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Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
We present here the fundamental idea of the conversion method between old and new reference frameworks. Some practical applications are made for the optical observations for Tokyo PZT. The method can be also applied to the conversion of radio sources where we have met a great difficulty in performing the conversion because of no citation of observation epochs in general. We discuss their necessity in order to establish a concrete compilation of the position of the radio sources.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
A high performance VLBI recorder project using advanced digital technology started in 1995. TOSHIBA GBR 1000 and VLBI interface define 32 parallel, 32 MHz clock standard digital interface and support transparent recording/play-back to extremely high-speed digital bit stream. This is the formatter independent scientific recording bind the UTC to observed data. This highly reliable, low-bit-error-rate (10−16) recording system is also expected to be used in other scientific field. For the first example to examine the recorder performance in VLBI, we had been prepared 1024 Mbps sampler (256/512/1024 MSps, 2 bit, 4/2/1 ch). And here, an experimental giga-bit correlator specification for these VLBI acquisition system is introduced.
Recently, the issue of sustainable resource management has been increasingly recognized.
Economic growth of human activity is associated with a rapid rise in the use of resources
in our economy, and society has a potential environmental impact. The UNEP International
Resource Panel (IRP) pointed out the importance of decoupling resource use and negative
environmental impacts from economic activity (UNEP IRP 2011). In order to
optimize the material cycles and increase resource efficiency, material flow analysis
(MFA) is a powerful tool to understand the resource consumption and material cycle in the
national economy. In this study, we present the results of global material flow analysis
of nickel, which is one of the important resources for reducing energy use and
CO2 emission in
our society, and discuss the importance and possibility of controlling its resource
logistics. This study also introduces the challenge of identifying the land-use changes in
nickel mining sites by a remote-sensing technique, and knowledge to increase the resource
efficiency in metal recycling based on the metallurgical thermodynamic approach. The
results indicated the importance of recovery of nickel in recycling policies for
end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and
implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed.
Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and
introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources.
Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying
elements and contribute to more efficient resource use.
Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are the most promising candidates for flexible electronics owing to their flexible structures, the simplicity of processing large-area devices, and excellent compatibility with flexible substrates. To date, many studies have been reported that have aimed at developing a wide range of plastic electronics such as flexible displays, sensors. In this paper, we discuss our recent work, focusing on OTFT arrays and their application to flexible display. An active-matrix (AM) backplane using a low-temperature cross-linkable olefin-type polymer as the gatedielectric and an air-stable DNTT as the organic semiconductor (OSC) was successfully fabricated on a plastic substrate. The short-channel TFT array exhibited a high hole mobility of over 0.5 cm2/Vs, a low subthreshold slope of 0.31, and excellent environmental and operational stability. A 5-inch flexible OLED display exhibited a high luminescence of over 300 cd/m2 by driving of the DNTT-based OTFTs. Solution-processed OTFTs are also attracting considerable attention owing to both their simple manufacturing process and excellent transistor performance. We present a simple patterning process for a solution-processable OSC that can be used to develop a high-mobility short-channel TFT array. The OSC film was directly patterned on the confined active channel region by a simple lamination coating technique and the resulting TFTs showed a high mobility of up to 1.3 cm2/Vs. In the final section, we report on eco-friendly paper-based organic TFT array. A transparent cellulose nanofibers paper was firstly applied to a flexible substrate for the TFT backplane. A solution-processed TFT on the transparent paper exhibited a high mobility exceeding 1 cm2/Vs, good air stability, and excellent mechanical stability.
The operation of an economy is supported by the stock of materials in the form of durables and infrastructure such as machinery, equipment, buildings, and structures. The amount of durables and infrastructure or “capital stock” in the economy is of great interest in the literature of economics, and is usually measured in monetary terms based on the data on capital expenditure. In spite of its wide use by economists, this measure of “capital stock” is of very limited use for sustainable management of material stock because of its neglect of physical properties such as the mass and material composition. This paper proposes a new method of measuring the stock of long-lived durables and infrastructure in terms of the mass of its materials. This method is based on the WIO-MFA method [S. Nakamura et al. J. Ind. Ecol. 11 (2007) 50-63] and the capital formation matrix that is one of the supplementary tables of the input-output table. The method is applied to the Japanese input-output data with 400 sectors, with 9 types of metals (iron, ferroalloy, copper, zinc, lead, tin, aluminum, silver, and gold) and 8 types of plastics (thermo-setting resins, PE (low), PE (high), PS, PP, PVC, high-performance resins, and other resins) occurring as materials. It was found that substantial variations exist among sectors while fixed capital formation in the year 2000 weighs 518 kg per million Japanese yen on average in metals and plastics.
The material properties of two ultra low-k organic polymers are characterized for copper interconnect integration. The k-values are 2.2-2.3 for both. Compared to OSG materials of similar k-values, these polymers have lower porosity and smaller pore size, achieved using selfassembled chemistry. Both materials demonstrate excellent resistance to plasma damage: no water uptake was detected after exposure to selected etching plasmas. This characteristic, combined with the small pore size and low porosity, results in the successful integration of the organic low-ks in 80 nm spacing with no significant increase in the integrated k-values.
It is found that higher open porosity in polymer A is accompanied by higher leakage current, which is not however linked to lower dielectric breakdown lifetimes.
The concept of a novel solid-state light-emitting device is proposed on a basis of our previous report that the nanocrystalline porous silicon (PS) diode with a well-controlled structure operate as an efficient ballistic electron emitter. This device is composed of a semitransparent thin Au film, a fluorescent thin film, a PS layer, and n-type Si substrate. When a positive bias voltage is applied to the Au electrode, visible luminescence is emitted of which band corresponds to that of the deposited fluorescent material. The optoelectronic characteristics suggest that the light emission is based on direct excitation of fluorescent film by ballistic electrons generated in the PS layer. This result indicates another possibility of nanocrystalline silicon for photonic applications.
Extremely high controllability of the carrier concentration of p--InP below 1×l0l6 cm−3 has been obtained by using Mn as a dopant. Applying Mndoped p--InP to the current confining layers of 1.3 µm buried heterostructure (BH) laser diodes has enabled threshold currents as low as 12 mA.
New type pseudoelasticity in Fe3Al with the D03 structure was examined using the single crystals. The pseudoelasticity occurred due to a reversible motion of 1/4<111> superpartials dragging the nearest-neighbor anti-phase boundaries. The chemical composition and microstructure of Fe3Al alloys strongly influenced the shape recovery ratio and Fe-23.0at%Al alloy with fine domain structure was the most favorable for the appearance of the pseudoelasticity. The recovery ratio of Fe-23.0at%Al exceeded 80 % in the wide temperature range from -50 to 200 oC.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were prepared by mercury photosensitized decomposition of silane using a low-pressure mercury lamp. The deposition rate showed an activation type for substrate temperature (the activation energy: 0.13 eV), because the deposition rate would be determined by the rate of hydrogen elimination from the hydrogen saturated surface. Moreover, the relationship was found between the Si-H2 bond density in a- Si:H films and the gas phase reactions.
A new type of ferroelectric liquid crystal light valve (FLCLV) is presented. The design of the FLCLV is based upon the linear equivalent circuit analyses. A photosensor in the FLCLV consists of a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) photodiode. A-Si:H doped with boron and nitrogen [a-Si:(:N:B)] is used in the MIS diode. The a-Si:H(:B:N) film has a dark-conductivity of less than 1×1012 S/cm and a high photosensitivity.
Consequently, the writing characteristics of the FLCLV for a two dimensional (2D) image are evaluated. Using writing light of 630 nm and 1 mW/cm2, a high resolution capability of 120∼140 1p/mm is obtained.
The effects of atomic hydrogen (H) on formation of In(Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) by self-organizing process have been investigated. The low size fluctuation and uniform-shaped QDs are obtained at growth temperature above 450°C. The average size of InGaAs QDs are decreased from 40 nm to 20 nm by atomic H irradiation. The InGaAs QDs are formed uniformly on growth surface in with-H condition while preferentially formed and distributed along the step edges in without-H case. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensities and full width at half maximum (FWHM) are also improved by atomic H irradiation. The waiting time before GaAs cap layer deposition is a important factor on the optical properties of QDs.
Relationship between the degree of imide-ring-condensation and the absorbed quantity of sodium ion was studied in a polyimide film of 100nm thick immersed in an alcoholic solvent containing sodium ion in order to elucidate a mechanism of incorporation of ionic species. Absorption and depth-profile of sodium ion in a film were quantitatively determined by chemical analysis and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Concentration of sodium ion in a thin film by two orders of magnitude was observed, and distribution of sodium ion in a thin film was found to be uniform, which cannot be accounted for by any kinds of previous models based on diffusion, permeation, or solvation. Instead, chemical ion-exchange model is proposed and is found to satisfactorily explain the experimental results.