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N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia psychosis and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were investigated. In addition, plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were compared between the two groups.
Eighteen patients (nine males, nine females; age range: 13–52 years) were enrolled in the study, and 18 volunteers (nine males, nine females; age range: 15–49 years) with no current or past psychiatric history were also studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as sex- and age-matched controls.
Levels of NAA/Cr in the left basal ganglia (p = 0.0065) and parieto-occipital lobe (p = 0.00498), but not in the frontal lobe, were significantly lower in patients with first-episode schizophrenia psychosis than in control subjects. No difference was observed between the serum BDNF levels of patients with first-episode schizophrenia psychosis and control subjects. In regard to the plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites, plasma MHPG, but not HVA, was significantly lower in the patients with first-episode psychosis than in control subjects. In addition, a significantly positive correlation was observed between the levels of NAA/Cr of the left basal ganglia and plasma MHPG in all subjects.
These results suggest that brain NAA levels in the left basal ganglia and plasma MHPG levels were significantly reduced at the first episode of schizophrenia psychosis, indicating that neurodegeneration via noradrenergic neurons might be associated with the initial progression of the disease.
To identify the predictive and prognostic factors associated with ampicillin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia, we retrospectively reviewed demographic, microbiological and clinical data of patients attending the Kyoto University Hospital, Japan, between 2009 and 2015. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive and prognostic factors, respectively. In total, 235 episodes of enterococcal bacteraemia were identified. As ampicillin susceptibility was uniform for Enterococcus faecalis isolates and almost all ampicillin-resistant isolates were E. faecium, bacteraemia due to these species was investigated separately. E. faecalis and E. faecium accounted for 41.7% (98/235) and 48.1% (113/235) of the isolates, respectively and 91.2% of all E. faecium were ampicillin resistant. Nosocomial E. faecium bacteraemia acquisition (odds ratio (OR), 13.6; 95% confidence intervals, 3.16–58.3) was associated with ampicillin-resistant isolates. Bacteraemia from an unknown source (hazard ratio (HR), 2.91; 95% CI 1.36–6.21) and an increased Pitt bacteraemia score (PBS) (HR, 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.52) were associated with 30-day mortality in E. faecium infections. Likewise, bacteraemia from an unknown source (HR, 4.17; 95% CI 1.25–13.9) and increased PBS (HR, 1.27; 95% CI 1.09–1.48) were associated with 30-day mortality in patients with E. faecalis bacteraemia. The empirical therapeutic administration of glycopeptides is recommended for patients with bacteraemia from an unknown source in whom severe E. faecium bacteraemia is suspected.
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder–Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (P<0·001). However, the increase in NQ scores was significantly higher in the interactive group than in the lecture group, in the overall score (P=0·008) and in the healthy eating domain (P=0·009). The validated NQ is a short and useful tool to assess gain in nutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
This paper solves the known problem of elimination of unnecessary internal element construction as well as variable elimination in XML processing with (a subset of) XQuery without ignoring the issues of document order. The semantics of XQuery is context sensitive and requires preservation of document order. In this paper, we propose, as far as we are aware, the first XQuery fusion that can deal with both the document order and the context of XQuery expressions. More specifically, we carefully design a context representation of XQuery expressions based on the Dewey order encoding, develop a context-preserving XQuery fusion for ordered trees by static emulation of the XML store, and prove that our fusion is correct. Our XQuery fusion has been implemented, and all the examples in this paper have passed through the system.
The HYPER-II device has been constructed in Kyushu University to investigate the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma, which is an intermediate state of plasma and consists of unmagnetized ions and magnetized electrons. High density plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and the flow field structure in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is investigated with a directional Langmuir probe method and a laser-induced fluorescence method. The experimental setup has been completed and the diagnostic systems have been installed to start the experiments. A set of coaxial electrodes will be introduced to control the azimuthal plasma rotation, and the effect of plasma rotation to generation of rectilinear flow structure will be studied. The HYPER-II experiments will clarify the overall flow structure in the inhomogeneous magnetic field and contribute to understanding characteristic feature of the intermediate state of plasma.
The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) is a computer-based cognitive screening instrument that involves automated administration and scoring and immediate analyses of test sessions. The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CANS-MCI (CANS-MCI-BR) and to evaluate its reliability and validity for the diagnostic screening of MCI and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.
The test was administered to 97 older adults (mean age 73.41 ± 5.27 years) with at least four years of formal education (mean education 12.23 ± 4.48 years). Participants were classified into three diagnostic groups according to global cognitive status (normal controls, n = 41; MCI, n = 35; AD, n = 21) based on clinical data and formal neuropsychological assessments.
The results indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77) in the total sample. Three-month test-retest reliability correlations were significant and robust (0.875; p < 0.001). A moderate level of concurrent validity was attained relative to the screening test for MCI (MoCA test, r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model of the original test, i.e., memory, language/spatial fluency, and executive function/mental control. Goodness of fit indicators were strong (Bentler Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.09). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses suggested high sensitivity and specificity (81% and 73% respectively) to screen for possible MCI cases.
The CANS-MCI-BR maintains adequate psychometric characteristics that render it suitable to identify elderly adults with probable cognitive impairment to whom a more extensive evaluation by formal neuropsychological tests may be required.
We mapped the NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of the molecular cloud associated with the Monkey Head Nebula (MHN) with 1′.6 angular resolution using Kashima 34 m telescope. Its kinetic temperature distribution was contrary to what is expected for a molecular cloud at the edge of an expanding H II region and suggested that the massive star associated with S252A compact HII region formed spontaneously rather than through a sequential process.
Background: Studies on functional capacity in community-dwelling older people have shown associations between declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and several factors. Among these, age has been the most consistently related to functional capacity independent of other variables. We aimed at evaluating the performance of a sample of healthy and cognitively intact Brazilian older people on activities of daily living and to analyze its relation to social-demographic variables.
Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected for previous epidemiological studies with community-dwelling subjects aged 60 years or more. We selected subjects who did not have dementia or depression, and with no history of neurological diseases, heart attack, HIV, hepatitis or arthritis (n = 1,111). Functional capacity was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Older American Resources and Services Questionnaire (BOMFAQ). ADL performance was analyzed according to age, gender, education, and marital status (Pearson's χ2, logistic regression).
Results: IADL difficulties were present in our sample, especially in subjects aged 80 years or more, with lower levels of education, or widowed. The logistic regression analysis results indicated that “higher age” and “lower education” (p ≤ 0.001) remained significantly associated with IADL difficulty.
Conclusions: Functional decline was present in older subjects even in the absence of medical conditions and cognitive impairment. Clinicians and researchers could benefit from knowing what to expect from older people regarding IADL performance in the absence of medical conditions.
In this study, we are doing R&D for directional dark matter search with nuclear
emulsion. First of all, higher resolution nuclear emulsion with fine silver halide
crystals was developed in the production facility of emulsion at Nagoya university, and we
confirmed that it can detect the expected nuclear recoil tracks. The readout of submicron
tracks was required the new technology. We developed the expansion technique, and could
readout the signal by shape analysis with optical microscopy. The two dimensional angular
resolution is 36 degrees at the original track length of range from 150 nm to 200 nm with
optical microscopy. Finally we demonstrated by using recoiled nuclei induced by 14.8 MeV
neutron, and confirmed the technique. Moreover, we developed the X-ray microscope system
with SPring-8 as final check with higher resolution of selected candidate tracks with
optical microscopy. The angular resolution was improved from 31 degree with optical
microscopy to 17 degree with X-ray microscopy at the track length of range from 150 nm to
250 nm. We are developing the practical system and planning for start of the test running
with prototype detector.
The systematic investigation on the thermal stability of the CoO layer was carried out for various electrode materials. When Pt with higher oxygen potential (Gibbs free energy change of the oxidation reaction) compared to Co is used as electrodes, the resistance of the Pt/CoO/Pt devise was severely decreased by the post deposition annealing (PDA) process and the resistance switching into the high resistance state was observed in the first voltage sweep. This indicants that the reducing Ar ambient induces the quite local reduction of CoO. The reduction of the CoO layer is also expected even with the Co electrode, which is reasonably attributed to the oxygen concentration gradient at the Co/CoO interface in the Co/CoO/Pt device. With the Ti electrode having a much lower oxygen potential than Co, the reduction of CoO by Ti is also indicated electrically in the Pt/CoO/Ti device. On the other hands, W electrodes which is thought to have the solid-solution oxygen can stabilize the CoO layer during PDA although W is more affinitive with oxygen compared with Co. It can be pointed out the oxygen delivery at the electrode/oxide layer interface is a critical factor in designing the thermally stable stacking structure for resistance random access memory.
We have investigated the effect of N doping into Cu2O films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. With increasing N-doping concentration up to 3 at.%, the optical bandgap energy is enlarged from ˜2.1 to ˜2.5 eV with retaining p-type conductivity as determined by optical absorption and Hall-effect measurements. Additionally, photoelectron spectroscopy in air measurements shows an increase in the valence and conduction band shifts with N doping. These experimental results demonstrate possible optical bandgap widening of p-type N-doped Cu2O films, which is a phenomenon that is probably associated with significant structural changes induced by N doping, as suggested from x-ray diffraction measurements.
We have investigated band gap states in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) with and without quinacridone (Qd) doping on fabricated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/Alq3(:Qd)/LiF/Al devices by using a deep-level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) technique. Non-doped Alq3 sample shows a discrete trap level located at ∼1.39 eV below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band in addition to near-band-edge transitions at 2.2 - 3.6 eV. The pronounced 1.39 eV level is attributable to an intrinsic nature of Alq3 and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination (GR) center that may impact the photophysical properties. On the other hand, Qd-doped Alq3 sample exhibits a new deep level at ∼2.40 eV with increasing the double carrier injection rate, corresponding to the highest occupied molecular orbital band of the Qd. Simultaneously, this GR center is subject to charge up positively due to the presence of holes injected into the Qd doping level for Qd-doped Alq3.
The Japanese quarantine system monitors incoming passengers to detect imported pathogens at international airports. At one airport, we found that 74% of 13315 travellers returning with diarrhoea had visited only one country before entering Japan. On the basis of our results, we hypothesized that the international distribution and potential source of bacterial strains could be inferred by analysing strains isolated from travellers returning to Japan. In order to demonstrate the potential for this system, we randomly selected five Shigella sonnei strains and examined their restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns. One set of strains appeared to be closely related, while three sets, isolated from travellers who visited different countries were possibly related. These results suggest that international distributions and potential sources of S. sonnei may be inferred by monitoring isolates from passengers arriving at a Japanese quarantine station.
The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich Ti-Al alloys was studied using a TiAl single crystal with a composition gradient. A TiAl single crystal with gradient compositions from 55 to 75 at.% Al was prepared by annealing in a molten Al at 1234°C. The single crystal exhibits long-period ordering into different LPSs depending on the Al concentration as follows: an Al5Ti3 type short-range order, h-Al2Ti and one-dimensional antiphase domain structures. These LPSs show an orientation relationship in which Al (002) layers of the LPSs are parallel to those of the TiAl matrix. The atomic arrangements of the LPSs are characterized in common as the alternate stacking of the Al (002) layers and Ti-Al (002) layers. It is thus concluded that the ordering of this type of LPSs and the phase transition between these LPSs are explained as structural changes in Ti-Al (002) layers of the Al-rich L10-TiAl crystal.
The elastoplastic surface deformation of a polycrystalline graphite was studied by examining the indenter’s geometry dependence of load P versus penetration depth h relation (P–h relation) in instrumented pyramidal/spherical indentation tests. The tetrahedral pyramid indenters included inclined face angles β of 10.0°, 22.0° (Vickers pyramid), and 40.0°. The tip radius of spherical indenters used were 32 μm, 200 μm, 794 μm, 1.59 mm, and 6.35 mm. The true hardness H as a measure for plasticity was singled out of the elastoplastic loading parameter k1 in the quadratic expression of P = k1h2 and then quantitatively related to the yield stress Y that was determined from the mean contact pressure for spherical indentation at the onset of plastic yielding. The size effect of Y, decreasing with the increase in the tip radius of spherical indenter, is discussed using the model of geometrically necessary dislocations in terms of the material length scales for a plastic field with strain gradient.
The survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 in marine area was carried out in the Port of Osaka, Japan in 1987–2001, and 51 V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated. All strains were identified to be of El Tor biotype, Ogawa serotype and classic Ubon Kappa-phage type, and were cholera toxin (CT)-negative and CT gene-negative. In order to clarify certain ecological aspects of V. cholerae O1 in the marine environment of the temperate zone, we performed molecular analysis of the isolated strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with NotI and SfiI restriction enzymes. We found the indistinguishable strains by DNA analysis using PFGE with strains passed for 1 year, and also found the closely related strains with that passed for 3 and 12 years. Those results indicated that V. cholerae O1 can survive over one winter at least, and that it survives in marine water for a long time by undergoing continuous mutation.