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An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
We introduce the newly developed database of circumstellar maser sources. Until now, the compilations comprehensively including the three major maser species in evolved stars (i.e., SiO, H2O, OH) has been practically limited only to the Benson’s catalog (Benson et al. 1990), which was published more than a quarter of a century ago. For OH masers alone, there exists the University of Hamburg (UH) database, but there is no updated compilation work for H2O and SiO masers. In order to utilize the information of masers in actual studies, it is highly desirable to have a database containing all the three masers. We are currently constructing a database covering SiO, H2O and OH masers. This database consists of a web-service, which accesses compiled maser observations in available archives and combines them with the data we newly collected and IR databases. The archives currently used are the OH maser archive from Engels & Bunzel (2015), and H2O and SiO archives, which are currently under construction. So far, the information of about 27,000 observations (about 10,000 objects) has been implemented. We also have a plan to extend the database by including higher transitions and other types of objects, such as young stellar objects, in future. In this paper, we briefly summarize, (1) outline of the data collected, and (2) future development plans of the eDAMS system. The URL of the database is as follows: http://maserdb.ins.urfu.ru/
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Metastasis to regional lymph nodes via lymphatic microvessels plays a key role in cancer progression, and is an important prognostic factor in many cancers. Recent evidence suggests that tumour lymphangiogenesis promotes lymphatic metastasis.
To investigate whether tumour lymphatic microvessel density correlates with clinicopathological factors and serves as a prognostic indicator of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma progression.
The lymphatics of 84 supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma cases were investigated by immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin (also termed D2-40). The relationships between (intra- and peritumoural) lymphatic microvessel density, clinicopathological parameters and clinical prognosis were analysed.
There was a significant relationship between high intratumoural lymphatic microvessel density and aggressive tumour node stage (p < 0.0001), distant metastasis (p = 0.037) and poor prognosis (p = 0.011), and between high peritumoural lymphatic microvessel density and node stage (p = 0.004) and poor prognosis (p = 0.029). Patients with high lymphatic microvessel density also had significantly worse disease-free survival (p = 0.003) and overall survival (p = 0.005). Intratumoural lymphatic microvessel density was found to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.008) and disease-free survival (p = 0.005) (multivariate analysis).
Lymphatic microvessel density (detected by podoplanin immunohistochemistry), especially intratumoural density, may be an independent predictor of lymphatic tumour spread and survival in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma patients, and may be useful to guide decisions regarding additional surgery.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
This study aimed to determine the expression of the Cap43 gene in supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and to evaluate any correlation between Cap43 gene expression and tumour-associated macrophage infiltration.
Four human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were cultured (Hep2, KB, Ca9-22 and HSC-3) and expression of the Cap43 gene was analysed by Western blotting. In addition, paraffin-embedded samples of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and normal supraglottic laryngeal mucosa from 84 patients were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies to Cap43 and cluster of differentiation 68 glycoprotein. Patients' clinical status was compared with their immunohistochemical results.
All four head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines exhibited Cap43 expression. The Hep2, Ca9-22 and HSC-3 cells showed a markedly higher level of Cap43 protein than the KB cells. A statistically significant difference was found in Cap43 expression, comparing different differentiation levels and comparing different metastasis stages, for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma. The number of tumour-associated macrophages correlated with expression of Cap43, not only in the tumour area (r = 0.3708, p = 0.0005) but also in the peritumour area (r = 0.2847, p = 0.0087).
In supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, overexpression of the Cap43 gene is associated with tumour differentiation and acts an important suppressive factor in the process of tumour metastasis. The Cap43 gene may be a cancer-specific marker. High expression of the Cap43 gene appeared to correlate with infiltration of tumour-associated macrophages.
Cholesterol granuloma is an intractable ear disease. Many studies of this condition have been published since the initial report by Manasse. However, the pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. This study reviewed the treatment of middle-ear cholesterol granuloma in 16 patients undergoing surgical treatment at Kurume University Hospital.
The relationship between patients' pre-operative tympanic membrane findings and post-operative course was analysed. Patients with swollen tympanic membranes had significantly poorer outcomes. Patients with retracted tympanic membranes and those undergoing ossicular chain reconstruction had significantly better outcomes. The patients' overall hearing success rate at approximately two weeks post-operatively was 75 per cent. However, by six months post-operatively, the overall hearing success rate had declined to 62.5 per cent. Patients with poor hearing two weeks post-operatively did not acquire better hearing.
Epithelioid sarcoma is an aggressive, malignant tumour of the soft tissue which tends to arise in proximity to large tendons and aponeuroses. We report the case of a patient presenting with an epithelioid sarcoma arising in the neck. A 56-year-old man was referred with a three-year history of a sensory disorder as well as a slowly growing mass in his right neck. The patient underwent resection of the tumour by means of a conservative neck dissection. The final diagnosis, based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings, was epithelioid sarcoma. Radiotherapy was performed after the operation. The post-operative course was uneventful, and there was no local recurrence or distant metastasis.
The effectiveness of autologous fat injection laryngoplasty may be reduced by resorption of injected fat tissue. The aim of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of fat injection laryngoplasty using autologous fat plus a replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing hepatocyte growth factor, regarding reduction of injected fat tissue resorption.
Material and methods:
Four female beagle dogs were used in this study. After sedation, a direct laryngoscope was introduced to enable visualisation of the larynx. In each dog, harvested autologous fat plus an adenoviral vector expressing hepatocyte growth factor was injected into the right true vocal fold, and harvested fat plus an adenoviral vector expressing no gene was injected into the left true vocal fold. A total laryngectomy was performed one year after the intracordal fat injection. Coronal sections of the resected whole larynges were made and the following parameters assessed using light and electron microscopy: size of fat area; number of vasculoendothelial cells surrounding adipocytes; and shape of injected adipocytes in the vocal fold.
The fat area was significantly larger and the number of vasculoendothelial cells surrounding adipocytes significantly greater in the intracordal fat injection containing adenoviral vector expressing hepatocyte growth factor, compared with the control intracordal fat injection containing adenoviral vector expressing no gene. When viewed under electron microscopy, the injected adipocytes were observed to have grafted better in the intracordal fat injection with hepatocyte growth factor adenoviral vector, compared with the control intracordal fat injection with adenoviral vector expressing no gene.
Injection into the vocal fold of autologous fat containing an adenoviral vector expressing hepatocyte growth factor can reduce subsequent resorption of injected fat.
Previously, the treatment of carcinoma of the external auditory canal has mainly involved surgical resection. In order to enable organ preservation and to obtain cancer-free surgical margins, we introduced the use of superselective, intra-arterial, rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to treat this condition.
We reviewed our patients' tumour stages, feeding arteries and clinical outcomes. Tumours were staged according to the Pittsburgh staging system. Chemotherapy was administered intra-arterially in the angiography suite via transfemoral catheterisation of the feeding arteries. Four patients underwent superselective, intra-arterial, rapid infusion chemo-radiotherapy. A complete response was obtained in all four patients. The overall toxic side effects were modest.
Superselective, intra-arterial, rapid infusion chemotherapy can be an effective, organ-preserving treatment for external auditory canal carcinoma, with a high cure rate.
This study aimed to clarify the significance of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein gene expression in human parotid gland tumours.
We retrospectively analysed immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in parotid gland tumours.
Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was consistently detected in the normal parotid gland. Regarding benign parotid gland tumours, cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 13 of 18 pleomorphic adenomas, in all Warthin tumours tested (21/21) and in all cases of basal cell adenoma tested (four of four). In contrast, positive staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was less often observed in malignant parotid tumours. Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 11 of 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, in two of five acinic cell carcinomas and in two of five adenoid cystic carcinomas.
There was a statistically significantly reduced expression of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in malignant parotid gland tumours, compared with benign parotid gland tumours (p < 0.05). These results suggest that a low level of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein expression in parotid gland tumours may be associated with malignancy.
Tympanic membrane perforation causes a sound conduction disturbance, and the size of this conduction disturbance is proportional to the perforation area. However, precise evaluation of perforation size is difficult, and there are few detailed reports addressing this issue. Furthermore, such evaluation becomes more difficult for irregularly shaped perforations. This study conducted a quantitative evaluation of tympanic membrane perforations, using image analysis equipment.
A significant correlation was found between the degree of sound conduction disturbance and the perforation area; this correlation was greater at low frequencies following a traumatic perforation. The conductive disturbance associated with chronic otitis media was significantly greater at low frequencies. Circular perforations caused only minor conduction disturbance. Perforations in the anteroinferior quadrant were associated with greater conduction disturbance. Traumatic spindle-shaped perforations and malleolar perforations were associated with greater conduction disturbance.
An anterior glottic web in adults comprises a bridge of scar tissue commonly formed as a result of iatrogenic laryngeal injury. Traditionally, procedures such as transcervical midline thyrotomy and keel placement have been used to repair this condition. However, we recently repaired an anterior glottic web using a new surgical procedure involving a silicone tube instead of a keel. We herein report this case, in which we placed a silicone tube at the anterior commissure after resection of an anterior glottic web, under endolaryngeal microsurgery, without performing a tracheostomy.
Labyrinthine fistula is one of the most common complications of chronic otitis media associated with cholesteatoma. The optimal management of labyrinthine fistula, however, remains controversial. Between 1995 and 2005, labyrinthine fistulae were detected in 31 (6 per cent) patients in our institution. The canal wall down technique was used in 27 (87 per cent) patients. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in the first stage in all patients. Bone dust and/or temporalis fascia was inserted to seal the fistula in 29 (94 per cent) patients. A post-operative hearing test was undertaken in 27 patients; seven (26 per cent) patients showed improved hearing, 17 (63 per cent) showed no change and three (11 per cent) showed a deterioration. The study findings indicate that there are various treatment strategies available for cholesteatoma, and that the treatment choice should be based on such criteria as auditory and vestibular function, the surgeon's ability and experience, and the location and size of the fistula.
The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of dendritic cell phenotypic antigens in the cervical lymph nodes of patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma, and to assess the significance of such antigens in the tumour immune reaction.
Immunohistochemical staining of cervical lymph nodes was performed using antibodies against cell surface markers such as S-100 protein and cluster of differentiation 1a and 83 glycoproteins. Two hundred and seventy-four cervical lymph nodes obtained at surgery from 37 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma and 31 patients with laryngeal carcinoma were thus evaluated.
The number of dendritic cells positive for each phenotypic antigen was significantly greater in non-metastatic lymph nodes than in metastatic lymph nodes. In the metastatic lymph nodes, cluster of differentiation 1a glycoprotein positive dendritic cells were predominantly detected in the cancer ‘nest’, whereas mature dendritic cells staining for cluster of differentiation 83 glycoprotein were prominent in the peritumour area. In the metastatic lymph nodes, in contrast to the cluster of differentiation 1a glycoprotein positive dendritic cells, the degree of infiltration of cluster of differentiation 83 glycoprotein positive dendritic cells was significantly higher in the peritumour area than in the cancer nest. There was a significant difference in survival status, comparing patients with different degrees of dendritic cell infiltration for each type of phenotypic antigen.
Dendritic cells may play different roles in tumour immunity against hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma. The phenotypic antigens of dendritic cells may thus constitute important indices with which to predict the prognosis of patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma.
Stellate cells in the maculae flavae, located at both ends of the human vocal fold mucosa, have been considered an independent category of cells. We aimed to isolate and subculture these stellate cells, and to observe their morphological characteristics.
Stellate cells from the maculae flavae and fibroblasts from Reinke's space were cultured in three normal, adult human vocal fold mucosa preparations.
The subcultured cells from Reinke's space were conventional fibroblasts. The subcultured cells from the maculae flavae were stellate in shape and had cytoplasmic processes. They were larger than conventional fibroblasts, and lipid droplets in the cytoplasm disappeared in the second culture. These stellate cells proliferated by attaching their cytoplasmic processes to each other. During the seven to 10 month subculture period, each cell type continued to exhibit its own morphological characteristics.
This study demonstrated that such stellate cells form an independent cell category, which should be considered as a new category of cells within the human vocal fold.
Water maser emission has been detected only toward three planetary nebulae (PNe). In particular, in K3-35, the first PN where water vapor maser emission was detected, the components are located in a torus-like structure with a radius of 85 AU and also at the surprisingly large distance of 5000 AU from the star, in the tips of the bipolar lobes. The existence of these water molecules in PNe is puzzling, probably related to some unknown mechanism shielding them against the ionizing radiation. We report the detection of HCO+ (J = 1 − 0) emission toward K 3-35, that not only suggests that dense molecular gas (~105 cm−3) is present in this PN, but also that this kind of PN can enrich their surroundings with organic molecules.
An outbreak of psittacosis related to a bird park occurred in Matsue City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan, during winter 2001. Seventeen cases of psittacosis (12 visitors, three staff, and two student interns) were confirmed. A cohort study was conducted among the park staff and students to determine the risk factors for the development of acute serologically confirmed psittacosis (SCP) infection. Being ‘bird staff’ had an increased risk of SCP infection (RR 3·96, 95% CI 1·48–10·58). Entering the staff building, where ill birds were maintained without proper isolation, was also associated with an increased risk of SCP infection (RR 3·61, 95% CI 1·03–12·6). Isolation of ill birds and quarantine measures were found to be insufficient. Dehumidifiers and a high-pressure water spray under a closed ventilation environment may have raised the concentration of Chlamydophila psittaci in the hothouses. Bird park staff and visitors should be educated about psittacosis.
A three-dimensional neutral transport model using the DEGAS version 63 Monte Carlo code is described in order to understand the behavior of neutrals in the non-axisymmetric anchor region of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. A precise mesh structure with three-dimensional geometry was built up and the simulation was carried out under a plausible assumption of the particle source on the basis of experimental data. In standard ion-cyclotron-range-of-frequency heated plasmas, detailed measurements of Hα line emission were performed using a 5-ch Hα detector array in the outer-transition region of the east anchor cell and the experimental results were compared with the simulation. The spatial profile of Hα emission predicted from the simulation agreed well with the experimental result and the distinctive behavior of neutrals in this region was clarified.
The instability of a high-frequency wave, such as the Langmuir wave (LW) is studied using a Vlasov-kinetic model in streaming and irradiated dusty plasma with dust charge fluctuation. In irradiated dusty plasma, dust charge fluctuation is considered to be due to the combined effect of LW perturbation and photoelectron emission. It is found that the dust charge fluctuation makes the LW unstable and this instability linearly adds to the Landau effect. Growth rate of the instability of LW is discussed. Discussion is also given to justify the theory and to verify it in the laboratory experiment.