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Trail making test (TMT) was developed as a neuropsychological test evaluating frontal lobe function. However, the contribution of frontal lobe in results of TMT is still controversial because studies in patients with brain injuries suggest the role of basal ganglia rather than frontal lobe in results of TMT.
To examine the contribution of frontal lobe in the results of TMT, we measured blood flow in frontal cortex during performance of computer version TMT-A and TMT-B.
Sixteen healthy student volunteers (8 male, 25.9±5.3 year old; 8 female, 22.0±2.9 year old) was used in the study. Seven laser beam probes and 8 sensor probes were put on frontal lobe, and absorbance of 695 nm and 830 nm infrared beams were measured at 10Hz by optic topography (ETG 4000, Hitachi, Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan).
Concentration of deoxyhemoglobin was decreased while concentration of oxyhemoglobin was increased in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of TMT-A and TMT-B.
The results suggest that blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of TMT, and possible involvement of this brain region in the performance of TMT.
A variety of hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) develops a broad spectrum of both ataxia and non-ataxia symptoms. Cognitive and affective changes are one such non-ataxia symptoms, but have been described only in hereditary SCAs with exonic CAG gene expansion.
We newly found intronic hexanucleotide GGCCTG gene expansion in NOP56 gene as the causative mutation (=SCA36) in nine unrelated Japanese familial SCA originating from Asida river area in the western part of Japan, thus nicknamed Asidan for this mutation. These patients show unique clinical balance of cerebellar ataxia and motor neuron disease (MND), locating on the crossroad of these two diseases. We examined cognitive and affective analyses on 12 Asidan patients who agreed to join the examination.
The 12 Asidan patients demonstrated a significant decrease in their frontal executive functions measured by frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) compared with age- and gender-matched controls, whilst mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Hasegawa dementia score-revised (HDS-R) were within normal range. the decline of frontal executive function was related to their disease duration and scale for the assessment and rating of ataxias (SARA). They also demonstrated mild depression and apathy. Single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) analysis showed that these Asidan patients showed decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a particular areas of cerebral cortices such as Brodmann areas 24 and 44-46.
These data suggest the patients with Asidan mutation show unique cognitive and affective characteristics different from other hereditary SCAs with exonal CAG expansion or MND.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
As part of the international joint projects working towards the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia Pacific, epidemiological studies on Taenia solium cysticercosis have been carried out in high-incidence populations, such as minority groups in Thailand. To assess the epidemiology of cysticercotic infections in pigs in the hill-tribe minority villages (Karen) in Tak province, Thailand, we conducted serological screening and necropsies. The patterns of antibody response to T. solium antigens were then investigated using immunoblot assays. Of the 188 pig serum samples tested for antibody responses to partially purified low-molecular-weight antigens of T. solium cyst fluid, positive responses were detected in 37 samples (19.7%). Based on these results, 16 pigs (10 seropositive and 6 seronegative) were necropsied for investigation of cysticerci and intestinal parasites. All seropositive pigs were coinfected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena cysticerci, except one, which was infected with T. hydatigena alone. Three of the six seronegative pigs were confirmed to be infected with T. hydatigena. Pigs infected with T. solium showed much stronger antibody responses than those infected with T. hydatigena. Our results demonstrate the co-occurrence of two swine cysticercoses due to T. solium and T. hydatigena in the studied areas. This study also reveals the importance of direct confirmation of the presence of cysticerci by necropsy after serological screening. In addition to the prevalence of swine cysticercosis in these endemic areas, our findings also reveal potential implications for the development of serological diagnostic assays for swine cysticercosis.
Bathing intensive care unit (ICU) patients with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)–impregnated cloths decreases the risk of healthcare-associated bacteremia and multidrug-resistant organism transmission. Hospitals employ different methods of CHG bathing, and few studies have evaluated whether those methods yield comparable results.
To determine whether 3 different CHG skin cleansing methods yield similar residual CHG concentrations and bacterial densities on skin.
Prospective, randomized 2-center study with blinded assessment.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Healthcare personnel in surgical ICUs at 2 tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, and Boston, Massachusetts, from July 2015 to January 2016.
Cleansing skin of one forearm with no-rinse 2% CHG-impregnated polyester cloth (method A) versus 4% CHG liquid cleansing with rinsing on the contralateral arm, applied with either non–antiseptic-impregnated cellulose/polyester cloth (method B) or cotton washcloth dampened with sterile water (method C).
In total, 63 participants (126 forearms) received method A on 1 forearm (n=63). On the contralateral forearm, 33 participants received method B and 30 participants received method C. Immediately and 6 hours after cleansing, method A yielded the highest residual CHG concentrations (2500 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL, respectively) and lowest bacterial densities compared to methods B or C (P<.001).
In healthy volunteers, cleansing with 2% CHG-impregnated cloths yielded higher residual CHG concentrations and lower bacterial densities than cleansing with 4% CHG liquid applied with either of 2 different cloth types and followed by rinsing. The relevance of these differences to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
To identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) colonization among long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH) patients.
Multicenter, matched case-control study.
Four LTACHs in Chicago, Illinois.
Each case patient included in this study had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission followed by a KPC-positive surveillance culture later in the hospital stay. Each matched control patient had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission and no KPC isolated during the hospital stay.
From June 2012 to June 2013, 2,575 patients were admitted to 4 LTACHs; 217 of 2,144 KPC-negative patients (10.1%) acquired KPC. In total, 100 of these patients were selected at random and matched to 100 controls by LTACH facility, admission date, and censored length of stay. Acquisitions occurred a median of 16.5 days after admission. On multivariate analysis, we found that exposure to higher colonization pressure (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.04; P=.002), exposure to a carbapenem (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.06–4.77; P=.04), and higher Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01–1.29; P=.04) were independent risk factors for KPC acquisition; the odds of KPC acquisition increased by 2% for each 1% increase in colonization pressure.
Higher colonization pressure, exposure to carbapenems, and a higher Charlson comorbidity index independently increased the odds of KPC acquisition among LTACH patients. Reducing colonization pressure (through separation of KPC-positive patients from KPC-negative patients using strict cohorts or private rooms) and reducing carbapenem exposure may prevent KPC cross transmission in this high-risk patient population.
It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression.
A total of 56 subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a self-referential task with two viewpoints (self/other) and two emotional valences (positive/negative) on two occasions. Between scans, while the intervention group (n = 27) received BA therapy, the control group (n = 29) did not.
The intervention group showed improvement in depressive symptoms, increased activation in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and increased reaction times during other perspective self-referential processing for positive words after the intervention. Also, there was a positive correlation between increased activation in the dmPFC and improvement of depressive symptoms. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times.
BA increased dmPFC activation during other perspective self-referential processing with improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times which were associated with improvement of self-monitoring function. Our results suggest that BA improved depressive symptoms and objective monitoring function for subthreshold depression.
We fabricated ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PLZT) capacitors with Sn:In2O3 (ITO) top electrodes using chemical solution deposition. Then, the effects of a thin conductive ITO buffer layer between the Pt bottom electrode and PLZT thin film were investigated in combination with top electrode (ITO/PLZT/ITO/Pt). The H2 degradation resistance of ITO/PLZT/ITO/Pt capacitors with a 3- and 28-nm-thick buffer layer was improved to 78 and 85%, respectively, from 60% without a buffer layer. The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry profiles indicated the intensity of H ion increased after 45 min forming gas (3% H2/balance N2) annealing.
HYPER-I (High Density Plasma Experiment-I) is a linear device that combines a wide operation range of plasma production with flexible diagnostics. The plasmas are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with parallel injection of right-handed circularly polarized microwaves of 2.45 GHz from the high-field side. The maximum attainable electron density is more than two orders of magnitude higher than the cutoff density of ordinary waves. Spontaneous formation of a variety of large-scale flow structures, or vortices, has been observed in the HYPER-I plasmas. Flow-velocity field measurements using directional Langmuir probes (DLPs) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method have clarified the physical processes behind such vortex formations. Recently, a new intermittent behavior of local electron temperature has also been observed. Statistical analysis of the floating potential changes has revealed that the phenomenon is characterized by a stationary Poisson process.
An amorphous silica film has been coated on a fused silica glass and KH2PO4 [KDP] crystal by using the photo oxidization of Dimethy-siloxane silicone [DMSS] oil by using a xenon [Xe2] excimer lamp at room temperature. The DMSS oil [-O-Si[CH3]2-O-]n was spin-coated on a fused silica glass to make a thin film, and the Xe2 lamp light was vertically irradiated in the presence of oxygen. Thus, the organic oil was changed into inorganic glass. In order to investigate the photochemical reaction process, the fluorescence intensity was measured by spectrometer at actual time and the new method to form a transparent, photo-oxidized thin film efficiently has been established. The interferometer analysis was conducted to investigate the strain of the coating samples. It became clear that the no strain were caused by vitrification of the silicone oil on the fused silica galass with Xe2 lamp irradiation.
We consider freely decaying, anisotropic, statistically axisymmetric, Saffman turbulence in which , where is the energy spectrum and the wavenumber. We note that such turbulence possesses two statistical invariants which are related to the form of the spectral tensor at small . These are and , where the subscripts and indicate quantities parallel and perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. Since and , and being integral scales, self-similarity of the large scales (when it applies) demands and . This, in turn, requires that is constant, contrary to the popular belief that freely decaying turbulence should exhibit a ‘return to isotropy’. Numerical simulations performed in large periodic domains, with different types and levels of initial anisotropy, confirm that and are indeed invariants and that, in the fully developed state, . Somewhat surprisingly, the same simulations also show that is more or less constant in the fully developed state. Simple theoretical arguments are given which suggest that, when and are both constant, the integral scales should evolve as and , irrespective of the level of anisotropy and of the presence of helicity. These decay laws, first proposed by Saffman (Phys. Fluids, vol. 10, 1967, p. 1349), are verified by the numerical simulations.
Supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy is an organ-preserving procedure used to treat laryngeal cancer. However, the post-operative neoglottis tends to be variable in form and difficult to predict.
We retrospectively analysed three-dimensional images reconstructed from multidetector-row computed tomography data for 21 patients, assessing arytenoid motion and minimum neoglottic gap cross-sectional area.
While mean transverse and coronal motion was similar for bilateral and unilateral arytenoids, movement along the sagittal axis was greater for unilateral than bilateral arytenoids. The neoglottic gap during respiration was wider in patients with bilateral arytenoids, but both groups had a similar neoglottic gap during phonation.
Anterior shifting of the unilateral arytenoid plays an important role in compensating for the inability to achieve neoglottic closure. These two results demonstrate that the unilateral arytenoid alone is capable of achieving sufficient neoglottic narrowing to compensate for the resected arytenoid. Three-dimensional analysis was useful to evaluate the physiological status of the neoglottis after supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy.
Supracricoid partial laryngectomy is a reliable laryngeal preservation procedure for tumour stage 2 and selected stage 3 to 4 laryngeal cancers. Of 70 patients thus treated, two (3 per cent) had ‘flaccid neoglottis’, i.e. redundant mucosa at the inner arytenoid edge which intermittently obstructed the neoglottis. We discuss the mechanism and management of this complication.
The two cases are presented. A navigation system was used to assist surgery. Neoglottal spatial alteration (specifically cross-sectional area) was assessed pre- and post-operatively using three-dimensional computed tomography. Voice was also evaluated.
Inspiratory stridor and delayed stomal closure were the main symptoms. Minimum neoglottal cross-sectional area was smaller in case one than in non-affected patients. Both patients had relatively rougher and breathier voices, but had adapted well to this.
Flaccid neoglottis is mainly due to excessive anterior retraction of residual laryngeal mucosa and to excessive mucosal pliability with age. A navigation system was useful for confirmation, but the potential for incorrect image recognition should be kept in mind. Flaccid neoglottis was treatable, with improved laryngeal function.
Supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy is an organ-preserving surgical technique used to treat laryngeal cancer. This procedure resects the vocal folds; however, it is unclear how the sound source and airway morphology are involved in phonation through the post-operative neoglottis.
Multidetector helical computed tomography scanning was performed on two patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. The cricoid and arytenoid cartilages and the airway were visualised using three-dimensional images.
The mobility of the arytenoid cartilages was well preserved in the one patient with bilateral arytenoids, and in the other patient with only one arytenoid remaining. Two types of airway configuration were observed during phonation: one patient had a single stream airway, while the other had a combination of several streams.
In the patient with only one arytenoid remaining, the preserved arytenoid tended to be rotated excessively inward. Therefore, phonation may have also occurred in various airways followed by mucosal vibration, which may be a sound source.
Inadequate notification is a recognized problem of measles surveillance systems in many countries, and it should be monitored using multiple data sources. We compared data from three different surveillance sources in 2007: (1) the sentinel surveillance system mandated by the Act on Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients Suffering Infectious Diseases, (2) the mandatory notification system run by the Aichi prefectural government, and (3) health insurance claims (HICs) submitted to corporate health insurance societies. For each dataset, we examined the number of measles cases by month, within multiple age groups, and in two categories of diagnostic test groups. We found that the sentinel surveillance system underestimated the number of adult measles cases. We also found that HIC data, rather than mandatory notification data, were more likely to come from individuals who had undergone laboratory tests to confirm their measles diagnosis. Thus, HIC data may provide a supplementary and readily available measles surveillance data source.
We present the spatially-resolved polarization measurements for the disk around the Herbig Ae star, AB Aurigae. The images were obtained in J, H, and Ks bands with the coronagraphic camera HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope. The inner region beyond 30 AU from the star was imaged, which reveals an azimuthal dip, a radial gap at around 80 AU, and complex spiral-like emission in polarized light.
This study aimed to analyse vocal performance and to investigate the nature of the neoglottal sound source in patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
High-speed digital imaging analysis of neoglottal kinetics was performed in two patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy; laryngotopography, inverse filtering analysis and multiline kymography were also undertaken.
In case one, laryngotopography demonstrated two vibrating areas: one matched with the primary (i.e. fundamental) frequency (75 Hz) and the other with the secondary frequency (150 Hz) at the neoglottis. In case two, laryngotopography showed two vibrating areas matched with the fundamental frequency (172 Hz) at the neoglottis. The interaction between the two areas was considered to be the sound source in both patients. The waveform of the estimated volume flow at the neoglottis, obtained by inverse filtering analysis, corresponded well to the neoglottal vibration patterns derived by multiline kymography. These findings indicated that the specific sites identified at the neoglottis by the present method were likely to be the sound source in each patient.
High-speed digital imaging analysis is effective in locating the sites responsible for voice production in patients who have undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. This is the first study to clearly identify the neoglottal sound source in such patients, using a high-speed digital imaging system.