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In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
Vessel flexure can be triggered naturally by surgical operation, heart pulsation and body movement. It may affect the mechanical behavior of the stent and the existence of a stent may in turn cause vessel injury. In the present study, the finite element method is employed to study the interaction between stent and vessel during vessel flexure. Two- and four-link stents made of stainless steel 316L and magnesium alloy WE43 are considered. Results indicate that longitudinal deformation of the stent can be caused by vessel flexure, and the higher levels of stress exist in the link struts. The existence of the stent could induce significant stress concentration and straightened deformation on vessel wall in the course of vessel flexure. Stents with more links or made of harder materials show greater anti-deformation capability, thus inducing a more severe stress concentration and straightened deformation on the vessel wall. The bending direction also affects the mechanical performance of the vessel-stent system. The results obtained could provide useful information for better stent designs and clinical decisions.
Muons produced by the Bethe–Heitler process from laser wakefield accelerated electrons interacting with high
materials have velocities close to the laser wakefield. It is possible to accelerate those muons with laser wakefield directly. Therefore for the first time we propose an all-optical ‘Generator and Booster’ scheme to accelerate the produced muons by another laser wakefield to supply a prompt, compact, low cost and controllable muon source in laser laboratories. The trapping and acceleration of muons are analyzed by one-dimensional analytic model and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that muons can be trapped in a broad energy range and accelerated to higher energy than that of electrons for longer dephasing length. We further extrapolate the dependence of the maximum acceleration energy of muons with the laser wakefield relativistic factor
and the relevant initial energy
. It is shown that a maximum energy up to 15.2 GeV is promising with
on the existing short pulse laser facilities.
Resonant acceleration of electrons by a laser in the background of an extra longitudinal magnetic field is investigated analytically and numerically. The resonant condition is independent of laser intensity, and when satisfied, the energy gain is proportional to
and the square of phase difference. This process is mainly limited by the magnitude and spatial size of the extra magnetic field. Under the laboratory conditions, simulation results show that a monoenergetic and collimated electron bunch can still be obtained in ~ GV/cm scale, which sheds a light on the vacuum table-top laser-driven electron accelerators.
A scheme for the improvement of proton beam quality by the optimized dragging field from the interaction of ultraintense laser pulse with a complex double-layer target is proposed and demonstrated by one-dimensional particle-in-cell (Opic1D) simulations. The complex double-layer target consists of an overdense proton thin foil followed by a mixed hydrocarbon (CH) underdense plasma. Because of the existence of carbon ions, the dragging field in the mixed CH underdense plasma becomes stronger and flatter in the location of the proton beam than that in a pure hydrogen (H) underdense plasma. The optimized dragging field can keep trapping and accelerating protons in the mixed CH underdense target to high quality. Consequently, the energy spread of the proton beam in the mixed CH underdense plasma can be greatly reduced down to 2.6% and average energy of protons can reach to 9 GeV with circularly polarized lasers at intensities 2.74 × 1022 W/cm2.
Soluble starch synthase II (SSII) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of starch and in rice it consists of three isoforms encoded by SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3. However, the genetic effects of various SSII alleles on grain quality have not been systematically characterized. In the present study, the japonica alleles on SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3 (SSIIa) loci from a japonica cultivar, Suyunuo, were respectively introgressed by molecular marker-assisted selection into a typical indica cultivar, Guichao2, through successive backcrossing, generating three sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs). Grain quality and starch property analysis showed that NIL-SSII-3j exhibited significant decreases in the following parameters: amylose content, average granule size, and setback viscosity and consistency; but increases in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, gelatinization temperature and relative crystallinity. Moreover, the proportion of short amylopectin chains and branching degree also increased when compared with those of NIL-SSII-3i (Guochao2). Similar effects were observed in NIL-SSII-1j, and certain alterations in the fine structure of starch (granule size) were revealed. However, NIL-SSII-2j did not exert significant effect on grain quality and starch properties. In brief, among the SSII gene family, the functional diversity occurred on SSII-1 and SSII-3, and not on SSII-2. Therefore, it appears that more attention should be directed to SSII-1 and SSII-3 loci for improving the eating and cooking quality of rice.
Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many species of lepidopterous pests and a widely used biological control agent. Detailed knowledge about its mate choice and host discrimination behavior is lacking. In this study, we studied the mate choice and host discrimination behavior of T. chilonis in experimental arenas through video tracking. Males’ mate recognition capacity was realized by perceiving the sex pheromone of females. When offered two females of different species, male could distinguish the conspecific female from Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a species that has overlapping hosts with T. chilonis. When placed with two females of different mating status, male preferred mating with the virgin female to the mated female. T. chilonis females could distinguish unparasitized host eggs from parasitized ones (parasitized by conspecific females or heterospecific females). They preferred to stay on and lay eggs in unparasitized host eggs. When T. chilonis females were only provided with parasitized host eggs (parasitized by T. chilonis and T. bactrae females), conspecific superparasitism occurred more often than heterospecific superparasitism. Furthermore, the host egg discrimination ability of T. chilonis females was mainly achieved through antennal perception.
The phylogenetic and epidemiological relationships of 102 Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates from different geographical and population sources in China were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The MLST data were analysed using the e-BURST algorithm, and an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram was constructed based on the pair-wise differences in the allelic profiles of the strains. Forty-one sequence types (STs) were identified, of which eight were novel (ST1341, ST1345, ST1346, ST1347, ST1348, ST1349, ST1350, ST1351). No geographical-specific or host population-specific phylogenetic lineages were identified. ST46, ST50, ST55, ST58, ST70 and ST1095 predominated, but ~44% of isolates were assigned to 45 STs illustrating high genetic diversity in the strain collection. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships of the dominant STs in China showed significant linkeage with B. pseudomallei isolates from Thailand. Analysis of the gmhD allele suggests high genetic variation in B. pseudomallei in China.
Fast magnetic field annihilation in a collisionless plasma is induced by using TEM(1,0) laser pulse. The magnetic quadrupole structure formation, expansion and annihilation stages are demonstrated with 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The magnetic field energy is converted to the electric field and accelerate the particles inside the annihilation plane. A bunch of high energy electrons moving backwards is detected in the current sheet. The strong displacement current is the dominant contribution which induces the longitudinal inductive electric field.
A fractional model generalized from the Zener model is proposed for the prediction of temperature-dependent free recovery behaviors of amorphous shape memory polymers (SMPs). This model differs from the Zener model in that it involves nonlinear differential equations of fractional, not integer, order. The theoretical solution based on this fractional model is utilized to simulate the isothermal and nonisothermal free recovery of an amorphous SMP compared with the one based on the Zener model. The results show a reasonable improvement in the prediction of the strain recovery response of SMP by the fractional calculus method.
Constitutive models based on fractional calculus are utilized to investigate the viscoelastic response of thermally activated shape memory polymers (SMPs). Fractional calculus-based viscoelastic equations are fitted to experimental data existing in literature compared with traditional viscoelastic models. In addition, a fractional rheology model is applied to simulate the isothermal recovery of an amorphous SMP. The fit results show a significant improvement in the description of the strain recovery response of SMP by the fractional calculus method.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
To control the shape of the ultra-thin electron layer produced by directly interaction of ultrahigh contrast laser with ultra-thin foil target, we investigated the spacial distribution and temporal evolution of electron layers produced from single and double foil targets through two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Results show that electron layers produced from double foil targets can fly with unperturbed velocity for a much longer time than in the single foil case, which can be explained by the integrated contribution of charge separation field from both the two foils. Further studies show that through adjusting the foil expansion, electron layers with different shapes can be obtained. Detailed studies on the forming process of layers show that electron momentum distribution evolves rapidly along with the pump laser and then the vanishing of electron transverse momentum induced by the reflected laser results in the forming of layer shape. So different foil expansion corresponds to different moments that reflected laser interact with electron layer, when the electron transverse momentum distribution is different. After the reflected laser interact with electron layer, the resultant longitude momentum distribution will finally lead to various electron layer shapes.
Genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene coded by the HLA-II region may be associated with outcomes of HBV infection. We conducted a case-control study to test the hypothesis, including a persistent group of 155 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 36 healthy carriers, a recovered group of 165 individuals spontaneously recovered from HBV infection, and an uninfected group of 278 healthy normal controls. Genotypes of eight polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene were analysed by PCR–RFLP. A logistic regression model was used to analyse statistical differences in polymorphisms or haplotypes in different groups. Of the eight polymorphisms, two (TAP1 codon 637 and LMP7 codon 145) were observed to have statistically significant association with outcomes of HBV infection (P<0·05). The two-locus haplotype constructed with two such polymorphisms was analysed. The frequencies of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were found to be increased significantly in the persistent group, compared to healthy controls (OR 2·26, 95% CI 1·62–3·15, P<0·001; OR 2·37, 95% CI 1·69–3·32, P<0·001; OR 4·38, 95% CI 1·78–10·77, P=0·001, respectively). The prevalence of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were also significantly higher in the persistent infectious group than in the recovered group (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·81–3·98, P<0·001; OR 2·40, 95% CI 1·62–3·55, P<0·001; OR 3·03, 95% CI 1·22–7·55, P=0·017, respectively). These findings indicated that genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene might be an important factor in determining the outcome of HBV infection.
A novel hexaborate, Na2ZnB6O11, has been successfully synthesized by solid-state reaction and ab initio crystal-structure analysis has been completed using powder X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cc with lattice parameters a=10.7329(2) Å b=7.4080(3) Å, c=11.4822(2) Å, and β=112.16(2)°. The number of chemical formula per unit cell is Z=4 and the calculated density is 2.768(3) g/cm3. It represents a new structure type in which double-bridge-ring [B6O11]4− groups were found as fundamental building units. The infrared spectrum confirms the presence of both [BO3]3− groups and [BO4]5− groups.
Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by the broiler industry nowadays. In chicken, lipogenesis occurs essentially in the liver, in which much of the triglycerides that accumulate in avian adipose tissue are synthesized. In order to better understand the gene expression and its regulation in chicken liver, the gene expression profiles of liver at developmental stages of chicken (1 week, 4 weeks and 7 weeks of age) were investigated and differentially expressed genes between lean and fat chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content for eight generations were screened. Our data indicated that 4 weeks of age was a very important stage on chicken liver lipogenesis compared to 1 week and 7 weeks of age, and the glycometabolism in chicken liver could be related to lipid metabolism and the difference of glycometabolism could be another potential reason for the fat and lean phenotype occurrence besides the difference of lipogenesis in chicken liver. Our result have established groundwork for further study of the basic genetic control of chicken obesity and will benefit chicken research communities as well as researches that use chicken as a model organism for developmental biology and human therapeutics.
This paper deals with a lithium/tin combined target to increase the conversion efficiency of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) of 13.5 nm emission from laser-produced plasma. The bilayer target of glass/lithium (20 nm)/tin (50 nm) exhibits a sharp and strong emission in comparison with a Sn bulk target. The reverse coating of glass/tin/lithium was unstable and EUV could not be observed. By using nano-porous SnO2 and an electrochemical deposition of lithium, nano-structured lithium/tin composite was prepared, and was stable without deliquescence of lithium.