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Precision lattice parameter measurement by the X-ray diffraction method of Bond  has been examined as a substitutional method for IR in determining the oxygen concentration in silicon single crystals. Asymmetric 444 CuKai reflections were measured for undoped (100) oriented silicon wafers to obtain the correlation curve between the silicon lattice parameter and oxygen concentration. Precise adjustment of the optical system and computer fitting in determining the peak position allow a minute lattice dilation of silicon due to oxygen to be detected by the Bond method. The precision of this measurement system was of the order of 10-6. The lattice expansion of silicon by dissolved oxygen was determined to be at the rate of 3.2X10-24 atoms of oxygen per cm3. Furthermore, the oxygen concentrations of heavily Sb-doped silicon wafers were determined nondestructively.
In the Virgo cluster, we can perform a close study of the gas injection mechanism from galaxies into the cluster space and the interaction between the injected gas and the sorrouding cluster medium. In 1996 to 1997, we carried out mapping observations of a 2.°5 × 2.°5 area in the north-west region of the cluster. There are 16 pointings in total in this region, and the observed results are briefly reported here.
Fornax A (NGC 1316) is a radio galaxy with prototypical double lobes. Feigelson et al. (1995 ApJ 449, L149) and Kaneda et al. (1995 ApJ 454, L13) detected inverse Compton X-rays for the first time from its radio lobes, and unambiguously derived the lobe magnetic field intensity of 2-4 μG. Accordingly, the radio-emitting electrons in the lobes are inferred to have a Lorentz factor of 104, and hence a synchrotron life time of ~108 yr. This means that Fornax A was highly active at least 108 years ago.
A discharge-emission spectrometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer have been developed to aid in the solution to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) problem. A hollow cathode was used to generate molecular ions in a discharge because it has been suggested that molecular ions are probable DIB candidates. The discharge was produced by a pulsed voltage of 1300–1500 V. A wide wavelength range of optical emission from the discharge was examined by a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. The dispersed discharge emission was detected by a photomultiplier and was recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The 2B3u–X2B2g electronic transition of the butatriene cation H2CCCCH2+ was observed in the discharge emission of 2-butyne H3CCCCH3. The frequency of the electronic transition was measured to be 20381 cm−1, and a comparison study was made with known DIB spectra.
The resolution of the discharge-emission spectrometer is insufficient to make precise comparisons between laboratory frequencies and astronomically observed DIB spectra. We therefore developed the cavity ringdown spectrometer using the same hollow cathode. The high sensitivity of this spectrometer was confirmed by the observation of the forbidden band of O2.
We synthesized amorphous semiconductor films composed of Mo-encapsulating Si clusters (MoSin : n∼10) on solid substrates. The MoSi10 films had Si networks similar to hydrogenated amorphous Si and an optical gap of 1.5 eV. Electron spin resonance signals were not observed in the films indicating that dangling bonds of Si were terminated by Mo atoms. We fabricated thin-film-transistors using the MoSi10 film as a channel material. The electric field effect of the film was clearly observed. This suggests that the density of mid-gap states in the film is low enough for the field effect to occur.
Recent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. Thirty-eight (16·6%) samples were stx positive, of which eight were positive for rfbEO157 and three were positive for wzyO26. Four O157 and one O26 STEC isolates were finally obtained from small-intestine and omasum products. Notably, homogenates of bovine intestinal products significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the enrichment process compared to homogenates of beef carcass. As co-incubation of O157 with background microbiota complex from bovine intestinal products in buffered peptone water, in the absence of meat samples, tended to reduce the extent of growth of O157, we reasoned that certain microbiota present in offal products played a role. In support of this, inoculation of generic E. coli from bovine intestinal products into the homogenates significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the homogenates of bovine intestinal and loin-beef products, and this effect was markedly increased when these homogenates were heat-treated prior to inoculation. Together, this report provides first evidence of the prevalence of STEC in a variety of bovine offal products in Japan. The prevalence data herein may be useful for risk assessment of those products as a potential source of human STEC infection beyond the epidemiological background. The growth characteristic of STEC O157 in offal products also indicates the importance of being aware when to test these food products.
Vanadium oxide nanotubes (VONT) were formed from vanadium (V) oxide and the dodecylamine templating agent by a sol-gel reaction and subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanotubes consist of VO2.4[C12H28N] 0.27 and range in diameter from 100 nm to150 nm. The study further reveals that the compound maintained the tubular morphology when heated at 430o C in an inert atmosphere. However, the tubular morphology is destroyed when the compound is heated at about 130°C in oxygen. Organic free manganese intercalated vanadium oxide nanotubes (MnVONT) were synthesized by an ion exchange reaction. The previously mentioned techniques were used to characterize MnVONT. Mn0.86V7O16+δ. nH2O layers have 2D tetragonal cell with a=6.157(3) Å, while interlayer spacing is 10.52 (3) Å. VONT, heated VONT and Mn0.86V7O16+δ. nH2O are redox - active and can insert lithium reversibly. This study reveals that the electrochemical performance of VONT is enhanced by removing the organic template by heating in an inert atmosphere or exchanging with Mn2+ ions.
This report presents a novel synthesis method of alumina nanofibers at moderate conditions in aqueous systems through a surfactant-directed crystal growth process. In the presence of polyethylene oxide (PEO) surfactants, boehmite nanofibers of about 3 nm thick and 30-60 nm long formed from aluminium hydrate colloids. During the subsequent heating, the surfactant was evaporated and boehmite nanofibers were converted into γ-alumina nanofibers. The function of the PEO surfactant and the formation mechanism of the nanofibers are discussed. Alumina nanofibers are an ideal structural reinforcement for various nanocomposite materials. They are potential adsorbents with high adsorption capacity. Furthermore, their unique structure exhibits strong resistance to heating at high temperatures. The BET surface area of a typical sample after heating at 1200°C is as high as 68 m2/g. This makes the material very promising as excellent substrates for catalysts of high thermal stability.
Here we present the result of measurements of electrical resistivity and magnetoresistivity of graphite/diamond nanocomposites (GDNC) and onion-like carbon (OLC) prepared by vacuum annealing of nanodiamond (ND) at various fixed temperatures. GDNC contain particles with a diamond core covered by closed curved graphitic shells. The electrical resistivity of annealed ND is characteristic of systems with localized electrons and can be described in terms of variable hopping-length hopping conductivity (VHLHC). The magnetoresistivity of OLC is negative in the range of field 0<B<2 T, and is positive at B>2 T. The conduction carrier concentration for OLC samples was estimated in the framework of the theory of negative magnetoresistance in semiconductors in the hopping conduction region. The free path length for conducting electrons at liquid helium temperature was estimated from the data on positive magnetoresistivity. The localization length of current carriers was also estimated. The determined parameters are in agreement with proposed structure model of OLC constructed using HRTEM data.
A novel synthesis route of metal oxide nanoparticles dispersed in a silicate framework is reported here. This composite nanostructure is highly thermally stable and porous, rendering large surface area and rich surface chemistry promising for catalytic applications. Aqueous solutions of metal salts were used as the precursors of the nanoparticles, and added in an aqueous dispersion of synthetic clay, laponite, in which the clay exists in exfoliated silicate sheets. Acid leaching of the clay sheets occurs in the reaction due to the strong acidity of the metal salt solution. Meanwhile, the metal hydrate ions polymerise because of the high pH of the clay dispersion and condense on the leached silicates. This mechanism is distinctly different from conventional pillaring process. The nanocomposites of various oxides and binary oxides were synthesised. By introducing polyethylene oxide surfactants, we obtained mesoporous nanocomposites with very large surface areas (400-900 m2/g) and porosity. These nanocomposites are superior catalysts or catalyst supports over of microporous pillared clays [1-3] due to their structure and surface properties.
In order to refine further the material technology for tin-oxide based gas sensing we are exploring the use of precision nanoparticle deposition for the sensing layer. Layers of SnO2 nanoparticles were grown on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) resonators using the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Electron Diffraction Pattern (EDP) analyses were performed on the self-assembled layers of SnO2 nanoparticles. The results showed that SnO2 nanoparticle films are deposited uniformly across the substrate. The size of the nanoparticles is estimated to be about 3-5 nm. Electrical characterization was done using standard current-voltage measurement technique, which revealed that SnO2 nanoparticle films exhibit ohmic behavior. Calcination experiments have also been carried out by baking the substrate (with self-assembled nanoparticles) in air at 350°C. Results show that 50%-70% of the polymer layers (which are deposited as precursor layers and also alternately in-between SnO2 nanoparticle monolayers) are eliminated during the process.
LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by high temperature and hydrothermal synthesis. A nanocomposite was formed by carbon coating this material; initial electrochemical results showed that up to 70% capacity could be obtained at 1.0 mA/cm2 current density. In contrast, the hydrothermally prepared LiFePO4 showed a lower capacity even at lower discharge rates due to a partial occupation of lithium sites by iron. This occupation, identified by Rietveld X-ray refinement, decreased both the rate and degree of intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium; chemical reaction with butyl lithium and bromine confirmed the electrochemical behavior. This investigation showed that the cathode could be prepared by high temperature synthesis, followed by a carbon black coating to achieve high capacity at high current density.
NiFe2O4 is an important high frequency soft magnetic material due to its ultra high resistivity; however, its initial permeability is rather low. Conventional magnetic ferrites are manufactured through ceramic processing. In an effort to explore innovative approaches for fabricating ferrite materials with improved performance, a study of fabricating nanostructured NiFe2O4 using wet chemical approaches has been carried out. The synthetic NiFe2O4 precursor was synthesized by a citrate reaction method followed by calcinating at various temperatures. Systematic studies concerning the crystallographic structure, the nanostructure and morphology of the particle, the phase homogeneity, the conditions for chemical reaction completion, and the magnetic properties have been carried out using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The results show that by using a citrate reaction approach, pure phase and stoichiometric NiFe2O4 can be fabricated easily, and the particle size can be controlled on a nanometer scale, even at high calcination temperatures. In addition, a comparative study of the NiFe2O4 fabricated by conventional ceramic processing and this new citrate processing will be presented.
Gd3+ doped Ce oxides are a major candidate for use as the electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells operating at ∼500 °C. Here, the effect of the atomic structure on the local electronic properties, i.e. oxygen coordination and cation valence, at grain boundaries in the fluorite structured Gd0.2Ce0.8O2-x ceramic electrolyte is investigated by a combination of atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). In particular, EELS analyses from grain boundaries reveals a complex interaction between segregation of the dopant (Gd3+), oxygen vacancies and the valence state of Ce. These results are similar to observations from fluorite-structured Yttria-Stabilized Zirconium (YSZ) bicrystal grain boundaries.
In an effort to explore new highly resistive soft magnetic materials, Fe/SiO2 nanocomposite materials have been synthesized using a wet chemical reaction approach in which the precursor complex was annealed at various temperatures. The crystallographic structure, nanostructure, morphology, and magnetic properties of the synthetic Fe/SiO2 particles were studied by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The experimental results show that for this approach, the [.alpha]-Fe particles are coated with amorphous silica. The progress of the reaction, the purity of Fe/SiO2 in the synthetic powder, and the Fe particle size are highly dependent on the annealing temperature. By adjusting the annealing temperature, the particle size can be controlled from approximately 20 nm to 70 nm. For the synthetic nanopowder obtained by H2 reduction at 400 °C, there exists a superparamagnetic behavior below room temperature; while for the nanopowders obtained by reduction at higher temperatures, the ferromagnetic behavior is dominant. Based on these studies, optimum synthesis conditions for Fe/SiO2 nanocomposites is determined.
We present herein recent findings of an investigation of catalyst assembly and activation using metallic nanoparticles encapsulated with organic monolayers. Gold nanocrystals (2∼5 nm) encapsulated with thiolate monolayers assembled on electrode surfaces, were found to be catalytically active towards electrooxidation of CO and MeOH upon activation. The activation involved partial removal of the encapsulating thiolates and the formation of surface oxygenated species. A polymeric film was also used as a substrate for the assembly of the nanoparticle catalysts. When the polymer matrix was doped with small amounts of Pt, a remarkable catalytic activity was observed. These catalysts were characterized utilizing cyclic voltammetry and atomic force microscopy.
This paper reports the fabrication of large diameter pores (> 150 nm) in anodic aumina that can be used to create wire arrays with significant surface effects, but without significant quantum confinement. These wires, therefore, allow us to distinguish between optica absorption spectra features originating from quantum effects and those from surface effects. The paper presents techniques towards fabricating these bismuth wire arrays, and presents optical absorption data from two bismuth nanowire arrays in the semimeta-semiconductor transition diameter regime. The results from previous publications are summarized and future directions are outlines.
PHP, mean molecular weight of approximately 90,000 daltons, is produced by chemical modifications of outdated human red cell hemoglobin (Hb). The P50 value of PHP is 22 ± 0.7mmHg. Eleven healthy mongrel dogs were exposed to severe anemia to a hematocrit of 5 ± 2% by normovolemic exchange (ET) with PHP (n=5) or a plasma expander, Hespan (Control, n=6). Hb concentration in the preparation is 6.0 g/dl. All the animals with PHP tolerated the procedure well and have survived for 1 year at sacrifice while five of the controls died within a week (p=0.004). Reductions in hematological and coagulation parameters occurred following ET and these parameters returned to the normal ranges by 4 weeks post ET. Renal function parameters (serum urea and creatinine) remained in the normal range throughout the experimental period. A transient slight increase in the hepatic enzyme SGOT was observed. Open biopsies of major organs at 2 weeks post ET showed vacuolated cells in the liver and kidneys. Normal histology was noted at and after 3 months. Oxygen transport properties as examined by arterial-venous oxygen differences, oxygen delivery and oxygen extraction showed that PHP continued to transport oxygen up to 48 hours studied post ET. PHP functioned as effectively as red blood cells at 6 hours in oxygen delivery to the tissues. PHP effectively supported life at lethal levels of anemia and is physiologically well accepted.