The foundation necessary for a constitutive model to simulate the response of concrete at elevated temperature has been presented. A model including temperature dependent creep, material property degradation, and cracking is needed to evaluate the long term functional requirements of concrete as a barrier material for nuclear waste disposal. Since the stress due to thermal load is proportional to the modulus, the degradation of the modulus with time even at constant elevated temperatures requires continual redistribution of load. Furthermore, since this degradation is not recoverable, the response of the material at elevated temperatures exhibits a complex dependence not only on the temperature distribution, but on the prior thermal history of the structure.
This constitutive model for the response of concrete at elevated temperatures has been implemented into an implicit, finite element program called ANACAP . Because of the direct coupling with temperature, both through thermal loads and material property dependency, ANACAP also contains a heat transfer module that includes thermal effects due to fluid flow and moving material boundaries. This program has been applied to problems involving underground waste storage tanks and grout vaults at the DOE Hanford site in Richland, Washington.