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To determine the characteristics of acute phase nystagmus in patients with cerebellar lesions, and to identify a useful indicator for differentiating central lesions from peripheral lesions.
Acute phase nystagmus and the appearance of neurological symptoms were retrospectively investigated in 11 patients with cerebellar stroke.
At the initial visit, there were no patients with vertical nystagmus, direction-changing gaze evoked nystagmus or pure rotatory nystagmus. There were four cases with no nystagmus and seven cases with horizontal nystagmus at the initial visit. There were no neurological symptoms, except for vertigo and hearing loss, in any cases at the initial visit. The direction and type of nystagmus changed with time, and neurological symptoms other than vertigo appeared subsequently to admission.
It is important to observe the changes in nystagmus and other neurological findings for the differential diagnosis of central lesions.
To evaluate the effectiveness of tympanostomy tube placement in controlling symptoms of intractable Ménière's disease.
Fifteen patients with intractable Ménière's disease underwent tympanostomy tube placement in the affected ear. Post-operative changes in vertigo attacks and hearing level were recorded, and were evaluated according to American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria.
At 12 months after treatment, 3 patients (20 per cent) showed complete control of vertigo, 7 (47 per cent) showed substantial control and 2 (13 per cent) showed limited control; 3 patients (20 per cent) required other treatment. At 24 months after treatment, 7 patients (47 per cent) showed complete control of vertigo, 3 (20 per cent) showed substantial control and 1 (7 per cent) showed limited control; 1 patient required other treatment 15 months after tympanostomy tube placement.
There is no definite pathophysiological explanation for the effect of tympanostomy tube placement in reducing vertigo attacks. This treatment is not effective for all patients with intractable Ménière's disease. However, tympanostomy tube placement might be an additional surgical therapeutic option to consider prior to contemplating other, more invasive treatments.
Using American bullfrog models under normal conditions and under vestibular dysfunction, we investigated whether mechanical vibration applied to the ear could induce otoconial dislodgement.
Vibration was applied to the labyrinth of the bullfrog using a surgical drill. The time required for the otoconia to dislodge from the utricular macula was measured. Vestibular dysfunction models were created and the dislodgement time was compared with the normal models. The morphology of the utricular macula was also investigated.
In the normal models, the average time for otoconial dislodgement to occur was 7 min and 36 s; in the vestibular dysfunction models, it was 2 min and 11 s. Pathological investigation revealed that the sensory hairs of the utricle were reduced in number and that the sensory cells became atrophic in the vestibular dysfunction models.
The otoconia of the utricle were dislodged into the semicircular canal after applying vibration. The time to dislodgement was significantly shorter in the vestibular dysfunction models than in the normal models; the utricular macula sustained significant morphological damage.
Recently, the issue of sustainable resource management has been increasingly recognized.
Economic growth of human activity is associated with a rapid rise in the use of resources
in our economy, and society has a potential environmental impact. The UNEP International
Resource Panel (IRP) pointed out the importance of decoupling resource use and negative
environmental impacts from economic activity (UNEP IRP 2011). In order to
optimize the material cycles and increase resource efficiency, material flow analysis
(MFA) is a powerful tool to understand the resource consumption and material cycle in the
national economy. In this study, we present the results of global material flow analysis
of nickel, which is one of the important resources for reducing energy use and
CO2 emission in
our society, and discuss the importance and possibility of controlling its resource
logistics. This study also introduces the challenge of identifying the land-use changes in
nickel mining sites by a remote-sensing technique, and knowledge to increase the resource
efficiency in metal recycling based on the metallurgical thermodynamic approach. The
results indicated the importance of recovery of nickel in recycling policies for
end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and
implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed.
Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and
introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources.
Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying
elements and contribute to more efficient resource use.
To examine the clinical features, age and gender distribution of patients, treatment methods, and outcomes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
This paper reports a review of 357 patients treated for this condition at a single institution over a duration of 5 years. Patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were divided into two groups: one group underwent the Epley manoeuvre and the other received medication. The lateral canal canalolithiasis patients were also divided into two groups: one underwent the Lempert manoeuvre and the other received medication. Lastly, the lateral canal cupulolithiasis patients were treated with medication and non-specific physical techniques.
Results and conclusion:
For patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, resolution time was significantly shorter in the Epley manoeuvre group than in the medication group. For the lateral canal canalolithiasis patients, resolution time was significantly shorter in the Lempert manoeuvre group than in the medication group. Resolution time was significantly longer in the lateral canal cupulolithiasis patients than in the other patients. The average age of patients increased with the number of recurrences, as did predominance in females. Average age and rate of sensorineural hearing loss were significantly higher in patients with intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo compared with those in the curable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo group.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality.
In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level.
Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39–15.56; p = 0.001).
The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.
To investigate what kinds of stimuli are effective in detaching otoconia from the cupula in three experimental models of cupulolithiasis.
Three experimental models of cupulolithiasis were prepared using bullfrog labyrinths. Three kinds of stimuli were applied to the experimental models. In experiment one (gravity), the labyrinth preparation was placed so that the cupula-to-crista axis was in the horizontal plane with the canal side in the downward position. In experiment two (sinusoidal oscillation), the labyrinth preparation was placed 3 cm from the rotational centre of a turntable, which was sinusoidally rotated with a rotational cycle of 1 Hz and a rotational angle of 30°. In experiment three (vibration), mechanical vibration was applied to the surface of the bony capsule around the labyrinth using a surgical drill.
In experiments one, two and three, the otoconial mass was respectively detached in 2 out of 10 labyrinth preparations, none of the labyrinth preparations, and all of the labyrinth preparations.
Vibration was the most effective stimulus for detaching the otoconia from the cupula in these experimental models of cupulolithiasis.
The depth profiles of the constituent in iron oxide scales were investigated by X-ray diffraction measurement with controlling X-ray penetration depth at SPring-8. We successfully observed the interface region of scales non-destructively using X-ray with energy of 28 keV. The results indicated that the volume fraction ratio of Fe3O4 to FeO around the surface of samples increased by isothermal heat treatment. This suggested that the transformation of FeO to Fe3O4 due to isothermal heat treatment proceeds from surface into the inside of scale.
Sera from swine, rabbit, and dog, that had never been exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, demonstrated significant killing of T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, while cat serum did not. Swine and rabbit sera contained natural IgM antibody against the tachyzoites, and the classical complement pathway was activated by the binding of natural IgM antibody to the tachyzoites, leading to lysis. Anti-T. gondii antibodies, induced in swine or cat infected with T. gondii, had no killing effect by themselves but killed the tachyzoites in the presence of swine complement. However, the anti-T. gondii antibodies of swine or cat demonstrated a very low killing effect in the presence of cat complement. This suggests that T. gondii tachyzoites have an evasion mechanism to prevent lysis which is specific for cat complement.
ABSTRACT:Detailed finite-element computations and carefully designed indentation creep experiments were carried out in order to establish a robust and systematic method to accurately extract creep properties during indentation creep tests. Finite-element simulations confirmed that, for a power law creep material, the indentation creep strain field is indeed self-similar in a constant-load indentation creep test, except during short transient periods at the initial loading stage and when there is a deformation mechanism change. Self-similar indentation creep leads to a constitutive equation from which the power-law creep exponent, n, the activation energy for creep, Qc and so on can be evaluated robustly. Samples made from an Al-5.3mol%Mg solid solution alloy were tested at temperatures ranging from 573 K to 773 K. The results are in good agreement with those obtained from conventional uniaxial creep tests in the dislocation creep regime.
Up to now, ten planetary nebulae are regarded as halo planetary nebulae (halo PNe). We obtained low- and moderate-dispersion spectra of the spatially resolved halo planetary nebula H4-1 in the wavelength region of λλ3700-6800 Å with the Cassegrain Spectrograph of 74-inch telescope at Okayama Astronomical Observatory. In the moderate dispersion observation, we were able to obtain [O III] λλ4959,5007 and Hα of H4-1 at several position angles (P.A.). The image was spatially resolved and its apparent angluar size should be less than 10″.0.
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has a crucial role for host defence against parasite infection. It is not clear, however, how IFN-γ affects the parasite-infected host cells. The effect of IFN-γ on Neospora caninum-infected cells was investigated in murine fibroblasts and canine kidney cells in vitro. In the presence of IFN-γ, the viability of the infected host cell was decreased and apoptotic cell death occurred, as analysed by DNA stainings with propidium iodide and a terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation. The percentage of apoptotic cells depended on the dose of IFN-γ. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a significant increase of FasL expression on the IFN-γ-treated cells following N. caninum infection. Moreover, IFN-γ treatment down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in the cells cultured with N. caninum while parasite infection up-regulated Bcl-2 expression. The present study suggests that the IFN-γ induced increases of FasL expression and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in N. caninum-infected cells are associated with apoptosis in vitro.
Solid charge transfer (CT) complexes of C60 with TSeC1-TTF, EDT-TTF, EOET-TTF, and TDAP (1, 3, 6, 8-tetrakis(dimethylamino)pyrene) were newly prepared. All the obtained black crystals were proved to be neutral despite of their rather strong electron donor ability. Lattice parameters of them except for EOET-TTF complex were determined together with those of HMTTeF·C60, which had been reported with different values. Rubidium doping under a mild condition was examined on the complexes of TDAP, EOET-TTF, HMTTeF, BEDT-TTF, hydroquinone and ferrocene to search for the superconductors of new crystal and electronic structures. Among them, the rubidium-doped ferrocene complex easily showed an apparent superconducting signal in SQUID magnetization measurements. The doping effect on these CT complexes is compared to that on OMTTF complex.
Quantitative micro-macro combined experimental research on the deformation field of single crystal CuAINi shape memory alloy (SMA) is performed by using high sensitivity Moiré technique. The study is focused on the micro-macro correspondence of the deformation behavior of single crystal uniaxial tensile specimen during stress induced forward and reverse transformations. The aim of the experiment is to quantitatively relate the macroscopic applied stress with the deformation field in the mesoscale. The large deformation due to the lattice distortion during transformation was first successfully recorded by Moiré interferometry. Some important microstructure-related deformation features of single crystal SMA under uniaxial tension are first reported.
This paper presents new organic vapor sensitive device using anodized porous silicon (PS). The sensor has aluminum (Al)/PS/p-Si/Al Schottky diode structure and sensitivity at room temperature in 2600 ppm acetone, methanol, 2-propanol and ethanol is about 4, 5, 10 and 40 times respectively. The sensitivity in 800–2600 ppm ethanol vapor is 2 to 40 times. The diode sensor can be converted into an Al/PS/Al resistor sensor by switching the electrical contacts, and the sensitivity is about 500 times for a humidity change of 43–75%. All sensors have response time of about 0.5 min. The sensitivity is stable with time and the PS sensor can be integrated into VLSI Si devices to form novel microelectronic systems.
The deformation of adaptive composite with active polydomain components has been calculated by finite element modelling (FEM). The average deformation, the distribution of stresses and the elastic energy of the composite as a function of different extent of twinning of the composite active component are calculated. Comparing the results of the FEM with the results of the analytical theory demonstrates the effect of the microstresses on the mechanics of the adaptive composite.