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We studied a suitable procedure for preparing of water samples used in radiocarbon intercomparisons involving dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The water samples must have inter-batch consistency and stable 14C concentrations and no sterilizing agent (e.g., HgCl2) should be added, in order to avoid the production of hazardous material. Six water samples, containing widely different amounts and types of salts, DIC, and 14C concentrations (1–100 pMC), were prepared in order to assess the procedure. Sample consistency was investigated through δ13C and chemical compositions; their low variabilities indicate that our procedure can be applied to radiocarbon intercomparison. A specific sample preparation protocol was developed for this kind of applications.
This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattices, also known as interfacial phase-change memory (iPCM), exhibit significantly faster switching and are characterized by much lower power consumption and longer data retention compared to devices based on alloyed materials. In early work, the superior performance of iPCM was linked to a crystal-crystal transition between the SET and RESET states. As the primary mechanism, a change in the stacking order of Ge and Te planes within a GeTe block was suggested. Subsequent STEM studies on epitaxial GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattices demonstrated that the GeTe blocks were not located between Sb2Te3 quintuple layers but, were incorporated inside the latter, providing a serious challenge to the early explanation. In this work, we demonstrate that changes associated with the reconstruction of the SbTe terminating layers nearest to van der Waals gap leads to a pronounced change in the density of states and can serve as an alternative explanation for a large property contrast between the SET and RESET states in GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattices.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007–2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.
Norovirus (NoV) epidemics normally peak in December in Japan; however, the peak in the 2009–2010 season was delayed until the fourth week of January 2010. We suspected intensive hand hygiene that was conducted for a previous pandemic influenza in 2009 as the cause of this delay. We analysed the NoV epidemic trend, based on national surveillance data, and its associations with monthly output data for hand hygiene products, including alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap. The delayed peak in the NoV incidence in the 2009–2010 season had the lowest number of recorded cases of the five seasons studied (2006–2007 to 2010–2011). GII.4 was the most commonly occurring genotype. The monthly relative risk of NoV and monthly output of both alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap were significantly and negatively correlated. Our findings suggest an association between hand hygiene using these products and prevention of NoV transmission.
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with NANTEN. We report the results of a comparison between CO clouds and SNRs in the LMC. Among the 35 known SNRs, only 10 are possibly associated with CO clouds. These 10 CO clouds and SNRs deserve follow-up studies for possible interactions. We present overlays of CO clouds on the optical images of some of these SNRs.
We have made 12CO(J=1-0) observations in the LMC with NANTEN, and compared the detected giant molecular clouds (GMCs) with HII regions and stellar clusters. It is found that ~ 80% of the GMCs are associated with HII regions. The results of comparisons of the GMCs with the HII regions and the stellar clusters are presented.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with the NANTEN millimeter-wave telescope and identified about 100 distinct giant molecular clouds (GMCs). A detailed comparison of the GMCs with stellar clusters and a UV image is discussed.
Fully sampled 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the whole extent of the LMC have been made with a linear resolution of ~ 30 pc at a detection limit of N(H2) = 2 × 1021 cm−2. In addition, several selected regions have been mapped with higher sensitivity corresponding to a detection limit of 1 × 1021 cm−2. Based on these results, a new estimate of the molecular mass in the LMC is presented.
The contact resistivity, ρc, between phase change material (PCM) and an electrode plays an important role in the operation of highly scaled phase change random access memory (PCRAM). We investigated the effect of surface cleaning on the ρc between a W electrode and amorphous GeCu2Te3 (GCT) which shows high thermal stability. The surface cleaning of the amorphous GCT was conducted by Ar reverse sputtering. The ρc of the amorphous GCT whose surface was cleaned with Ar reverse sputtering was 6.7×10-3Ω cm2. Meanwhile, the ρc of the amorphous GCT with no surface cleaning was 8.0×10-5Ω cm2. The low ρc in the amorphous GCT with no surface cleaning was apparently due to the existence of a low resistance Cu-rich underlayer which was formed as a consequence of surface oxidation of the amorphous GCT. These results indicate that the surface of a PCM must be treated carefully to accurately measure the contact resistivity between the PCM and electrodes.
We measured relative positions of the 22 GHz H2O maser components toward the class 0 protostar S106FIR with the VLA. Two clusters of H2O masers were found. The separation between these clusters is approximately 50 AU at position angle = 73° and each cluster is spread over about 10–20 AU The size of the S106FIR maser clusters is unusually compact compared with other known H2O masers associated with outflows of forming stars. The maser emission appears to originate from MHD driven outflow very close to the star.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
The Following design of a Pulsar Survey System with a Huge Interferometric Array is discussed. (1) A Huge Array of 320m × 320m with 256(= 16 × 16) spherical dishes of 20m in diameter, (2) RF is 1.4 GHz, (3) Receivers are frequency modified GPS(1.57542, 1.2276GHz) ones, (4) Phase and Delay Tracking, (5) Phase Calibration using Differential GPS(GPS signal × 2 → CW), (6) (2+1+2)D FFT /256 pixel Imaging + 256 ch Filtering + Dispersion Removal and Period finding(17M point floating 2DFFT by DSP), (8) Observing time required for the same sensitivity to Arecibo τ/τA: 0.88(Timing), 0.003(Survey).
Production methods of Fe3O4 grain and MgS grain have been introduced. Fe3O4 grain was produced in an Ar gas pressure range of 25 to 100 Torr by evaporating FeO powder. The growth of Fe3O4 have been discussed as the result of oxidation of Fe grains. MgS grain produced by the reaction of Mg and S vapors grew in the coagulation of tiny cubic sulfide.