supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and to evaluate any correlation between Cap43 gene expression and tumour-associated macrophage infiltration.
Four human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were cultured (Hep2, KB, Ca9-22 and HSC-3) and expression of the Cap43 gene was analysed by Western blotting. In addition, paraffin-embedded samples of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and normal supraglottic laryngeal mucosa from 84 patients were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies to Cap43 and cluster of differentiation 68 glycoprotein. Patients' clinical status was compared with their immunohistochemical results.
All four head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines exhibited Cap43 expression. The Hep2, Ca9-22 and HSC-3 cells showed a markedly higher level of Cap43 protein than the KB cells. A statistically significant difference was found in Cap43 expression, comparing different differentiation levels and comparing different metastasis stages, for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma. The number of tumour-associated macrophages correlated with expression of Cap43, not only in the tumour area (r = 0.3708, p = 0.0005) but also in the peritumour area (r = 0.2847, p = 0.0087).
In supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, overexpression of the Cap43 gene is associated with tumour differentiation and acts an important suppressive factor in the process of tumour metastasis. The Cap43 gene may be a cancer-specific marker. High expression of the Cap43 gene appeared to correlate with infiltration of tumour-associated macrophages.
This study aimed to clarify the significance of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein gene expression in human parotid gland tumours.
We retrospectively analysed immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in parotid gland tumours.
Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was consistently detected in the normal parotid gland. Regarding benign parotid gland tumours, cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 13 of 18 pleomorphic adenomas, in all Warthin tumours tested (21/21) and in all cases of basal cell adenoma tested (four of four). In contrast, positive staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was less often observed in malignant parotid tumours. Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 11 of 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, in two of five acinic cell carcinomas and in two of five adenoid cystic carcinomas.
There was a statistically significantly reduced expression of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in malignant parotid gland tumours, compared with benign parotid gland tumours (p < 0.05). These results suggest that a low level of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein expression in parotid gland tumours may be associated with malignancy.
The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of dendritic cell phenotypic antigens in the cervical lymph nodes of patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma, and to assess the significance of such antigens in the tumour immune reaction.
Immunohistochemical staining of cervical lymph nodes was performed using antibodies against cell surface markers such as S-100 protein and cluster of differentiation 1a and 83 glycoproteins. Two hundred and seventy-four cervical lymph nodes obtained at surgery from 37 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma and 31 patients with laryngeal carcinoma were thus evaluated.
The number of dendritic cells positive for each phenotypic antigen was significantly greater in non-metastatic lymph nodes than in metastatic lymph nodes. In the metastatic lymph nodes, cluster of differentiation 1a glycoprotein positive dendritic cells were predominantly detected in the cancer ‘nest’, whereas mature dendritic cells staining for cluster of differentiation 83 glycoprotein were prominent in the peritumour area. In the metastatic lymph nodes, in contrast to the cluster of differentiation 1a glycoprotein positive dendritic cells, the degree of infiltration of cluster of differentiation 83 glycoprotein positive dendritic cells was significantly higher in the peritumour area than in the cancer nest. There was a significant difference in survival status, comparing patients with different degrees of dendritic cell infiltration for each type of phenotypic antigen.
Dendritic cells may play different roles in tumour immunity against hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma. The phenotypic antigens of dendritic cells may thus constitute important indices with which to predict the prognosis of patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma.
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a major cause of severe community-acquired pneumonia but the source and mode of transmission are not always apparent, especially in sporadic cases. We hypothesized that LD can be acquired from the air-conditioning systems of motor cars. Swabs were taken from the evaporator compartments of the air-conditioning system of scrapped cars. Healthy subjects who were mainly employees of regional transportation companies were tested for antibody to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1–6; they also completed a questionnaire. Legionella species were detected in 11/22 scrapped cars by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. The prevalence of microplate agglutination titres ⩾1:32 was significantly higher in subjects who sometimes used car air-conditioning systems. Although we did not prove a direct link between Legionella spp. in the car evaporator and LD, our findings point to a potential risk of car air-conditioning systems in LD, which needs further investigation.
The thermoelectric (TE) properties, such as the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities, and the output power, of Sb-doped n-type Mg2Si were studied. A commercial polycrystalline source was used for the source material for the Mg2Si. TE elements with Ni electrodes were fabricated by using a monobloc plasma-activated sintering (PAS) technique. Compared with undoped samples, the ZT values of the Sb-doped samples were higher over the whole temperature range in which measurements were made; the maximum value for the Sb doped Mg2Si was 0.72 at 864 K. The TE characteristics of Sb-doped samples were found to be comparable to those of Bi-doped ones, and no significant difference in ZT value was observed between them. Provisional results showed that the maximum value of the output power was 6.75 mW for the undoped sample, 4.55 mW for a 0.5 at% Sb doped sample, and 5.25 mW for a 1 at% Sb doped sample with ΔT = 500 K (between 873 K and 373 K).
In order to restrain global warming and to realize a sustainable global energy system, further enhancements in energy efficiency are required. One reliable technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the consumption of fossil fuel is thermoelectric technology, which can directly convert heat into electricity and consequently increases the energy conversion efficiency of power generation by combustion. Magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) is a promising candidate for a thermal-to-electric energy-conversion material at operating temperatures ranging from 500 to 800 K. Mg2Si exhibits many promising characteristics, such as the abundance of its constituent elements in the earth’s crust and the non-toxicity of its processing by-products, resulting in freedom from concerns regarding prospective extended restrictions on hazardous substances.
The efficiency of a thermoelectric device is characterized by the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT. It is well known that several kinds of dopants are effective in improving the thermoelectric performance of n-type Mg2Si. With Bi-doped n-type Mg2Si, we have achieved a maximum value of the dimensionless figure-of-merit ZT of ˜1.0 at ˜ 850 K. However, the correlation between the ZT values and the power generation characteristics, which is essential to understand in order to design a structure for a TE power generation module, has not been sufficiently investigated. In order to design a structure for a thermoelectric module using Mg2Si, we examined the correlation between the ZT values and the power-output of a single element using Mg2Si (ZT = 0.6) and Mg2Si doped with donor impurities such as Al and/or Bi (ZT = 0.65˜0.77). The measured single element was 2×2 mm2 in section and 10 mm long. Additionally, we developed and evaluated a new architecture based on a ‘unileg’ structure Mg2Si TE power generation module, which can improve the module lifetime and simplify its manufacture. As a starting material for the fabrication of the single element and the TE modules, pre-synthesized polycrystalline Mg2Si, fabricated by UNION MATERIAL was used. The material was sintered using a plasma-activated sintering (PAS) technique, and, at the same time, Ni electrodes were formed on the Mg2Si by employing of a monobloc PAS technique. The thermoelectric power-outputs were measured under a temperature difference, ΔT, ranging from 100-to-500 K by using UNION MATERIAL UMTE-1000M.
The observed power-output for single element of Mg2Si (ZT = 0.6), 2 at % Bi-doped Mg2Si (ZT = 0.65) and 1at % Bi + 1at % Al-doped Mg2Si (ZT = 0.77) were 23.2 mW, 13.6 mW and 19.4 mW respectively at ΔT = 500 K (between 873 K and 373 K). For the new architecture based on the unileg structure thermoelectric module, the observed value for power-output-per-unit-area was 12 mW/mm2 at ΔT = 500 K.