Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Results of our experimental investigation on the ozone zero phenomenon
suggested us the importance of the electrode surface condition. This means
that the main cause of the phenomenon, that is, temporal decrease of ozone
concentration at the outlet of DBD type ozone generator and the recovery
characteristics from the phenomenon are considered as the surface reaction
process, which are influenced strongly by the surface condition. The surface
condition is never constant during the ozone generation and varies gradually
or remarkably with time depending on the experimental conditions. Therefore
we have been continued to make clear the cause of the phenomenon, for
example, the reproducibility of the phenomenon, using new electrodes and
together with the surface analysis technique etc. In this paper, we describe
on the above results and discussion.
We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2–16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. After adjustment, the risk of typhoid was lower with increasing age [risk ratio (RR) 0·89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·83–0·95], was higher with an increase in population density (RR 1·13, 95% CI 1·05–1·21) and was lower in the households using a safe drinking-water source (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·41–0·99). Typhoid fever affects younger children living in areas of high population density and lack of access to safe water in Pakistan. A combination of environmental and biological interventions is required to prevent the continued epidemiological and economic impact of typhoid fever in high-risk areas of Pakistan.
We have observed several steps in the I-V characteristics of nonmetallic Sb doped Si near the metal-nonmetal transition. The steps appear at equal intervals in the bias voltage of the low temperature I-V curve and the intervals in the voltage are independent on magnetic field. Such strongly nonlinear conduction can be explained by neither the Joshphson junction effect nor the Stark ladder effect. We have compared it with tunneling models in order to study a new application to a current or a voltage standard using quantum effect transport.
Nanolithography has been studied by using electron beam technology. Ten-nm linewidth PMMA resist patterns have been demonstrated by 50 kV scanning electron beam. The self-developing properties of a AlF3 doped LiF inorganic resist under a scanning electron beam irradiation with energy of 20–50 keV have been studied for sub-10 nm lithography. By optimizing the inorganic resist film quality, 5 nm linewidth patterns with 60 nm periodicity were directly delineated under a 30 keV electron beam. Another approach for nanolithography using electron beam holography has been proposed. Line and dot patterns with 100 nm periodicity were exposed on PMMA resist by electron beam holography with thermal field emitter gun and an electron biprism. Subsequent atomic force microscope observation has confirmed that both patterns are successfully fabricated. This technique allows us to produce nanoscale periodic patterns simultaneously. The selective atomic desorption of Cl atoms adsorbed on a Si (111) 7×7 surface has been studied by field evaporation using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The STM tip is placed on the adsorbed Cl on the surface, and pulse voltage was applied. This results in selective atomic desorption of Cl.
Atomic structures of an amorphous La55A125Ni20 alloy in the supercooled liquid state have been investigated by in-situ electron diffraction using a specimen-heating stage in TEM and the imaging-plate intensity recording. From the analysis of atomic pair distribution functions, changes in interatomic distances and coordination numbers were clearly observed at temperatures in the supercooled liquid state. From the reverse Monte Carlo simulations, structural units (icosahedral, Archimedean anti-prism and trigonal prism atomic clusters) typical of the metallic glass structure were found and increased in the supercooled liquid region. In addition, the deformation behavior was investigated using tensile test. The superplastic elongation was confirmed at optimum strain rates in the supercooled liquid region. From the TEM observation of tensile tested specimens with superplastic elongation, β-La (fcc) nano precipitates in the amorphous matrix were confirmed. The superplasticity in this alloy is thought to originate in viscous flow due to the glassy structure formation but is closely related to an additional flow mode with the microcrystalline precipitation from the amorphous state during the deformation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.