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To identify the predictive and prognostic factors associated with ampicillin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia, we retrospectively reviewed demographic, microbiological and clinical data of patients attending the Kyoto University Hospital, Japan, between 2009 and 2015. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive and prognostic factors, respectively. In total, 235 episodes of enterococcal bacteraemia were identified. As ampicillin susceptibility was uniform for Enterococcus faecalis isolates and almost all ampicillin-resistant isolates were E. faecium, bacteraemia due to these species was investigated separately. E. faecalis and E. faecium accounted for 41.7% (98/235) and 48.1% (113/235) of the isolates, respectively and 91.2% of all E. faecium were ampicillin resistant. Nosocomial E. faecium bacteraemia acquisition (odds ratio (OR), 13.6; 95% confidence intervals, 3.16–58.3) was associated with ampicillin-resistant isolates. Bacteraemia from an unknown source (hazard ratio (HR), 2.91; 95% CI 1.36–6.21) and an increased Pitt bacteraemia score (PBS) (HR, 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.52) were associated with 30-day mortality in E. faecium infections. Likewise, bacteraemia from an unknown source (HR, 4.17; 95% CI 1.25–13.9) and increased PBS (HR, 1.27; 95% CI 1.09–1.48) were associated with 30-day mortality in patients with E. faecalis bacteraemia. The empirical therapeutic administration of glycopeptides is recommended for patients with bacteraemia from an unknown source in whom severe E. faecium bacteraemia is suspected.
Conspicuous dust lanes define the spiral arm in the south of M31. The integrated HI line emission map shows several large cloudlike structures with sizes ranging from hundreds to thousands of parsecs, forming a spiral arm along the dust lanes (Figure 1). To investigate how such super clouds correlate with star formation phenomena, we present in Figure 2 a compilation of published data on: CO emission, dark clouds, HII regions, OB associations, and thermal infrared radiation from IRAS. The CO emission distribution is similar to that of HI and also forms large cloudlike structures. The large CO clouds P, Q, and R, which are located in the high density HI areas, have bright HII region complexes of several hundred parsecs at their outer edges. Further out large OB associations are found. In contrast, cloud B, which shows weaker CO emission, has a large and diffuse HII region which may be relatively old. This giant HII region is located in a large hole of HI and dark clouds (Brinks 1981). The IRAS maps show strong correlated thermal emission from the dust lanes. The luminosity from the star formation activity heats the dust in the molecular clouds. The local peaks at A, P, and Q in the 25 μm band, extending 200-300 pc, have revealed the existence of massive young stars embedded in the clouds.
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder–Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (P<0·001). However, the increase in NQ scores was significantly higher in the interactive group than in the lecture group, in the overall score (P=0·008) and in the healthy eating domain (P=0·009). The validated NQ is a short and useful tool to assess gain in nutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
We observed the semicircular supernova remnant G109.1-1.0 in the J = 1-0 transition of CO with the Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope. It is found that two remarkably thin molecular filaments delineate the inner boundary of the X-ray jet feature in this remnant. These filaments seem to have experienced evaporation due to the hot gas in the remnant.
This paper solves the known problem of elimination of unnecessary internal element construction as well as variable elimination in XML processing with (a subset of) XQuery without ignoring the issues of document order. The semantics of XQuery is context sensitive and requires preservation of document order. In this paper, we propose, as far as we are aware, the first XQuery fusion that can deal with both the document order and the context of XQuery expressions. More specifically, we carefully design a context representation of XQuery expressions based on the Dewey order encoding, develop a context-preserving XQuery fusion for ordered trees by static emulation of the XML store, and prove that our fusion is correct. Our XQuery fusion has been implemented, and all the examples in this paper have passed through the system.
The HYPER-II device has been constructed in Kyushu University to investigate the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma, which is an intermediate state of plasma and consists of unmagnetized ions and magnetized electrons. High density plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and the flow field structure in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is investigated with a directional Langmuir probe method and a laser-induced fluorescence method. The experimental setup has been completed and the diagnostic systems have been installed to start the experiments. A set of coaxial electrodes will be introduced to control the azimuthal plasma rotation, and the effect of plasma rotation to generation of rectilinear flow structure will be studied. The HYPER-II experiments will clarify the overall flow structure in the inhomogeneous magnetic field and contribute to understanding characteristic feature of the intermediate state of plasma.
The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) is a computer-based cognitive screening instrument that involves automated administration and scoring and immediate analyses of test sessions. The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CANS-MCI (CANS-MCI-BR) and to evaluate its reliability and validity for the diagnostic screening of MCI and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.
The test was administered to 97 older adults (mean age 73.41 ± 5.27 years) with at least four years of formal education (mean education 12.23 ± 4.48 years). Participants were classified into three diagnostic groups according to global cognitive status (normal controls, n = 41; MCI, n = 35; AD, n = 21) based on clinical data and formal neuropsychological assessments.
The results indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77) in the total sample. Three-month test-retest reliability correlations were significant and robust (0.875; p < 0.001). A moderate level of concurrent validity was attained relative to the screening test for MCI (MoCA test, r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model of the original test, i.e., memory, language/spatial fluency, and executive function/mental control. Goodness of fit indicators were strong (Bentler Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.09). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses suggested high sensitivity and specificity (81% and 73% respectively) to screen for possible MCI cases.
The CANS-MCI-BR maintains adequate psychometric characteristics that render it suitable to identify elderly adults with probable cognitive impairment to whom a more extensive evaluation by formal neuropsychological tests may be required.
We mapped the NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of the molecular cloud associated with the Monkey Head Nebula (MHN) with 1′.6 angular resolution using Kashima 34 m telescope. Its kinetic temperature distribution was contrary to what is expected for a molecular cloud at the edge of an expanding H II region and suggested that the massive star associated with S252A compact HII region formed spontaneously rather than through a sequential process.
In this study, we are doing R&D for directional dark matter search with nuclear
emulsion. First of all, higher resolution nuclear emulsion with fine silver halide
crystals was developed in the production facility of emulsion at Nagoya university, and we
confirmed that it can detect the expected nuclear recoil tracks. The readout of submicron
tracks was required the new technology. We developed the expansion technique, and could
readout the signal by shape analysis with optical microscopy. The two dimensional angular
resolution is 36 degrees at the original track length of range from 150 nm to 200 nm with
optical microscopy. Finally we demonstrated by using recoiled nuclei induced by 14.8 MeV
neutron, and confirmed the technique. Moreover, we developed the X-ray microscope system
with SPring-8 as final check with higher resolution of selected candidate tracks with
optical microscopy. The angular resolution was improved from 31 degree with optical
microscopy to 17 degree with X-ray microscopy at the track length of range from 150 nm to
250 nm. We are developing the practical system and planning for start of the test running
with prototype detector.
Background: Studies on functional capacity in community-dwelling older people have shown associations between declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and several factors. Among these, age has been the most consistently related to functional capacity independent of other variables. We aimed at evaluating the performance of a sample of healthy and cognitively intact Brazilian older people on activities of daily living and to analyze its relation to social-demographic variables.
Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected for previous epidemiological studies with community-dwelling subjects aged 60 years or more. We selected subjects who did not have dementia or depression, and with no history of neurological diseases, heart attack, HIV, hepatitis or arthritis (n = 1,111). Functional capacity was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Older American Resources and Services Questionnaire (BOMFAQ). ADL performance was analyzed according to age, gender, education, and marital status (Pearson's χ2, logistic regression).
Results: IADL difficulties were present in our sample, especially in subjects aged 80 years or more, with lower levels of education, or widowed. The logistic regression analysis results indicated that “higher age” and “lower education” (p ≤ 0.001) remained significantly associated with IADL difficulty.
Conclusions: Functional decline was present in older subjects even in the absence of medical conditions and cognitive impairment. Clinicians and researchers could benefit from knowing what to expect from older people regarding IADL performance in the absence of medical conditions.
A fundamental concept combining a molecular behavior and macro-continuum phenomenon is presented for a multicomponent solute diffusion problem in bentonite clay, which is a key component of the Engineering Barrier System (EBS) of high-level radioactive waste disposal (HLRW). Bentonite is a micro-inhomogeneous material. Properties of the saturated bentonite are characterized by the constituent clay mineral (montmorillonite) and water, namely montmorillonite hydrate. We analyze its molecular behavior by applying a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to inquire into the physicochemical properties such as diffusivity of chemical species. For extending the microscopic characteristics of constituent materials to a macroscopic diffusion behavior of the micro-inhomogeneous material we apply a homogenization analysis (HA).
The grain size of phosphorous (P)-doped poly-Si film has been enlarged to about 5000 Å by controlling the solidification velocity of molten Si during ArF excimer laser annealing. The drastically enlarged grain has few defects inside the grain. It has been confirmed that control of the solidification velocity is effective for P-doped poly-Si similar to the case of non-doped poly-Si films. In addition, a sheet resistance of 80 Ω/□ (ρ = 4 × 10-4 Ω · cm) has been achieved for very thin (500 Å) films by recrystallizing PECVD P-doped a-Si films.
As a new preparation method for high-quality a-Si films, we have developed the super chamber, a separated UHV reaction chamber system. A low impurity concentration and excellent film properties were obtained by the super chamber. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was obtained for an a-Si solar cell using a high-quality i-layer deposited by the super chamber, and a p-layer fabricated by a photo-CVD method.
As a new material, amorphous superlattice structure films were fabricated by the photo-CVD method for the first time. Quantization effects and low damage to the interfaces were observed. Superlattice structure p-layer a-Si solar cells were fabricated for the first time, and a conversion efficiency of 10.5% was obtained.
The crystalline phase fraction (Xc) of amorphous-crystalline mixed phase Si films prepared by thermal annealing of a-Si:H films and by plasma CVD and chemical annealing methods was investigated by the EXAFS method. The EXAFS spectra of these films were represented by linear-combination of a-Si:H and c-Si EXAFS spectra. The values of Xc were analyzed by least-square curve fitting. The crystallinity was also analyzed by a Raman scattering method measured from both sides of the films. Then, the Xc values analyzed by the Raman method were calibrated by the EXAFS analysis results.
The relationship between the grain size of poly-Si after SPC and the structure of a-Si before SPC was studied. The structure of a-Si was characterized by TA/TO: the Raman intensity ratio of the Transverse Acoustic (TA) like band and the Transverse Optical (TO) like band. A good positive correlation between the grain size and TS/TO was revealed for the first time. The nucleation and growth kinetics were speculated by using a thermodynamic model. The grain size could be enlarged up to 6 μ m by applying textured substrates to a-Si with a large structural disorder. This film was applied to the active layer of solar cells, and a collection efficiency of 51% at 900 nm was obtained.
Nb/MgO/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (BSCCO) tunnel junctions using both amorphous and crystalline MgO barriers were fabricated using a BSCCO single crystal in order to compare their superconducting states of interface. Both MgO thin films, 4–8 nm thick and with full coverage, were deposited onto BSCCO single crystals using the MBE method. The junctions using amorphous and crystalline MgO films were found to have gap opening structures at a bias voltage of about 38 mV and 25 mV at 5.2 K, respectively. The gap opening of the junction using an amorphous MgO barrier occurred below 86 K, corresponding very closely with the Tc for the BSCCO single crystal. Its characteristics showed a BCS-like temperature dependence.
Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were made on a-Ge and a-Ge:H films which were prepared by sputtering and were annealed at temperatures between 300 and 450° C.The first nearest neighbor distance and the Debye-valler factor were investigated. These values decrease rapidly on the crystallization of the samples. The relationship between them was analyzed in respect of tvo-body potential. The potential of amorphous state is considered to be affected by unharmonic term.
The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich Ti-Al alloys was studied using a TiAl single crystal with a composition gradient. A TiAl single crystal with gradient compositions from 55 to 75 at.% Al was prepared by annealing in a molten Al at 1234°C. The single crystal exhibits long-period ordering into different LPSs depending on the Al concentration as follows: an Al5Ti3 type short-range order, h-Al2Ti and one-dimensional antiphase domain structures. These LPSs show an orientation relationship in which Al (002) layers of the LPSs are parallel to those of the TiAl matrix. The atomic arrangements of the LPSs are characterized in common as the alternate stacking of the Al (002) layers and Ti-Al (002) layers. It is thus concluded that the ordering of this type of LPSs and the phase transition between these LPSs are explained as structural changes in Ti-Al (002) layers of the Al-rich L10-TiAl crystal.
The photoconductivity amplitude (PCA) technique with UV laser carrier excitation has been proposed to characterize surface property and subsurface damage. Combining this new technique with mechanochemical polishing has determined the depth profile of the slicing-induced residual damage. Combining SC1 cleaning with this technique allows to determine the depth profile of residual damage induced by mirror polishing. This result leads that the mirror polishing-induced damage can be removed by the SC1 cleaning.