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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To determine predictors of mortality in non-severe hemophilia A (NSHA) patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The ATHNdataset was used to identify NSHA patients who have authorized the sharing of their demographic and clinical information for research. Factors examined included race, ethnicity, hemophilia severity, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV infections. A mortality rate was calculated for each factors examined. The relative risk of death between patients in different categories of the factors was assessed by using the ratio of these mortality rates. To adjust for the effects of all of the studied factors with mortality, a multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. All hypothesis testing was two-tailed, with a significance level of .05. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 6,606 NSHA patients were followed for an average of 8.5 years. During 56,064 person years of observation, 136 (2.1%) NSHA patients died; 20% of deaths were malignancy-related. Mortality rates were similar across racial group. Hispanic patients were 60% less likely to die than non-Hispanic patients (p = 0.006). Patients with Hepatitis C infection and HIV infection were 7 times as likely to die compared to those without infections (p<0.001). After adjusting for the effects of all examined factors in a multivariate analysis, patients with hepatitis C and HIV infection remain significantly associated with increased mortality at 6.1 times and 3.6 times the risk, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Despite significant improvement in the therapeutic approaches for infectious diseases, Hepatitis C and HIV infections remain strong predictors of mortality in this NSHA cohort. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: N/A.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19–24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69–0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65–75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54–0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA–recall) were small (range: –13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: –4 g, LOA: –159 to 151 g). The Bland–Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals’ food group intake.
In current transparent Si based photovoltaic (PV) module fabrication, green or infrared laser is the most common used band frequency to wipe off the silicon and back contact layer in perpendicular direction of cells. However, this method would result in more power loss than calculation value due to the side effects during the process such as constructional damage of module and shunt effect. A new method is presented here which focus on wiping off more silicon layer by employing green pulsed laser(532 nm wavelength) along the parallel direction of Pattern2, and it shows higher efficiency and more attractive appearance.
Using an interdisciplinary model of financial planning, we investigated the factors contributing to perceived adequacy of retirement savings among Hong Kong workers by replicating a previous study of American and Dutch workers. The model was also tested for age differences in the way in which the variables operated within the model. These questions were examined using data from a phone survey conducted with 999 Hong Kong workers in 2012. We examined three psychological factors (future time orientation, goal clarity and financial knowledge), three social support variables (early learning from parents, spousal support and friend support) and three institutional factors (quality of employer pensions, trust in banks and fund managers, and trust in the government), as well as retirement savings planning activity and perceived retirement savings adequacy. Path analyses were used to test the model for the whole sample and separately for younger (N=437) and older (N=562) workers. Although a few age differences were found in the path analyses, the model was found to be useful in explaining the factors contributing to retirement savings planning and practices. Finally, we discuss how our findings differ from those of prior studies, and we assess their theoretical and practical implications.
Catalyst-free vapor phase transport was applied for the growth of ZnO nanoemitters. A single-crystalline ZnO:Al seed layer was deposited and used as a pseudo-catalyst. The desired morphology of nanostructures can be achieved by means of modifying the growth rates of crystal planes via adjustment in the growth conditions. The field emission characteristics of ZnO nanoemitters satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim relationship. The high aspect ratio of nanoemitters had a low turn-on electric field of 0.18 MV/m at emission current density of 0.1 μA/cm2. A stable electron emission with a variation of less than 14% was measured.
To describe the epidemiology of surgical-site infections (SSIs) in community hospitals and to explore the impact of depth of SSI, healthcare location at the time of diagnosis, and variations in surveillance practices on the overall rate of SSI.
Retrospective cohort study.
Thirty-seven community hospitals in the southeastern United States.
Consecutive sample of patients undergoing surgical procedures between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008.
ANOVA was used to compare rates of SSIs, and the F test was used to compare the distribution of rates of SSIs. Wilcoxon rank-sum was used to test for differences in performance rankings of hospitals.
Following 177,706 surgical procedures, 1,919 SSIs were identified (incidence, 1.08 per 100 procedures). Sixty-four percent (1,223 of 1,919) of these were identified as complex SSIs; 87% of the complex SSIs were diagnosed in inpatient settings. The median proportion of superficial-incisional SSIs was 37% (interquartile range, 29.6%–49.5%). Postdischarge SSI surveillance was variable, with 58% of responding hospitals using surgeon letters. As reporting focus was narrowed from all SSIs to complex SSIs (incidence, 0.69 per 100 procedures) and, finally, to complex SSIs diagnosed in the inpatient setting (incidence, 0.51 per 100 procedures), variance in rates changed significantly (P = .02). Performance ranking of individual hospitals, based on rates of SSIs, differed significandy, depending on the reporting method utilized (P = .0006).
Inconsistent reporting mediods focused on variable depths of infection and healthcare location at time of diagnosis significandy impact rates of SSI, distribution of rates of SSI, and hospital comparative-performance rankings. We believe that public reporting of SSI rates should be limited to complex SSIs diagnosed in the inpatient setting.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.
Micro- and nanostructures are found widely in nature and are important for the development and maintenance of organisms. Fabricated structures of dimensions corresponding to native biological structures may be obtained by methods such as laser-based fabrication and are of special relevance to applications in biology and medicine, as they impact cellular behavior. In this review, we will examine how fabricated structures of a particular length scale interact with natural structures of corresponding dimensions to produce the designed response, thus giving readers a primer on how laser-based fabrication may be fruitfully applied to biomedicine. Lasers have been used to fabricate nanopores for a variety of applications at the molecular level, such as the analysis of DNA. At the subcellular level, microstructures such as elastic beams fabricated by laser direct writing have been used to adhere and interact with cells. In the area of tissue engineering, an important application of micro- and nanostructures is related to their ability to control intercellular interactions. The fabricated structures facilitate the positioning of cells with respect to each other, so as to simulate the complexity of native tissues. Focused laser sources have also been used to create channels modified with functionalities to help guide cell migration.
We have demonstrated and studied polymeric solid-state dye lasers (SSDLs) fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) polystyrene colloidal crystals and tert-butyl roadamine B (t-Bu RhB) doped Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with different film thickness. The sandwich-typed resonator cavities with different active layer thickness display single-mode lasing oscillations in the reflection bandgap of the colloidal crystals. The lasing thresholds could be optimized by changing the thickness of t-Bu RhB doped PMMA films, which is as low as 7.43 W/cm2. Adjusting active layer thickness would provide an opportunity to accelerate the development of fabricating polymeric SSDLs with low threshold.
A harmonic rejection mirror (HRM) can apply pure spectrum for X-ray Absorption Spectrum (XAFS) experiment. The HRM mechanism includes a mirror holding system, a horizontal switch system and a three-point adjustment system. We analyse and calculate the design of the mechanism. Finally, we evaluate the HRM capability based on the rocking curve obtained in a test.
Our previous studies demonstrated prompt elevation of proteinase activity in mammary secretion of drying-off cows and goats. The current study examined the progressive changes in composition of cow mammary secretion following drying-off and, in parallel, characterized the mode of peptide neogenesis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray-ionization (LC-ESI) MS/MS. The results show that the percentage of casein of total milk protein at time of drying-off was 76%, which dropped to 41%, 24%, and 16%, respectively, 1, 2, and 3 weeks after drying-off. Levels of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactoalbumin in mammary secretions of drying-off cows decreased prominently while levels of lactoferrin, BSA, and casein derived-proteins increased concomitantly compared with regular milk. A fractionation procedure was applied to remove molecules larger than 10 kDa before MALDI-TOF MS and LC-ESI MS/MS and the results show that the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profile of mammary secretion ranging from m/z 600 to 4000 was apparently modified after drying-off for 1 week, whereas species 1590 m/z and 2460 m/z were most obviously enriched compared with regular milk. LC-ESI MS/MS results were used to map peptide sequence with Mascot search server and under no post translational modification to reduce database size and 202 novel β-casein-derived peptides were successfully identified in mammary secretion after drying-off for 1 week in contrast to regular milk. Accordingly at least 48 additional cleavage positions were assigned on β-casein for mammary secretion. Among the 202 novel peptides, 5 are homologous with confirmed opioid agonists, angiotensin 1-converting enzyme inhibitors, or immuno-modulators. In conclusion, peptides are released in situ from milk proteins within short intervals following drying-off in cows. They might play roles in the transition of mammary glands from lactating to non-lactating. With specified post-translational modifications and focused functional screening, novel peptides are yet to be discovered in dry cow mammary secretion.
Ta family has been used as barrier to prevent Cu diffusion into interlayer dielectric in IC applications. Recent experiments demonstrated a more severe flatband voltage shift (ΔVFB) occurred for Ta/porous low k dielectrics/Si capacitors compared to that of Cu/porous low k dielectrics/Si capacitors after a moderate bias temperature stress (BTS). The flatband voltage shift under BTS was interpreted as the penetration of Ta ions into porous low k dielectrics. However, this interpretation has been under debate. In this paper, by using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) backside sputter depth profile technique, we report a direct evidence of Ta ions inside porous methyl silsesquioxane (MSQ) in a Ta/MSQ/Si structure after BTS.
To evaluate the effect on decrease in blood pressure of modifying risk factors for stroke, such as blood lipid profiles, diet habits and indices of body weight, through a family-based nutrition health education programme among hypertensive patients and pre-hypertensive subjects without taking any antihypertensive drugs.
Design and setting
This was a community-based prospective study. The study population was randomly selected from communities in Taipei; potential subjects were invited by telephone to participate.
After excluding subjects whose blood pressure was normal and those using antihypertensive drugs, there were 390 participants included in the study. Subjects in the intervention group (n 293) received nutrition health education on blood pressure control and stroke-related risk factor modification at each visit. Non-intervention subjects (n 97) only acquired a general education sheet available in clinics. The blood pressure of study subjects was measured at baseline and 6-month follow-up to evaluate the intervention’s effect on decrease in blood pressure.
Significant decreases of 2·0 mmHg and 5·9 mmHg in systolic blood pressure were observed both in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects in the intervention group. Additionally, intervention subjects with improvement of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, decrease in indices of body weight and increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables also had significant lowering of blood pressure.
The present study provided evidence that the blood pressure of pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects could decrease significantly, without taking antihypertensive drugs, after modifying blood lipid profiles and waist by dietary habits changed through a family-based nutrition heath education programme, resulting in a significant effect on stroke risk reduction.
The radial self-similar expansion of negatively charged impurity or dust particles in a cylindrical geometry is investigated using the multi-fluid theory. Three different types of self-similar solutions are considered. Various asymptotic limits of physical interest in the self-similar space are shown to occur.
Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is believed to be the most promising candidate for the next generation non-volatile memory due to its fast access time and low power consumption. Fabrication technologies of FeRAM can be divided into two parts: CMOS technologies for circuits which are standard and can be shared with traditional IC process line, and process relating to ferroelectric which is separated with CMOS process and defined as backend module. This paper described technologies for integrating ferroelectric capacitors into standard CMOS, mainly about modeling of ferroelectric capacitors and backend fabrication technologies. Hysteresis loop of the ferroelectric capacitor is the basis for FeRAM to store data. Models to describe this characteristic are the key for the design of FeRAM. A transient behavioral ferroelectric capacitor model based on C-V relation for circuit simulation is developed. The arc tangent function is used to describe the hysteresis loop. “Negative capacitance” phenomenon at reversing points of applied voltage is analyzed and introduced to the model to describe transient behaviors of the capacitor. Compact equivalent circuits are introduced to integrate this model into HSPICE for circuit simulation. Ferroelectric materials fabrication, electrodes integration and etching are the main technologies of FeRAM fabrication process. An metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process is developed to fabricate high quality Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) films. Pt is known to cause the fatigue problems when used as electrodes with PZT. Ir is used as electrodes to improve the fatigue property of PZT based capacitors, and mechanism of the fatigue is analyzed. Hard mask is used to reduce the size of the capacitors and damage caused in etching process. In our process, Al2O3 is developed as hard mask, which simplifies the FeRAM backend integration process.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of capacitating agents added at in vitro fertilization (IVF) and antioxidants supplemented during in vitro culture (IVC) on the development of buffalo embryos. In experiment I, in vitro embryo development of buffalo embryos was compared when the IVF medium was supplemented with heparin, caffeine and calcium ionophore A23187 either alone or in combination. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the cleavage rates of oocytes among the treatment groups but the development rate to the blastocyst stage and the cell numbers of blastocyst in the heparin-treated group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of other treatments. In experiment II, in vitro embryo development of buffalo embryos was compared when IVC medium was supplemented with either α-tocopherol (250 and 500 μM) or l-ascorbic acid (250 and 500 μM). The rate of development to the blastocyst stage of embryos cultured in medium supplemented with 250 μM α-tocopherol (33%, 41/123) and 250 μM l-ascorbic acid (31%, 38/123) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of those cultured in medium alone (19%, 20/108) but not significantly different (P < 0.05) from medium supplemented with either 500 μM α-tocopherol (24%, 30/123) or 500 μM l-ascorbic acid (25%, 33/133). These results suggest that buffalo spermatozoa treated with heparin were suitable for IVF and that α-tocopherol and l-ascorbic acid added during IVC increased the rate of buffalo embryo development.
No one reacts or responds to a drug in exactly the same way, just as no two persons are exactly alike. Individual and ethnic differences in drug response have been consistently found in clinical practice. This book covers all the important factors that explain how and why drug treatments used in psychiatry affect individuals and ethnic groups differently. It will increase understanding of how biological differences interact with social, cultural and environmental factors to bring about overall effects of medications, particularly in individuals from various ethnicities. This book uniquely brings these varied aspects together to consider a holistic approach to drug therapy across diverse biological make-up and cultures. This information has direct practical use in the clinical setting.