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A discharge-emission spectrometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer have been developed to aid in the solution to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) problem. A hollow cathode was used to generate molecular ions in a discharge because it has been suggested that molecular ions are probable DIB candidates. The discharge was produced by a pulsed voltage of 1300–1500 V. A wide wavelength range of optical emission from the discharge was examined by a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. The dispersed discharge emission was detected by a photomultiplier and was recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The 2B3u–X2B2g electronic transition of the butatriene cation H2CCCCH2+ was observed in the discharge emission of 2-butyne H3CCCCH3. The frequency of the electronic transition was measured to be 20381 cm−1, and a comparison study was made with known DIB spectra.
The resolution of the discharge-emission spectrometer is insufficient to make precise comparisons between laboratory frequencies and astronomically observed DIB spectra. We therefore developed the cavity ringdown spectrometer using the same hollow cathode. The high sensitivity of this spectrometer was confirmed by the observation of the forbidden band of O2.
Recent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. Thirty-eight (16·6%) samples were stx positive, of which eight were positive for rfbEO157 and three were positive for wzyO26. Four O157 and one O26 STEC isolates were finally obtained from small-intestine and omasum products. Notably, homogenates of bovine intestinal products significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the enrichment process compared to homogenates of beef carcass. As co-incubation of O157 with background microbiota complex from bovine intestinal products in buffered peptone water, in the absence of meat samples, tended to reduce the extent of growth of O157, we reasoned that certain microbiota present in offal products played a role. In support of this, inoculation of generic E. coli from bovine intestinal products into the homogenates significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the homogenates of bovine intestinal and loin-beef products, and this effect was markedly increased when these homogenates were heat-treated prior to inoculation. Together, this report provides first evidence of the prevalence of STEC in a variety of bovine offal products in Japan. The prevalence data herein may be useful for risk assessment of those products as a potential source of human STEC infection beyond the epidemiological background. The growth characteristic of STEC O157 in offal products also indicates the importance of being aware when to test these food products.
We synthesized amorphous semiconductor films composed of Mo-encapsulating Si clusters (MoSin : n∼10) on solid substrates. The MoSi10 films had Si networks similar to hydrogenated amorphous Si and an optical gap of 1.5 eV. Electron spin resonance signals were not observed in the films indicating that dangling bonds of Si were terminated by Mo atoms. We fabricated thin-film-transistors using the MoSi10 film as a channel material. The electric field effect of the film was clearly observed. This suggests that the density of mid-gap states in the film is low enough for the field effect to occur.
The metal abundances in the hot X-ray emitting interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies give us important information about the present metal supply into the ISM through supernovae (SNe) Ia and stellar mass loss. In addition, O and Mg abundances should reflect the stellar metallicity and enable us to directly look into the formation history of these galaxies. The XIS instrument onboard the Suzaku satellite has an improved line spread function due to a very small low-pulse-height tail below 1 keV coupled with a very low background.
We report our recent progress on extragalactic spectroscopic and continuum observations,
including HCN(J=1–0), HCO+(J=1–0), and CN(N=1–0) imaging surveys
of local Seyfert and starburst galaxies
using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array,
high-J CO observations (J=3–2 observations
using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE)
and J=2–1 observations with the Submillimeter Array) of galaxies,
and λ 1.1 mm continuum observations of high-z violent starburst galaxies
using the bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on ASTE.
We present the high-resolution 12CO(J = 1 − 0), 13CO(J = 1 − 0) and 12CO(J = 3 − 2) maps toward a GMA located on the southern arm region of M31 using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The GMA consists of two velocity-components, i.e., red and blue. The blue component shows a strong and narrow peak, whereas the red one shows a weak and broad profile. The red component has a lower 12CO(J = 1 − 0)/13CO(J = 1 − 0) ratio (~ 5) than that of the blue one (~ 16), indicating that the red component is denser than the blue one. The red component could be the decelerated gas if we consider the galactic rotational velocity in this region. We suggest that the red component is “post shock” dense gas decelerated due to a spiral density wave. This could be observational evidence of dense molecular gas formation due to galactic shock by spiral density waves.
We also present results from on-going observations toward NGC 604, which is the supergiant HII region of M33, using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The ratio of 12CO(J = 3 − 2) to 12CO(J = 1 − 0) ranges from 0.3 to 1.2 in NGC 604. The 12CO(J = 1 − 0) map shows the clumpy structure while 12CO(J = 3 − 2) shows a strong peak near to the central star cluster of NGC 604. The high ratio gas is distributed on the arc-like or shell-like structure along with Hα emission and HII region detected by radio continuum. These suggest that the dense gas formation and second generation star formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar wind and/or supernova in central star cluster.
We present experimental results of colony formation in bacteria as an example of pattern formation resulting from reproduction and movement in biological populations. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis is known to exhibit at least five distinct types of colony pattern, depending on the substrate softness and nutrient concentration: diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), compact Eden-like, dense branching morphology (DBM), concentric ring-like, and disk. We established a morphological diagram of the colony patterns, and then examined and characterized both macroscopically and microscopically how the the colonies grow. There seem to be two kinds of bacterial cells – active and inactive – and the active form drives the colony interfaces outwards. The active cells may be clearly distinguished from the inactive ones as they form the characteristic fingernail-like structure at the tips of growing branches of the DBM colony. The concentric ring-like colony is formed as a consequence of repeated alternate migration and resting of the growing interface, the cycle time for which seems to be independent of the substrate softness and nutrient concentration. So far there have been several phenomenological models proposed to qualitatively explain or reproduce the patterns observed in bacterial colonies. A few of them are reviewed here, systematically and critically, in light of our experimental results.
In case-control studies of complex disease genes, allele frequencies or allele positivities at candidate
loci or markers are compared between cases and controls. Although 2 × 2 contingency tables based
on allele frequency and allele positivity are generally used to perform simple statistical tests (e.g. a
comparison of two proportions and a χ2 test), little is known about the difference in power between
the two tables. In this study, we investigated the number of subjects required to obtain a power of
1 − β with a significance level of α for the allele frequency and allele positivity tables. A large
difference in the required number of subjects was found between the two tables. Allele positivity
tables were suitable for the detection of susceptibility alleles showing a dominant mode of inheritance
(MOI). On the other hand, allele frequency tables were suitable for the identification of susceptibility
alleles showing a recessive MOI or a multiplicative MOI. In the case of an additive MOI, a suitable
table was determined by combining the frequency of the susceptibility allele and the penetrance.
These results imply that there are cases in which true association is detected based on one
contingency table and is not detected based on another. A simulation analysis revealed that the type
I error rate was not much inflated under the null hypothesis of no association, even when a statistical
test was performed twice using both allele frequency and allele positivity tables. In contrast, under
the alternative hypothesis, the loss of power was marked when a test was performed once using an
unsuitable table. In conclusion, statistical tests should be performed using both tables, without
adjustment of multiplicity, in case-control studies of complex disease genes when the study objective
We present herein recent findings of an investigation of catalyst assembly and activation using metallic nanoparticles encapsulated with organic monolayers. Gold nanocrystals (2∼5 nm) encapsulated with thiolate monolayers assembled on electrode surfaces, were found to be catalytically active towards electrooxidation of CO and MeOH upon activation. The activation involved partial removal of the encapsulating thiolates and the formation of surface oxygenated species. A polymeric film was also used as a substrate for the assembly of the nanoparticle catalysts. When the polymer matrix was doped with small amounts of Pt, a remarkable catalytic activity was observed. These catalysts were characterized utilizing cyclic voltammetry and atomic force microscopy.
Gd3+ doped Ce oxides are a major candidate for use as the electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells operating at ∼500 °C. Here, the effect of the atomic structure on the local electronic properties, i.e. oxygen coordination and cation valence, at grain boundaries in the fluorite structured Gd0.2Ce0.8O2-x ceramic electrolyte is investigated by a combination of atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). In particular, EELS analyses from grain boundaries reveals a complex interaction between segregation of the dopant (Gd3+), oxygen vacancies and the valence state of Ce. These results are similar to observations from fluorite-structured Yttria-Stabilized Zirconium (YSZ) bicrystal grain boundaries.
In an effort to explore new highly resistive soft magnetic materials, Fe/SiO2 nanocomposite materials have been synthesized using a wet chemical reaction approach in which the precursor complex was annealed at various temperatures. The crystallographic structure, nanostructure, morphology, and magnetic properties of the synthetic Fe/SiO2 particles were studied by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The experimental results show that for this approach, the [.alpha]-Fe particles are coated with amorphous silica. The progress of the reaction, the purity of Fe/SiO2 in the synthetic powder, and the Fe particle size are highly dependent on the annealing temperature. By adjusting the annealing temperature, the particle size can be controlled from approximately 20 nm to 70 nm. For the synthetic nanopowder obtained by H2 reduction at 400 °C, there exists a superparamagnetic behavior below room temperature; while for the nanopowders obtained by reduction at higher temperatures, the ferromagnetic behavior is dominant. Based on these studies, optimum synthesis conditions for Fe/SiO2 nanocomposites is determined.
In order to refine further the material technology for tin-oxide based gas sensing we are exploring the use of precision nanoparticle deposition for the sensing layer. Layers of SnO2 nanoparticles were grown on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) resonators using the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Electron Diffraction Pattern (EDP) analyses were performed on the self-assembled layers of SnO2 nanoparticles. The results showed that SnO2 nanoparticle films are deposited uniformly across the substrate. The size of the nanoparticles is estimated to be about 3-5 nm. Electrical characterization was done using standard current-voltage measurement technique, which revealed that SnO2 nanoparticle films exhibit ohmic behavior. Calcination experiments have also been carried out by baking the substrate (with self-assembled nanoparticles) in air at 350°C. Results show that 50%-70% of the polymer layers (which are deposited as precursor layers and also alternately in-between SnO2 nanoparticle monolayers) are eliminated during the process.
LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by high temperature and hydrothermal synthesis. A nanocomposite was formed by carbon coating this material; initial electrochemical results showed that up to 70% capacity could be obtained at 1.0 mA/cm2 current density. In contrast, the hydrothermally prepared LiFePO4 showed a lower capacity even at lower discharge rates due to a partial occupation of lithium sites by iron. This occupation, identified by Rietveld X-ray refinement, decreased both the rate and degree of intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium; chemical reaction with butyl lithium and bromine confirmed the electrochemical behavior. This investigation showed that the cathode could be prepared by high temperature synthesis, followed by a carbon black coating to achieve high capacity at high current density.
NiFe2O4 is an important high frequency soft magnetic material due to its ultra high resistivity; however, its initial permeability is rather low. Conventional magnetic ferrites are manufactured through ceramic processing. In an effort to explore innovative approaches for fabricating ferrite materials with improved performance, a study of fabricating nanostructured NiFe2O4 using wet chemical approaches has been carried out. The synthetic NiFe2O4 precursor was synthesized by a citrate reaction method followed by calcinating at various temperatures. Systematic studies concerning the crystallographic structure, the nanostructure and morphology of the particle, the phase homogeneity, the conditions for chemical reaction completion, and the magnetic properties have been carried out using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The results show that by using a citrate reaction approach, pure phase and stoichiometric NiFe2O4 can be fabricated easily, and the particle size can be controlled on a nanometer scale, even at high calcination temperatures. In addition, a comparative study of the NiFe2O4 fabricated by conventional ceramic processing and this new citrate processing will be presented.
This paper reports the fabrication of large diameter pores (> 150 nm) in anodic aumina that can be used to create wire arrays with significant surface effects, but without significant quantum confinement. These wires, therefore, allow us to distinguish between optica absorption spectra features originating from quantum effects and those from surface effects. The paper presents techniques towards fabricating these bismuth wire arrays, and presents optical absorption data from two bismuth nanowire arrays in the semimeta-semiconductor transition diameter regime. The results from previous publications are summarized and future directions are outlines.
Vanadium oxide nanotubes (VONT) were formed from vanadium (V) oxide and the dodecylamine templating agent by a sol-gel reaction and subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The nanotubes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanotubes consist of VO2.4[C12H28N] 0.27 and range in diameter from 100 nm to150 nm. The study further reveals that the compound maintained the tubular morphology when heated at 430o C in an inert atmosphere. However, the tubular morphology is destroyed when the compound is heated at about 130°C in oxygen. Organic free manganese intercalated vanadium oxide nanotubes (MnVONT) were synthesized by an ion exchange reaction. The previously mentioned techniques were used to characterize MnVONT. Mn0.86V7O16+δ. nH2O layers have 2D tetragonal cell with a=6.157(3) Å, while interlayer spacing is 10.52 (3) Å. VONT, heated VONT and Mn0.86V7O16+δ. nH2O are redox - active and can insert lithium reversibly. This study reveals that the electrochemical performance of VONT is enhanced by removing the organic template by heating in an inert atmosphere or exchanging with Mn2+ ions.